The History Of Political Administration History Essay

Around 6000 old ages ago, human civilisation foremost emerged from where there was river. River was considered as a cardinal beginning for homo for nutrients support and metropolis development. For case, two civilisation Sumer and Egypt were one of the first ancient human civilisations that would assist distribute thoughts, cognition, belief and societal administration to the remainder of universe. These two civilisations were emerged from river which Sumerian civilisation emerged from Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while Egyptian civilisation developed along the Nile River. Sumer was one of the influence civilisations in Middle East part where it was considered as the intersection to Asia, Africa and Europe. First of wholly, we will analyze Sumer geographic form and its benefits. In this portion we will cover some information about the outgrowth of Sumer civilisation and its people. Second, we will look at its political administration which is the of import information in constructing a power Sumerian province. Third, we will cover some item about the Sumerian accomplishment which included authorship system, scientific discipline, spiritual, humanistic disciplines and its architecture. Last of all, we would to take deeper expression at the bosom of Sumerian economic development. Two of import groups of Sumer people, Lydian and Phoenician, which was considered as the influential merchandisers and bargainers for their cognition in going and interchanging thought that would assist proliferate the flow of cognition in Sumer civilisation. After analyzing about life and civilization of Sumerian civilisation, we will analyze on Egyptian civilisation that had been strived along the Nile River of Northern Africa. In the episode Egyptian civilisation, we will take a similar survey to Sumerian civilisation. We will follow the series of information of Egyptian history and its accomplishment. At the terminal of this paper, we will reason the information about both civilisation and we will supply the concrete bequest grounds of these two civilisations that had been a foundation to old and present civilisations of the universe.

Egypt Civilization

Geographic Pattern

If we find Egypt state on the universe map, Egypt is located in Southwest Asia and North Africa. Its maritime boundary lines are connected by Mediterranean Sea on the North and Red Sea on the East, besides, Nile River, the longest river, goes right through them. In Egypt, there are two seasons winter ( December through March ) , and summer ( the remainder of the twelvemonth ) . Harmonizing to its geographics standards, The Nile delta ( Lower Egypt ) and The Nile vale ( Upper Egypt ) , The Arabian Desert, The Libyan Desert, and The Sinai go four chief physical parts which form an Egypt metropolis province. Since more than two tierces of Egypt lands are covered by The Sahara Desert, and the remainder comeuppances are The Libyan Desert, The Arabian Desert, and The Nubian Desert. As a consequence, 95 per centum of Egypt district is comeuppances.

Major lands of Egypt are deserts that woods could non turn on history of their parch land and waterless clime. However, Egypt like other civilisation provinces tried to do the best usage of its lands, clime, and H2O along the river. They tried to follow different life manners in order to construct up their ain comfortable city states. Added, based on Egypt geographics characteristic, accommodating to such environment, more or less, it caused many troubles for Egyptian for practising their cultivations, and trades with foreigners that were Egypt ‘s neighbour counties. Yet its natural barrier characteristics could protect Egypt from outside onslaughts.

Although sometimes high floodwaters could do devastation to the parts along the river, the Egyptian still could take advantage of the Nile ‘s cyclical implosion therapy form. Unlike Middle-East, Egypt inundation along the Nile River was predictable, so Egypt husbandmans could foretell and take the best month for turning harvests like rice, papyrus, wheat, barley and so on. As usual, in August and September H2O degree in Nile River ever rose and caused the inundations around the Nile vale parts, and in October it was a suited month for farming since the floodwaters receded from the Nile vale parts, and the inundations left behind with good H2O and silt for husbandmans.

Irrigation System: Egypt created big graduated table of agribusiness while cultivation was supported by 99 % of Egyptian, but if looked on its clime and land conditions, Egypt was non a suited topographic point for farming at all, so to run into Egypt citizens ‘ more nutrient demands, Egyptian besides concentrated on happening a safe and dependable method of utilizing irrigation system to command H2O motion for the demands of cultivation. And besides, Nile River did fall in a cardinal function to direct the H2O to unreal channels or pools where it was applied to harvests. Therefore, irrigation pattern could administer to husbandmans equal H2O supply for all seasons. In the universe of Egypt civilisation, although irrigation strategies needed a big investing of money and labours to build and keep, building irrigation was still a favourable engineering undertaking.

