The effect of sales

Chapter 1:

The basic intent and chief consideration of undertaking is to look into the consequence of gross revenues

Promotion tactics on the usage of GSM companies. Keeping in position the importance and impact of gross revenues promotional activity, want to prove its impact on turning usage of GSM services, that what is the impact of gross revenues promotional activities on the usage of GSM services, and how different companies undertake these activities, so companies can bask the largest portion in GSM client market.

1.2 Statement of the job

To place the

1.3 Research Scope & A ; Restrictions

The range of this research is to happen out the behavioural purpose of the consumers of different age, income and gender utilizing GSM web in Pakistan.

Harmonizing to the research, these are the restrictions imposed on this survey:

The respondents were indiscriminately selected harmonizing to the convenience of the research. .

The questionnaire was personally filled out by the research from different topographic points

Lack of response by some of the topics remained a job.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

From the treatment of the theoretical model, four hypotheses were formulated to prove the relationship between each of the independent variables and dependent variable. The four hypotheses steering this survey are as follows:

H1: The impact of promotional activities is INDEPENDENT OF GENDER IN consumers of GSM webs

H2: The impact of promotional activities is INDEPENDENT OF AGE in consumers of GSM.

H3: The impact of promotional activities is INDEPENDENT OF INCOME in consumers of GSM webs

1.5 Model Frame Work

Figure 1.1


Gross saless Promotion


Chapter 2:



Promotions help organisation to make the consciousness of their services or trade good, or about the association itself among the mark viewing audiences. It so induces attending, creates a wish and motivates clients to buy, which are publicizing, gross revenues publicity and public dealingss.

2.1.1 Above the line gross revenues publicity. ATL activity is fundamentally type of advertisement which is done through media such as Radio, Television, film, print media, postings, circulars, streamers and hunt engines to promote trade names. most of the clients uses telecasting and wireless advertisement, while there are some who prefer web and Internet streamer ads. This type of communicating is conservative in nature and is measured impersonal to clients. It differs from BTL advertisement, which believes in alternate brand-building scheme, like direct mail and print medium.

2.1.2 Below the line gross revenues publicity. BTL gross revenues publicities are impermanent inducements, largely aimed at clients. With the lifting emphasis on the selling squad to achieve communicating aims more professionally in a restricted budget, there has been a demand to detect more successful and cost effectual ways to match with the mark markets. This has led to a move from the accustomed media based advertisement.

BTL uses less conservative methods than the usual exact channels of advertisement to back merchandises, services, etc. than ATL schemes. This may include behaviour like direct mail, gross revenues publicities & A ; PR for which a fee is settled upon and bear down up front. BTL publicizing usually concentrate on direct manner of communicating, like direct mail or electronic mail. Another attractive and really effective BTL is skilled gross revenues staff, frequently immature adult females, are deployed at Retail Stores, near the shelves of targeted goods. These immature adult females encourage consumers sing the shelves about the enhanced facets of ideal trade name compared with others. This is perfect for new launches as it generates tests, which if dining consequence in repetition gross revenues. In add-on, ATL is much more valuable when the mark group is big and complex to specify. But if the mark group is narrow and exact, it is everlastingly wise to utilize BTL publicities for competency and cost-effectiveness.

In a nutshell, while ATL publicities are customized for a mass audience, where as BTL publicities are targeted at persons harmonizing to wants or penchants. While ATL publicities can make trade name individuality, BTL can in fact lead to a sale. ATL publicities are besides instead non feasible to mensurate good, where as BTL publicities are highly mensurable, giving sellers ‘ cherished penetrations into the return-on-investment. Price publicity. Price publicities are besides normally identified as ” monetary value discounting ” . It can be done in two ways:

A price reduction to the standard merchandising monetary value of a good.

More of the good at the standard monetary value.

Monetary value publicities though can besides hold a harmful consequence by botching the trade name position or merely a probationary gross revenues encouragement followed by composure when the decrease would be called off.

az?Coupons and lucky draws

az?present with purchases, besides offerings certifications

az?Competitions and awards

This is important tool to raise trade name consciousness between the mark clients. It can be used to increase up gross revenues for probationary period and guarantee use between initial clip users. Money refunds. Mostly promotional scheme rotates around capturing the childs who formed a chief portion of the mark market. Celebrated personality indorsement, particular clip offers, festival cut rate, and modern advertizement motion were used by the cellular service supplier as tools to force back the competition and addition market portion.

