The Construction Phases And Spaces Of The Medieval History Essay

Research on Hame Castle is still ongoing and several inquiries refering the palace ‘s history have yet to have a unequivocal reply. One of the most interesting jobs of course has to make with the precise dating of the palace ‘s architectural history. Harmonizing to both tradition and early historical research Hame Castle was founded as a consequence of an expedition to Hame by the Swedish Lord Birger Jarl. This journey took topographic point in the first half of the thirteenth century, when Finland was under the regulation of Sweden. Based on architectural archeology and art history, the beginning of the first edifice is dated in the 1260 ‘s or 1270 sing to the palace well, which was built that twelvemonth. The ground for constructing a new palace was to confirm Swedish regulation among the people of Hame and to reenforce the defense mechanism of the district. Besides the attempts of the Swedish to construct the palace of Viipuri in 1293 have been interpreted as an indicant that the munition in the Hame heartland by Lake Vanaja had been completed by so. The day of the month mentioned seems to be supported by the defense mechanism system and architectural characteristics of the oldest greystone fortress. During the Middle Ages, since stuffs were hard to happen, the usage of greystone was the most common. Merely Hame Castle pioneered in the art of brick edifice. These characteristics show similarities to the bastion of Stockholm and its metropolis wall built by Birger Jarl after 1250, for illustration the bonding and wedging of the rocks of more or less equal size in the reinforcing of the lower parts of the wall. Hame Castle appears to hold been portion of an extended munition undertaking instituted by Birger Jarl and his boies with the thought of set uping their regulation and making a web of palaces for defense mechanism intents.

Hame Castle is located in the southern terminal of a narrow moraine ridge on the southern shore of Vanaja Narrows, approximately 12 meters above the contemporary H2O degree of Lake Vanaja in the metropolis of Hameenlinna, Finland. In the beginning, the site was really an island, which has so grown attached into the coastline. It functioned as the historical and administrative Centre of the thirteenth century state and the environing country formed the ancient Centre of Hame. Although Finland ‘s palaces were the phase for many of import military events and operation for defense mechanism was obvious, the significance of the palaces as provincial administrative Centres and on their present value as architectural memorials is merely every bit of import.

There are no historical paperss sing the prehistoric munitions, but surveies indicate that the prehistoric munitions were chiefly used during the Viking epoch in Scandinavia, from 800 to 1100. It is assumed that a menace, likely onslaughts by the Russians and the Vikings necessitated the building of the medieval palaces. The cognition of the early center ages in general in Finland is really limited. However, it is likely that at least some prehistoric munitions were in usage when E and west were viing of ownerships of heathen Finland. Southern Europe entered the medieval epoch about an full millenary before Finland did and the art of palace edifice had already reached an advanced phase of development before the first medieval palace was built in Finland. Cultural influences arrived here late, and in a instead baffled signifier ; due to remoteness of the state and local conditions, castle architecture in Finland took on national characteristics of its ain. The chief palaces were built at strategically of import sites at the junctions of prehistoric H2O paths.

Medieval palaces were normally started edifice from the bosom tower. The following stage was to construct a round wall, which was bit by bit made higher. Later added were populating infinites and other suites. The outer wall was herewith used as the dorsum wall of the suites and one or several interior wards were formed in the center. These wards were surrounded by hallways and little Windowss ; the outer wall was left windowless for maximal protection. Before glass Windowss became common in Finnish palaces in the sixteenth century, old Windowss were covered with a thin movie made from an carnal carcase. The result of a palace depended of local fortunes, economical state of affairss and the handiness of workingmans.

Hame Castle consists of three separate structural entities: chief palace, outer Bailey and environing earthworks built in the 1170 ‘s. It was earlier thought that the chief palace was built in one phase, but huge constructional research in 1952 – 1960 showed that it was really built in several stages. The chief building stages can be divided into five parts: the bastioned cantonment stage in the 1260 ‘s, the greystone garrison in 1270-1300, the gate tower stage in 1300-1350, brick palace stage in early 1300’s-1450 and corner towers phase in 1480-1520. The oldest portion of the palace is the bastioned cantonment, which comprises a square wall and three corner towers built on the interior. The outer measurings of the about square palace are about 33×34 meters with walls 7 meters high enveloping the courtyard. The entryway was in the southwest portion of the wall, and the palace well was besides within the walls. The well was 12 meters deep, and handiness of H2O was a critical factor in supporting the cantonment, particularly during a besieging.