Temples: In ancient Egypt period, all temples played a really of import map in faith facet. To demo their award and particular regard on Gods or male monarchs, Egyptian ever constructed a batch of temples in the state. Except spiritual festival, ordinary people could non come in the temples because each temple was considered as the house of Gods or male monarchs. Furthermore, temples were built in certain intent like set uping spiritual ceremonials and official meeting. By practising ritual ceremonials, Egyptian believed that temples were the sacred topographic point to delight Gods, and besides assist human nexus with their Gods.

Social Life: In Egypt household, high duty was held by male parent. For adult female, she could derive high position if she had kids. After matrimony, adult female must be a homemaker who stayed place looking after the kids. During New Kingdom, adult female had right to purchase and sell belongings and attest in tribunal ; moreover, adult male and adult female both had equal right to seek divorce. At the age of 4-14, the male childs must be sent to temple schools to acquire instruction, and the topics they learned included reading, authorship, and arithmetic, every bit good as spiritual ceremonials and rites. After finishing their surveies, the pupils could work in his male parent ‘s profession, or take whatever callings they were specialize in. Although the misss could non go to schools like the male childs, she still could remain at place with their female parents, and larn how to run a house. In Egypt, the kids ‘s Married spouses were normally chosen by their parents. Peasant boys married by the age of 15 and misss were merely 12, but misss who were from good off households could get married a small older.

Political Administration:

Social Classs

In Egypt society, five categories which had been divided were Pharaohs, priest and baronial, in-between category, husbandman or provincial, and slave. Pharaoh, The first top category was Pharaoh who was non merely a male monarch and a swayer but was considered a male parent of all citizens in Egypt. Priest and Noble, The 2nd top categories were priest and baronial. The priest was the individual people who had particular spiritual cognition, and knew the manner to delight the Gods ; hence, he could bask great power and prestigiousness in Egypt. On the other manus, Lords was besides a powerful opinion category that frequently held places as governors of state, tribunal functionary, or revenue enhancement aggregators. The in-between Class, which includes bargainers, craftsmans, tradesmans and Scribes. This category of people normally provided goods and services to high opinion category like baronial priest, or Pharaoh, and so high category swayer would pay the in-between category people for money back. Farmer/Peasant, the 4th category, whose populating wholly depended on agriculture. Since they were hapless, they could have lands from the Pharaoh, but revenue enhancement authorities aggregators would roll up over half of each crop from the provincials. Furthermore, if the authorities needed more people to work on castles and temples, clear irrigation channels, and serve in ground forces, the provincials had to go to every bit good. Slave, : the bottom category, who normally were forced to work on tough occupation like excavation, building temple or irrigation undertakings since they had owned high debt from high governing category. And some slaves were the captive of wars, so that was why Egypt gave low value on them.

Pharaoh Power:

The Pharaoh held a really outstanding place in the early Egypt civilisation. He participated in many activities. In order to protect and train on his citizens, the Pharaoh had absolute power to do jurisprudence of the land in Egypt. Pharaoh could make what he wanted, and what he said was the jurisprudence, so if anyone in the state broke his jurisprudence, he or she would have a serious penalty from the Pharaoh. Pharaohs had another of import responsibility in protecting Egypt from invasion or menaces from within, so the Pharaoh ever concerned much on ground forces preparation, military arms, and happening out war taking scheme to win over his enemies.

The Pharaoh was besides responsible for the economic development. The Pharaoh gave the right to utilize the land to hapless husbandmans. By making that, it could assist hapless citizens in Egypt to gain some income to back up their life and households. In add-on, Pharaoh besides focused much on state harvest outputs, and other productions that could merchandise to outside provinces because these things could gain high net income which helped Egypt ‘s economic ran faster.