In many industries, publicities represent a important per centum of the selling mix budget. Nondurable goods makers now spend more money on publicities than on advertisement. Airlines sporadically offer price reductions to bring forth incremental traffic. Financial establishments use publicities to bring on clients to utilize organisation ‘s services or, as in the instance of mortgages, frequently discount freshman rates to obtain a long-run income watercourse from the client. Farm equipment makers use monetary value publicities to sell extra stock list. Across industries, so, monetary value publicities are an of import portion of the selling mix. Consistent with the focal point of this particular issue, the intent of this article is to depict the empirical generalisations that can be drawn from the published literature on monetary value publicities. Actually, the monetary value publicities literature is new comparative to other research countries in selling, holding been developed chiefly since the early 1980s. Before proceeding, it is utile to depict the types of publicities that is considered in this article. Generalizations besides be drawn sing both retail and trade publicities, ‘ but non maker couponing. Promotions be considered in a broader context than merely monetary value publicities and it include co-op advertisement financess, show allowances to the trade ( the mediators in the channel ) , every bit good as show and feature advertisement activity direct to the consumer. While couponing represents a really of import portion of the promotional literature and a major outgo for consumer packaged-goods houses, it is non being considered here due to infinite restrictions.

Listed below are the generalisations and the articles which support those generalisations:

1. Impermanent retail monetary value decreases well increase gross revenues. The literature has found that impermanent retail monetary value publicities cause a important short-run gross revenues spike. This can be contrasted to consumer advertisement ( non retail characteristic advertisement ) , where it is hard to see a gross revenues spike matching to additions in advertisement disbursement. Gross saless increases due to impermanent retail monetary value publicities were documented ( Woodside & A ; Waddle, 1975 ; Moriarty, 1985 ; Blattberg & A ; Wisniewski, 1989 ) . This consequence is cardinal to virtually all research done in the country of publicities.

2. Higher market portion trade names are less deal elastic. This consequence implies that higher portion trade names have lower trade snaps, even though higher portion trade names may capture a big proportion of whippers. The consequence was found by ( Bolton, 1989 ; Bemmaor & A ; Mouchoux, 1991 ) . These articles all use market portion as the dependant variable. The term “ trade snaps ” is hard.

3. The frequence of trades alterations the consumer ‘s mention monetary value. This determination is of import because it offers an account for the loss of trade name equity when trade names are to a great extent promoted. A lower consumer mention monetary value reduces the premium that can be charged for a trade name in the market place, which consequences in less “ equity. ” The consequence of trade frequence on consumers ‘ mention monetary value was found by ( Kalwani, Rinne, Sugita, and Yim, 1990 ) .

4. The greater the frequence of trades, the lower the tallness of the trade spike. This consequence is likely to be caused by ( 1 ) consumer outlooks about the frequence of trades and ( 2 ) alterations in the consumer ‘s mention monetary value. The empirical consequence was documented by Bolton ( 1989 ) and Raju ( 1992 ) , and indirectly through the predating generalisation ( 3 ) , which, in combination with links mention monetary value to buy behaviour ( Winer 1986 ; Putler 1992 ) . While some articles use cross-sectional theoretical accounts and some use time-series theoretical accounts, this generalisation refers to time-series consequences.

5. Cross-promotional effects are asymmetric, and advancing higher quality trade names impacts weaker trade names ( and private label merchandises ) disproportionately. Promoting certain trade names causes custorners to exchange from a viing trade name in greater Numberss than advancing that viing trade name cause to exchange from the companies. One possible account is that dissymmetry in shift is due to differences in trade name equity. Numerous other accounts have been offered in the literature, such as prospect theory ( Hardie, Johnson, and Fader,1993 ) . Asymmetrical shift was documented by ( Blattberg & A ; Wisniewski, 1989 ; Krishnamurthi & A ; Raj, 1988 ; Cooper, 1988 & A ; Walters, 1991 ) . This consequence was besides found by ( Allenby and Rossi, 1991 ) . An extension of this determination focuses on dissymmetries in trade names ‘ perceived type or grade and predicts the impact that advancing a trade name in a given grade is likely to hold on exchanging from trade names in other grades. Promoting higher tier trade names generates more switching than does advancing lower tier trade names. This consequence was found by ( Blattberg & A ; Wisniewski, 1989 ; Kamakura & A ; Russell, 1989 ; & A ; Allenby & A ; Rossi, 1991 ) .

