The Decolonisation Of Africa History Essay

In this essay, I will be concentrating on Africa as instance survey to research argument about decolonization. Decolonization ; the term by and large refers to the accomplishment of independency by the assorted Western settlements and defenders in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an rational motion known as post-coloniaslism. In other words, decolonization can be achieved by attaring independency, incorporating with administrating power and in add-on, it is a political procedure sometimes affecting force in utmost fortunes and may be involves peaceable dialogue and/or violent rebellion and arm battle by the native population. Colonized peoples organized anti-colonial motions that asserted their rights to self-determination. In this sense, patriotism gained great impulse during the twentieth century universe wars, therefore altering the face of modern-day international political relations.

During the twentieth century, decolonization of Africa was one of the turning points in the history of post-war universe. Decolonisation brought many negative images of Africa ; hungriness, arbitrary authorities, foreign development and ecological force per unit areas and disregards. But it besides brought positive images ; peculiarly it started to wipe out the position that inkiness meant lower status. All the effects show us decolonization arguments made an feeling as a theorically. There were two different theories ; metropolitan and peripheral theory. In metropolitan theory, decolonization was the drift of western colonial powers because of factors in postwar Europe. In the 2nd theory which was the peripheral theory, decolonization was the consequence of which unfolded in settlements because of independency motions in settlements.

Harmonizing to David Birmingham, there were three of import factors ; decolonization was the consequence of patriot candidacy for independency, or the consequence of an imperial retreat, or the effect of world power force per unit area to derive entree to continent guarded by Europeans ( Birmingham,1995, p.91 ) . In contrast, the writer Raymond F. Betts argued that, decolonization was the firsy the topic of political historiographers and political scientists who viewed the activity as either a national or an international job, one of party formation, mass protest, state edifice, large province competition. Possibly, this drawn-out occurance and the argument over it, both subsumed under the word “ decolonization ” can best be summarized in a self-generated but symbolic gesture. It occured, most suitably, as a European political regulation in Africa was quikly ending ( Betts,1998, pp.3-4 ) .

The decolonization of Africa was one of the historic minute in the history of the post-war universe. It captured the imaginativeness of a new coevals of dreamers who declared ther belief in racial equality and single autonomy. The decolonization of Africa caused by tonss of motion as a political battle such as the people of Africa helped to open the manner for the civil rights motion in America. Before the twentieth century, in the 1960s no less than 17 former African settlements become independent members of the United Nations ; Somalia, Nigeria, Zaire and so forth. However, the class of decolonisation was non ever smooth. Primarily the explosion of decolonization was the cardinal and most dramatic episode in a long procedure of political alteration that affected the whole of Africa. Decolonization was the mirror image of the colonization that had easy brought European domination to Africa in twentieth century ( Birmingham,1995, p.2 ) . In fact, this advancement covered land violent rebellion such as Algeria and Kenya or sometimes moderately peaceable such as Gold Coast-Ghana.

Ghana which was called the Gold Coast was the first African province to go independent from British regulation. The West African settlement of the Gold Coast became the independent and autonomous province of Ghana in March 1957 with the antecedently imprisoned nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah as its first Prime Minister ( Judd,1996,354 ) . In the instance of Ghana, British authoritiess could claim with some strong belief that power had passed from colonial disposals to seemingly stable and mature local authorities. In add-on, Ghana was one of the Commonwealth provinces in West Africa which was in debatable political developments.

The other decolonizaiton in Africa was Algeria ; French settlement, that it go independent in 1962. In the north colonists of Algeria aspired to unify their district with France. Colonial Africa in 1946 had much the same form as independent Africa in 1995. Algeria protested and supported a motion seeking acknowledgment for on independent democracy of Western Sahara. But in 1945 Algerians who celebrated the terminal of the European War in May 1945, imagined that independency would now be theirs, but their demands turned into O exuberant menace to colonial order ; colonists were killed and many demonstrators were shot by white vigilance mans. So decolonisation in northwesterly Africa was delayed by 10 years. ( Birmingham,1995, p.16 ) . This episode likely was an grounds for violent rebellion in Algeria. Even the decolonization of Algeria caused a drawn-out and destructive confrontation between European and Africa and the Macmillan ‘s biographer Alastair Horne called that “ barbarous war of peace ” ( Birmingham,1995, p.16 ) . Furthermore, the struggle increased in strength such as townsmen boycotted Gallic goods, countrymen took up weaponries in irregular forces and politicians demanded immediate independency.

The other large argument was happened in Kenya which was one of the British settlement. Kenya became an independent in 1963 under the leading of Jomo Kenyatta. The Mau Mau rebellion that culminated in the decolonisation of the Kenya began in 1952. When, in the mid-1960s, the authorities of independent Kenya put force per unit area on its South Asian community to go forth the state, the disposal rapidly imposed an one-year quota of 1500 on Kenyan Asians wishing to come in Britain. This step was quickly denounced as a treachery of the understanding by which Kenya had achieved independency in 1963.

To reason, the arguments ; Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya, debatable political developments in Ghana and issues of Algeria show us why the decolonisation occured by colonial power and anti-colonial battles in twentieth century. In contradistinction for the other topographic points, these three colonies in Africa covered more of import motions sing the others in the manner of colonists, resources. For illustration, Ghana had most cardinal arguments on history of it was the starting point of decolonisation in Africa. The Gallic settlement Algeria had some economic constituents solemnly.


  • Betts, F. Raymond ( 1998 ) Decolonization. London: Routledge
  • Birmingham, David ( 1995 ) The Decolonisation of Africa. London: UCL Press
  • Ferguson, Niall ( 2004 ) Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. England: Penguin Books
  • Hopkins, A.G. and Cain, P.J. ( 1993 ) British Imperialism: Crisis and Deconstruction. USA: Longman
  • Howe, Stephen ( 2002 ) Empire: A Very Short Introduction. United kingdom: Oxford University Press
  • Judd, Denis ( 1997 ) Empire: The Trial of Jomo Kenyatta. London: Fontana Press