Since Egypt believed that the Pharaoh was the boy of God, Amon-Re, so each Pharaoh held chief responsibilities to look over for his people like a male parent and boy. As we know all powers were held by Pharaoh, so he was ever responsible for any issues happened in the state such as deluging along the Nile River parts and dearth which caused serious problem to Egypt citizens.

Economic Structure:

Economy of the ancient Egypt was to a great extent depended on two outstanding factors: agribusiness and trade. Below we will analyze why the two factors was truly of import for the Egypt in the ancient clip.

Agribusiness: Since Egypt state ever suffered from H2O deficit and implosion therapy every twelvemonth, so pharaohs decided on edifice irrigation system to gave husbandmans adequate H2O supplies. Slaves were appointed to construct canal to forestall inundation from Nile River. Doing so, Egypt agribusiness sector seemed better much more than earlier because husbandmans could bring forth high harvest of output, and this could guarantee Egypt state a stable nutrient supply, every bit good as the goods for internal and external trade which helped Egypt state earn more income. Therefore, bettering agribusiness and trading both were important in Egypt civilisation society.

Trade: Besides cultivation, trading besides had affected whole category of Egypt, since bulk of them could gain a batch of net incomes through their trading. Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean part was Egypt ‘s trade centre, besides, Egypt trading market place usually did along the Nile River and sometimes traveled to and from the Eastern or Western Desertss. In trading, Egypt bartered some cherished goods like gold, papyrus, linen, grain, and artefacts with their trading spouses, so Egypt merchandisers could have different sorts of resources in return, and those included cedar wood from Lebanon ; coal black and tusk from Africa ; lapis lazuli from Afghanistan ; incense, sweet cicely and oils from Punt ; gold from Nubia ; every bit good as Cu and Fe from their best Alliess. Since those trades provided Egypt civilians the resource of prosper that they required in life ; hence, trading was truly of import in ancient Egypt epoch. Harmonizing to Egypt geographics characteristic, Egypt was surrounded by mountains, coastal, and Sea ; hence, no admiration that trade ports are really of import for Egypt trading. Besides, by trading, Egyptian could advance their relationship with other civilisation provinces, and Egypt could interchange experience and their ain civilizations with other outside states.


In 2002, Brewer and Teeter ‘s article, “ Egypt and the Egyptians ” stated that it was decidedly unbelievable in instance Egyptians were called by others as atheists on the land that there were many Gods that Egyptian followed since antediluvian times. Furthermore, those Gods largely got involved in nature or environment environing them, which had been found as significance associating to their living criterion. Among those Gods, there was a outstanding God, who called Amon-Re, God of the Sun and was the ground for Egyptian divinity and construct of birth and decease which described that the Sun of course rose in the E represented birth and of course set in the West represented decease. Meanwhile, Egyptian people largely depended on the Nile river for cropping environing the river, therefore there was a God represented the Nile river, Osiris, who murdered by his cruel brother, Set, evil God, which is why it led to emergence of construct of the rise and the autumn of the river associating to the birth and decease of Osiris. After that, boy of Osiris, Horus took retaliation on his uncle, Set for slaying his male parent. Based on ancient Egyptian myth, in the 2nd century A.D, Horus, boy of Osiris fulfilled his duty to the decease of his male parent by get downing to organize mummification of his male parent, Osiris and would travel to populate with his male parent, Amon-Re in their after lives. Then, ancient Egyptian people believed that after decease, if they said candidly that they did non do wickedness during their lives, they would possible went into the hereafter which was full of nutrient with being enthusiastic to acquire nutrient and adopted the signifier by feigning their dead organic structures as topographic point for them to travel into the hereafter, hence they followed Horus to pattern mummification. Besides, ancient Egyptians believed that constructing immense grave for Pharaohs, which is why in his hereafter, it would be provided retainers, wealth, artistic furniture and so on. The writers besides mentioned about rites which Egyptian people held many ritual ceremonials in order for wishing for king to be energetic and have longevity. Among many ritual ceremonials, there was a dominant ceremonial named “ the Seed or Jubilee ” which was proved since the period of the early dynasty and held in the epoch of the Ptolemaic. Furthermore, the writers stated that the rites were held largely during the 30th day of remembrance which was of import twenty-four hours of accession of the male monarch to the throne. The male monarch controlled at lower Egypt wore the ruddy Crown while the male monarch controlled at upper Egypt wore the white Crown and grasped a vase, an oar and a square of carpenter. The Sed might hold been of import for ceremonial of pre dynasty, which enhanced the male monarch to hold adequate strength and capablenesss to maintain traveling for governing Egypt.