6. Retailers pass-through less than 1 00 % of trade trades. Because retail merchants are the vehicle for pass-through of trade promotional money to consumers, it is of import to acknowledge that most trade names receive far less than 100 % pass-through. Curhan and Kopp ( 1986 ) found that trade name features result in different degrees of pass-through. The determination that less than 100 % of trade publicity financess are passed through was made by ( Chevalier & A ; Curhan, 1976 ; Curhan & A ; Kopp, 1986 ; Blattberg & A ; Neslin, 1990 ) .

7. Display and characteristic advertisement have strong effects on point gross revenues. Most practicians already know this result-it is slightly obvious. However, an of import related issue is the interaction between characteristic advertisement and show and the interactive consequence that is created. Few empirical consequences have been generated sing the synergisms between characteristic advertisement, shows, and monetary value price reductions. The consequence of show and characteristic advertisement was found by ( Woodside & A ; Waddle, 1975 ; Blattberg and Wisniewski, 1989 ; Kumar & A ; Leone, 1988 ) . Bemmaor and Mouchoux ( 1991 ) besides confirm this consequence.

8. Advertised publicities can ensue in increased shop traffic. There is surprisingly small empirical work devoted to this issue, given its practical importance. The weight of grounds ( four surveies versus one ) , nevertheless, is that advertised publicities of some merchandises and classs do hold an impact on shop traffic. A likely account for failure to happen a important store-switching consequence for the cracker class is that the magnitude of this consequence varies depending upon the class ( Vilcassim & A ; Chintagunta, 1992 ) . Research should be done to place which classs have more significant impact on shop shift. The positive consequence of advertised publicities on shop traffic was found by ( Kumar & A ; Leone, 1988 ; Walters & A ; MacKenzie, 1988 ) .

9. Promotions affect gross revenues in complementary and competitory classs. This determination is besides good understood by practicians, though the magnitude of this consequence is non. The gross revenues impact of advancing one class on a complementary or viing class is really likely a map of the type and features of the classs for ain egos. The consequence of publicities on complementary and competitory classs was found by ( Walters & A ; Rinne, 1986 ; Walters & A ; MacKenzie, 1988 ; Walters 1991 ) .

Chapter 3:


Based on the consequences acquired from the initial research, quantitative research was performed so as to happen out the beliefs and the purpose of the Impact of different gross revenues publicity tactics on consumers of GSM Network in footings of use.

3.1 Data Collection

Basically, there are two types of beginnings available for informations aggregation sing research intent i.e. primary and secondary informations. In this research survey, both primary and secondary beginnings are utilised to finish the survey. Secondary information is obtained from the books, articles, diaries and cyberspace while primary beginning is obtained from the questionnaire study. The research made usage of both the beginnings for theoretical and empirical informations harmonizing to the demand.

3.2 Statistical Technique & A ; Instruments

A structured questionnaire was constructed to garner the primary informations to reply the research inquiries. The close-ended questionnaire was based on four specific parts dwelling of inquiries refering to manner towards actions, subjective norms, evident behavioural control and the demographic features of the respondents. The trouble to entree to the possible respondents in Karachi caused the research to utilize the “ Convenience Sampling Method ” . The study was conducted by and large via face-to-face interviews and besides administrated through electronic mails.

For this research questionnaire was developed to full make full the study and the proving tool was being used was SPSS. ANNOVA and Independent Sample T-Test techniques were used in SPSS during the analysis of informations maintaining in position the nature of the hypothesis and the information.

3.3 Questionnaire Design

For this research, a structured, close-ended questionnaire was developed based to prove the hypothesis, which included dependant variable -usage and three independent variables, Age, Income and gender. The questionnaire contains the first subdivision sing demographic information ( age income, gender etc ) and the reaming three parts refering behavioural purpose — Separate A is about recognition spend and save through different gross revenues ; Part B entails the characteristics that most attracts to utilize cell phone to rate the importance of the inquiry asked these this parts was measured by a five Likert graduated table from 1 to 5.

3.3.1 Questionnaire Testing. A questionnaire testing was conducted to place restriction in design and instruments. Harmonizing to a research pre-testing refers to the testing of the questionnaire on a little sample of respondents in order to place and extinguish possible job. Here, the research intended to carry on a testing to measure the questionnaire for lucidity, consistence, ambiguity of inquiries, and relevancy to the survey. Therefore, 20 questionnaires were carried out from random clients.