Harmonizing to the PBS web site, the article named the secrets of the Pharaohs stated that the Pharaoh gave duties to royal households, advisers and functionaries because the Pharaoh could non command all of countries in Egypt. Those high graded people were led by the Pharaoh, while priests sometimes held the power ‘s right by themselves. In the following portion, the article “ Thoth ” by Dungen appeared in June 11, 2009, which was declared that the God whose places were Amon-Ra ‘s secretary, the Scribe of the Gods and god courier of Amon-Re named Thoth. Dugen pointed out what were groundss of his name happening in five different antediluvian linguistic communications, neo Babylonian, Aramean, Coptic, Latin and the Grecian due to his traveling and his celebrity as an international God with God ‘s peace in him. He besides represented thought of composing system and all cognition, particularly books associating to Gods in “ the House of Life ” connected to all Egyptian temples.

Education, Science and Astronomy:

Writing system of ancient Egypt was established in footings of keeping records of Egyptian spiritual rite and valuable things in temple. There were three chief procedures of development of composing system, which was known foremost as hieroglyphics, which were pretended as Bible, were consisted of big Numberss of ideographs and phonograms, symbol of showing figure of sound if there was one or more sounds. Furthermore, there were three chief classs of Hieroglyphics, which were Hieroglyphics, Hieratic and Demotic system. Harmonizing to Knight ( 2009 ) , the first class was Hieroglyphics which was written on rocks as lettering in memorials. Subsequently on, Egyptian transformed things for book of Hieroglyphics, which was scripted on papyrus made from reed workss and known as paper presents. The 2nd 1 was Hieratic which was composing of priest in order for observing faith in old paperss written by manus and image made by pigment. The last system was Demotic which has been used alternatively of Hieratic as current book since 600 B.C. Meanwhile, no 1 perchance translated this antediluvian composing system, Hieroglyphics ( Introduction subdivision ) . Harmonizing to lost civilisations ‘ web site, the article “ Ancient United arab republic: Egyptian Hieroglyphs and Education ” emphasized that in 1799, soldiers of Napoleon sought a “ black basalt stone ” in Rosetta rock of Egypt which contained three composing systems – Hieroglyphs, Demotic and Greek. The soldiers brought the rock to the capital metropolis of France, Paris to make research of the rock. Then, in 1822, Jean Francois Champollion ( 1790-1832 ) succeeded in decoding the Hieroglyphics and was called as “ the laminitis of Egyptology ” . His successful find benefited many bookmans, pupils and common people in order to acquire knowledge more about history of ancient Egypt ( p.1 ) . Following, the 2nd procedure of development of composing system was pictograms, symbol of showing images or things of what Egyptian preferred to enter for following coevals. They were used until 400 A.D. In order to do it be straightforward, Egyptian used the 3rd procedure of development of composing system which was ideograph, symbol of thought or action of what authors used to enter.

Harmonizing to King Tut Index web site, the article “ Ancient Egyptian Education ” , ancient Egyptians gave the most values on instruction system. Though, there were male childs who allowed to go to schools since they were at the ages of 8 or 9. Besides, those male childs who were allowed to go to and analyze at schools were from royal households, the rich people and Scribes or priests, which is why there was a minority of schools while other male childs who were from common households were taught by their male parents who shared experience and accomplishments to learn their boies. In contrast, schools were attended were normally attached to temples and edifices of authoritiess. Besides, the male childs taught by instructors whose places were parts of authorities such as priests and Scribes. Schools ever started in the forenoon, had break clip at 12 in the afternoon and continued in the late afternoon. On the other custodies, there was a school of prince which was the highest criterion among all of schools. Male childs who were allowed to acquire instruction in this school were boies of the Pharaoh who was the boy of Amun-Re, royal household ‘s members, high rank people and high functionaries. The school principal was “ Vizier ” who controlled and managed everything in the school. In add-on, other immature male childs who had great regard would be allowed to go to and acquire instruction in the prince ‘s school. Meanwhile, misss were taught by their female parents about the rudimentss of homemakers such as cookery, doing apparels and so on since functions of ancient Egyptian adult females were taking care their kids and functioning their households. For political relations, adult females were non allowed to keep place to govern bureaucratism and were unavailable for working as Scribes and magnetic people in the temple.However, the adult females seemed to hold plenty right, who were allowed to work in farming area, land for sale and sold what they perchance produced. Therefore, they were educated based on their position and their backgrounds from rich or hapless households. The lessons which were taught in schools related to the rudimentss of mathematics which used 10s fingers to cipher and consisted of arithmetic and geometry, reading and authorship, music, geographics, uranology, medical specialty and scientific discipline. There were three chief accomplishments of scientific sector in ancient Egypt staying boulder clay today. Harmonizing to Giudice ( 1932 ) , Egyptian civilisation, which was surrounded by alternate stages, was formed with sing carefully such as preparation of geometry. Therefore, invention of ancient Egypt was a cause to do them perchance organize geometry and make great architecture such as Pyramid, which was Egyptian accomplishment, was built in peculiar location under status associating to analyzing about the location and natural procedure that normally happened there before building it. He besides stated that the footing of geometry, which was sought by people who ever observed their milieus, particularly nature, linked with music linguistic communication, verse form and infinite the manner they exchanged to each other in their day-to-day lives. At spacial, the architectural professionalism bases on accomplishment that expressed integrating of designers, discussed with others in order to look in way of infinite ‘s footing indirectly including what happened, what presently happens and what will go on in the hereafter depending on the frame of geometry. Another accomplishment was astronomy whichaccording to Canadian Museum of Civilization web site, the article “ Egyptian civilisation: Sciences ” , ancient Egyptian preferred to analyze about sky in the dark in order for alining the Pyramid and the Sun with four chief points of the way, north, South, E and West. The Pyramid at Giza has over 52611 square metres per footmark and blocks of limestone of about 6.5 1000000s. Significantly, the God that Egyptians believed in was Osiris ‘s land life in the Duat. Some proposed that kind of mirror has reflected the Duat was confronting among the Giza Plaza with its three immense Pyramids, three stars in the Orion country, the Sphinx and the Nile River. It is a common thing which establishment a sacred scenery is the abstract thought in other ancient civilisations. The procedure of constructing the Pyramid, temples and graves depended on stars and the four points of the way ; Egyptian people believed in their Gods that would forestall the Earth from being in pandemonium in instance they built the Pyramid at sacred location. Most significantly, harmonizing to King Tut Shop web site, the article “ Ancient Egyptian Medicine 3-Medical Discoveries ” , the last accomplishment of ancient Egypt was medical finds which Egyptians start bring arounding to forestall diseases in homo ‘s organic structure following to the older remedies based on spirit. The beginning of this remedies had such development of cognition of surgery during that period, which Egyptians used antiseptic known as chemical used to forestall infection of hurt presents and used foliages of willow tree and bark ( tree ) to cut down bacteriums or virus being in portion of homo ‘s organic structure and to bring around this disease. Additionally, ancient Egyptians had rational apprehension of variety meats ‘ places since they understood that tubings carried liquids such as blood through the organic structure. Most significantly, methods of surgery and other methods for bring arounding ancient people were noted down and maintain traveling to learn to doctors from coevals to coevals.