3.4 Sampling

For this thesis, 120 questionnaires were distributed to random users, and each of the responses received was screened decently for inaccuracy, uncomplete and/or losing response. However, those responses that had over 20 % of the inquiries in the study questionnaire that had been left unreciprocated or mistakenly answered were removed from informations analysis. After the appropriate showing procedure has been done, 20 returned questionnaires were considered as non feasible and the remainder 100 responses were used which were considered as complete and applicable for concluding analysis and hypothesis testing. The sample was drawn on the footing of convenience i.e. Convenience Sampling method was followed.

3.4.1 Sample Size. The sample size for my research is 100 respondents, which includes:

Male / Female

Age group: 25 below & A ; above

Income: 10,000 below and above

Chapter 4:


4.1 Hypothesiss proving

Table 4.1

Gender of the respondent * Daily frequence of Cell phone use



Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )

Pearson Chi-Square

1.221 ( a )



Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases


a 4 cells ( 66.7 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is.47.


In the above tabular array the higher significance value indicates that there is no relationship between the use and gender so hence accept void hypothesis.

Table 4.2

Age of the respondent * Daily frequence of Cell phone use



Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )

Pearson Chi-Square

2.768 ( a )



Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases


a 7 cells ( 77.8 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is.01.


In the above tabular array the higher significance value indicates that there is no relationship between the use and age so hence accept void hypothesis

Table 4.3

Monthly income * Daily frequence of Cell phone use



Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )

Pearson Chi-Square

16.119 ( a )



Likelihood Ratio




Linear-by-Linear Association




N of Valid Cases


a 12 cells ( 66.7 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is.09.


In the above tabular array the higher significance value indicates that there is no relationship between the use and monthly income so hence accept void hypothesis

Table 4.4

Nominal Arrested development


Model Fitting Criteria

Likelihood Ratio Trials

-2 Log Likelihood of Reduced Model





14.094 ( a )



















The chi-square statistic is the difference in -2 log-likelihoods between the concluding theoretical account and a decreased theoretical account. The decreased theoretical account is formed by excluding an consequence from the concluding theoretical account. The void hypothesis is that all parametric quantities of that consequence are 0.

a This decreased theoretical account is tantamount to the concluding theoretical account because excluding the consequence does non increase the grades of freedom.


In the above tabular array the likeliness ratio test the significance value is & gt ; 0..05 so it has no consequence on the theoretical account.

Table 4.5






H1: The impact of promotional activities is INDEPENDENT OF GENDER IN consumers of GSM webs




H2: The impact of promotional activities is INDEPENDENT OF AGE in consumers of GSM.




H3: The impact of promotional activities is INDEPENDENT OF INCOME in consumers of GSM webs




Chapter 5


5.1 Discussion

This survey has been done to sort the impact of different gross revenues publicity tactics on consumers of GSM webs in footings of use. The intent of this research is to come across whether is there any impact of publicity on consumers in footings of usage.It has been carried out loosely in the visible radiation of relevant literature available to the best of cognition.

5.2 Deductions

Furthermore, to guarantee the testability and meticulosity of the research, conceptual model theoretical account has been used. Three variables have been used in theoretical account frame work ; 1 ) demographics 2 ) gross revenues promotion 3 ) use. The information was collected by utilizing self constructed questionnaire as an instrument aiming Iqra University ‘s pupils. After the statistical work and readings, it could be concluded that the consumer features – age, income and gender have an undistinguished consequence impact of different gross revenues publicity tactics on consumers of GSM Networks in footings of use. On the whole, the consequences of this survey are imperative to both research and practicians.

5.3 Future Research

Suggestions for upcoming research is planned which aid in developing better perceptive of consumer reaction on gross revenues publicity. It is recommended for the hereafter research, to broader the facet of publicity and designs the theoretical account which implement towards some other industry as good. This survey is besides helpful to reason the factors which are responsible for the increase of market portion in GSM Network industry by altering or modifying the gross revenues publicity of merchandise in competitory market.

5.4 Decision

The consequence revealed that consumers ‘ who are utilizing GSM web has nil to with the gender, age or income. Both male and female brand usage of GSM web in personal businesss about about the same, younger grownups and older users both are intended to utilize this installation regardless of age differences and higher income people or lower income people both have the desired cognition about the GSM web engineering.

Chapter 6