Sumerian Civilization:

Geographic Form:

In the book of his called World History: Form of Civilization, Beers ( 1993 ) mentioned that Sumerian civilisation emerged in the Fertile Crescent, which was named by its fertile land in that country. Sumer did non hold many natural barriers. The desert environing it, Arabian and Syrian, provide truly small screen for it. There are two chief rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. The inundation of these two rivers is unpredictable that sometime conveying devastation to the Sumerian civilisation. However, these two rivers were the cardinal beginning of life, because it provided fertile dirt and fish for the people. Old ages after old ages, the rivers besides created a delta in the lower portion of Mesopotamia. Besides the devastation caused by the rivers, Sumer besides suffered drouth every bit good during the summer. This caused the land debasement of birthrate and dearth for people. In the metropolis there were many substructures such as crucifixs, infirmary, little house, temples and statues of Gods or goddesses. There were besides canals in the metropolis to run out H2O out of the metropolis ; and at the exterior of the metropolis, we could see a big country of harvests environing metropolis walls and irrigations systems nearby to run out H2O in to provide harvests.

Political Administration:

Sumer was divided into smaller city states which governed by priesthood ( early ) and military leaders ( subsequently ) . Each city state was independent in political authorities which one city state was control by one leader. However, during the invasions of foreigners, each city state would assist each other to drive the encroacher. In societal category, there were 5 societal categories. The highest category was the category of swayer and royal households. The swayer undertook the city state development, including large undertaking such as edifice canal, butchs, and sophisticated irrigation system to ease the agribusiness activity. Furthermore, the swayers besides built the defensive wall to forestall their ain several city states from the encroacher, and to supply protection for the husbandmans, when the city state was under onslaught. Following the swayer, the priest was the 2nd highest societal category. They took attention of rites and ceremonials. The in-between category people were craftsmen, craftsmans, blacksmiths, merchandisers and more who contributed to metropolis economic development. The lower category is provincials and husbandmans who provided nutrients and supplies to metropolis nutrient supply. They have right to have lands but they need to pay revenue enhancements to the male monarch. The lowest category in Sumer society was slave that most of them were enemy ‘s soldiers or villagers. They have no right in the society.

Code of Hammurabi:

In order to maintain the city state merely and stable, the swayer of each city state imposed their set of Torahs. The jurisprudence was aimed to penalize the incorrect actor. One the most of import Torahs is The Code of Hammurabi, which was written by an outstanding general in ancient clip Hammurabi. His thought, mentioned by Beers ( 1993 ) , was based on a construct of “ an oculus for an oculus, a tooth for a tooth ” , which means that if a adult male broke another adult male ‘s leg, he will be punished by broking his leg excessively. Hammurabi intent, Beers adds, was to “ do justness to predominate in the land, to destruct the wicked and the immorality, to forestall the strong from suppressing the weak, and to foster the public assistance of the people. ”

Civilization Carriers and Proliferators: Phoenician and Lydian:

Among many little city states in the Sumer civilisation, two prominent, yet little city states were Phoenician and Lydian. Beers ( 1993 ) named the former as Carriers of civilisation and the latter as the Influential bargainers. In the same book, he described the Phoenician city state was alongside the eastern Mediterranean seashore. “ The Phoenician earned the name ‘carriers of civilisation ‘ for their function in distributing the civilization of the ancient universe. Through trade and colonisation, they introduced the accomplishment of Mesopotamia and Egypt to the less-advanced people of the western Mediterranean. ” ( Beers, 1993, p.47 )

Lydian, the influential bargainer, was celebrated for their trading ability. Their important accomplishment was the innovation of money economic system. They replace this new economic system system for the old swap economic system system, which did non truly better the commercial capableness. The ground that the new system could better the trading capableness is that it eliminated the job that two trading parties can merely merchandise when they both have the merchandise to exchange with one another. By contriving the coin, it allowed the two bargainers to merchandise at any clip. This thought subsequently besides influenced Greeks and Persians every bit good.


Similar to Egyptian spiritual, Sumerians are polytheistic. However, each city state had their Gods or goddesses to honour. They believed that their Gods and goddesses were their Godhead and giver of life and their Gods were awful forces that could finally do catastrophes such as inundation, drouth, and temblor and dearth ; so in order to delight their God they have to execute rites and praying for safety and good crop. Annunaki was the name of their God or a group of God whom came to earth long clip ago to mine gold. Harmonizing to a book “ The Lost Book of Enki ” ( Sitchin, 2004 ) the word “ Anunnaki ” translated as “ Those from heaven to earth came ” . There was besides a myth about their Gods coming to earth that, “ Anu is the male monarch of Anunnaki came to earth to happen gold in order to continue their place atmosphere. The Gods tired of gold excavation operation ; therefore, Enki and Innana created crude workers ( human ) to happen gold for them. ” Major Gods are:

An: The Sky God

En-lil: God of boom and human defender

Nin-khusrag or Innana: Earth Godness

Enki: God of Wisdom and Water

Sumerian believed that their Gods are godly forces and superintendents who take attention of everything that go on on Earth. Priests perform rites at Ziggurat which was built from a bricks and had 6-8 narratives height. Priests considered as a cardinal of universe and place to their Gods. In order to derive favours, prognostications and approvals from their Gods, priests performed rites and sacrificed at the temple by giving H2O, beers, nutrients, and killing a bull ( Sumerian religious and ritual, 2009 ) . Sumerian besides believed in enchantments and appeals that is considered to be a divided forces from their Gods assisting from all sorts of dangers or bad things. God statues were built all over the topographic points in their city-stated in order to demo their regard.

Writing System:

Sumerian civilisation might be the first civilisation who invented the authorship system. Archeologists found some tablets in Nineveh in Iraq that dated back to 3,500 B.C. The earliest authorship system of Sumer was pictogram that consisted of many images showing thoughts. Unlike Egyptian authorship system that used to carved on rock or wood, Sumer scribes wrote on wet-clay tablets utilizing a stylus and baked it. Their authorship procedure on clay was call “ Cuneiform ” because it had wedge-like form. Hundreds of twelvemonth subsequently on, the images were more linked to sound. Sumer developed a new sort of authorship by utilizing marks alternatively of pulling a image on clay tablet. The marks illustrated syllable that would go an alphabet. Archeologists besides found some living literature accomplishments such as The Epic of Gilgamesh, Biblical narrative of Noah, and Two-third God and one-third adult male that these heroic poems poems showed about the epic figure of a male monarchs or leaders. ( Robert A. Guisepi, 2012 )

Scribe: To travel on higher rank of societal category, parents sent their kids to temple to go a Scribe. Scribe is a individual who can read and compose and keep high rank in Sumer society. Most Scribes were taught in a temple school where priest is a instructor. First they learned to pull symbols on a clay tablet with the aid of priest. They tried to copy cuneuss on the right side while the priest wrote it on the left side of the tablet. With well-disciplined and hard-working attitudes, a immature adult male could go a rightful Scribe. Subsequently on, Scribe was hired to work as governor, revenue enhancement aggregator, jurisprudence shaper, contract shapers, architectures, and many more. Cylinder seal was besides used by Scribe to guarantee one ‘s signature on trade trades or pacts or contracts.

Sumer ‘s Accomplishments:

Science: Priests non merely a courier of Gods or ritual performing artists, but besides a physician. By utilizing enchantments in mending procedure and some sorts of herbs, they besides do more research on herbs. Sumerian was the first civilisation that knew the importance of wheels. They used wheels vehicle for many intents such war ( wheeled chariot ) , agribusiness, trades and transit around the metropolis. They knew how to tackle ox energy with wheels for transit and ploughing. Wheel was besides used for war by utilizing chariots with the power of two Equus caballuss ; for case, Assyrian used war chariots to occupy Egypt whose ground forcess were disorganized ( Beers, 1993, p. 25 ) . Blacksmith learned how to utilize bronze to acquired stronger tools and arms for war and built sewerages under metropolis streets to run out out H2O out of metropolis. Sumerian civilisation was the first who invented wheel. The utilizing of wheel was spread to Asia Minor, Egypt, Assyrian and Indus Valley ( Gordonm Childe, 1946, p. 74 ) .

Art: Sculptures, claywares, and statues of Gods have been scattered all over the site of digging. Archeologists believe that Sumer is one of adept sculpture in the ancient times. During digging, archeologists found many artistic images and statues carved on the walls. Sumer besides used gold, forests, and rock to adorn their work of humanistic disciplines. Music was besides first found in Sumer ‘s part which was known as Lyre-stringed musical instrument that made of Ag decorated with shell and rock. There were besides many musical instruments such as pipes, membranophones and tambourines which were really of import for executing rites or ceremonials. ( Arthony, 2004 ) .

Architecture: Humanistic disciplines and architectures were combined and were used to construct many tall edifices called “ Ziggurat ” which mean in Assyrians “ high ” . Differed from Egyptian pyramids which had many inner suites, Ziggurat of Sumer had no interior room. It had 6-8 narratives height and trees were planted on it to exemplify a mountain ( Holy Mountain ) . At the bottom portion of zikkurat, many pictures were decorated. They showed about Sumerian life, military accomplishment and Gods. Most people lived in one floor house with large pace outside.

Astronomy: By analyzing the motion of stars and configurations, priests could track clip and season that lead to the creative activity of lunar calendar. The calendar had 30 yearss a month and 360 +5 yearss a twelvemonth. The cardinal figure was figure 6 that would take to development of 60 proceedingss an hr, 360 grade in circle by utilizing quadric equation. Sumer priests are the first who discovered the 12 stars configurations which they called “ Shiny Herd ” . ( Alex Whitaker, April 2012 ) .



Modern Name


Heavenly Bull






Pincers, Tongss






Her male parent was Sin



Heavenly Fate



Which claws and cuts









God of the Waterss

Water bearer





Field Dweller



To sum up, in the ancient times, human civilisation strived so difficult along the river where abundant of nutrient supplies located. Egyptian civilisation developed itself along the Nile River which is at the North Africa where many natural barriers had been protected Egyptian ‘s people for outside invasion. People lives depended on the Nile River that has been brought fertile dirt for agriculture and fishing. Furthermore, Egyptian civilisation was one a the authorship system discoverers who developed pictogram a image that describe object and ideograph that express the thoughts or action. Egyptian people believed that their male monarch, Pharaoh, is the descendent of the Sun God, Amu-Ra, and held absolute power in the state with the aid of disposal officers. Egyptian people were polytheistic which there were many Gods and goddess to honour such as Ra, Osiris, Iris, Horus, etcaˆ¦ Another greatest accomplishment of ancient Egyptian was the apprehension of scientific discipline such as architecture ( Building pyramids, temples, picture and so on ) , surgery public presentation, calendar innovation, mathematics and uranology. Differed from Egypt, Sumerian civilisation emerged in the land between the two unpredictable rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, in Mesopotamia where presents modern Iraq is. Peoples populating in a little city state where governed by a leader. Irrigation systems were constructed under the overseeing of an officer to run out H2O out the metropolis and drain into the cultivation lands to provide harvests. These metropoliss would contend with each other to protect foreign invasion. Similar to Egyptian civilisation, composing system and scientific disciplines were well-developed in ancient Sumerian civilisation. Scribes wrote on the piece of clay tablet with stylus to make clear letters used for spiritual, trade, concern contracts, and revenue enhancement aggregations. Sumerian priests perform rites and one-year ceremonials to delight their Gods which believed to be their Godheads and defenders. Sumer created a 365 twenty-four hours calendars and the zodiac which allowed them to track stars motion and predict the hereafter easy.

In this paper, it will supply an of import beginning to understand more about human ancient history of civilisation which contributed greatly to the alterations of human thought and inventions from the past boulder clay nowadays. Though these two civilisations were destroyed, its bequests have been sharpened human life for centuries. Without the creative activity of composing system scientific disciplines astronomy, there will be no engineerings and new things for human to ease their lives. We should analyze and understand more about human history in order to better our cognition in understand one province ‘s perceptual experience and to avoid reiterating errors in the past one time once more.

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