During the 2nd stage the basic design for the greystone garrison consisted of a ward about 13-14 meters square with a series of suites around it, with due consideration to the place of the three corner towers already built. Entrance to the suites was straight from the Bailey, encircling an country about 70×80 meters on all four sides, and the Windowss would all face inwards. The outer Bailey had at least two medieval towers ; the Dansker tower in the center of the side confronting the lake, and the Fatabur tower outside the northwest drape wall. A 3rd perchance mediaeval tower was the square gate tower in the south corner of the outer Bailey. The outer Bailey that were intended to protect the Teutonic Order ‘s palaces were constructed harmonizing to program and were built about uninterrupted in one stage. Hame Castle ‘s outer Bailey, nevertheless, shows marks of several edifice stages completed over a long period of clip. During it ‘s earliest, mediaeval constructing stage of outer Bailey, a defensive wall was constructed to protect the entryway gate to the chief palace. It ran from the south corner, protecting the south- and northwest sides, to the Dansker tower in the nor’-east outer Bailey country. With respect to defense mechanism, protecting the south- and northwest sides was of import because here the incline of the moraine ridge was gentler than on the other sides. Latest by the clip a new entryway was constructed in the sou’-east facade of the chief palace, the drape wall was extended besides to the north- and southeast sides. At this point the outer Bailey became a square defensive construction environing the full palace.

The lower parts of the drape wall were built of greystone and the upper parts were faced with brick on both sides. There was besides a wall walk along the top of the wall. Looking from Lake Vanaja the drape was at least 11 meters high, and in the in-between subdivision of the wall was the brick built Dansker tower, which has been used both as a latrine and for defense mechanism. The tower was built wholly in brick utilizing alleged monastic bond and is shaped like an about regular square, with the walls mensurating 6×6 meters and 1.5 meters in thickness. In the nor’-east frontage of the chief palace, right by the Dansker tower is a room access with a doorsill. This entryway could hold been used to entree the Dansker tower along a wooden span and to make the wall walk on the drape wall. The nor’-east outer ward sloped steeply outwards, because its intent was to map as a sort of defensive construction. The sou’-east outer ward was cobbled and inclined towards the nor’-east drape wall. Two troughs remain in the land ; they were built to transport off rainwater from the wards underneath the drape wall. In the east corner of the outer Bailey, in the protection of the sou’-east drape wall, was located what was likely a peculiarly of import topographic point for the palace ‘s dwellers – the brewery. The drape wall was besides 11 meters high where it protected the sou’-west and northwest outer wards. The west corner of the wall is thought to hold had a tower, and in the northwest wall was the brick-built Fatabur tower that rose to height of at least 13 meters. Mediaeval palaces had tower-like depots of garners that were called fataburs in Swedish. Textiles and narration were produced and shop in fataburs, and they were besides used as caches for the most valuable metal artifacts in the palace. A pentangular flanking tower in the northwest drape wall was used as a depot in Hame Castle. On the west side of the tower used to be a storage room where the kept woman of the depot worked with her amah. The Fatabur tower could be accessed via a wooden span from a room access in the chief palace ‘s northwest frontage.

The greystone wall of the old cantonment therefore served as the outer wall and the new walls on the bailey side were besides chiefly of greystone. Brick was used to joint the door and window ports and to dress the barrel vaults, which were one rock midst. Rooms 102 and 105 in the nor’-east wing, the big room ( 103 ) in the Northwest wing and room 104 in the West corner were built at this phase. There was likely another long room in the sou’-west wing, subsequently partly buried under the gate tower. Merely one room, the palace chapel ( 110 ) , was built in the sou’-east wing. The ward in forepart of the well was still portion of the chief courtyard. The old tower suites ( 101 and 114 ) were vaulted at this phase. The greystone stage is particularly interesting in that the suites built or finished so are still mostly in their original status. This is non the instance with the mediaeval Chamberss of the brick stage on the 1st floor, as all of them have been altered over the centuries. The greystone garrison can more decently be called a palace than the instead impermanent fortified cantonment of the old stage, Hame Castle was now for good occupied and the military fastness was replaced by the administrative edifice of the state of Hame and the feudal Godhead ‘s castle.

The 3rd building stage followed, and the gate tower was built during this clip, partially on top of the greystone palace but as an independent structural unit. On the southwest side of the wall, where the entryway was situated, was likely a wooden lift bridge to the gateway. At least one floor was used as life infinites in the 1st or 2nd floor, wholly consisting suites 106, 108, 206 and 209. Brick was already used for the interior walls and vaults. The Gate Tower is alone in mediaeval Finland palaces, stick outing out of the wall as it does. It is considered to be a contemplation of developments in European palace architecture in the latter half of the thirteenth century, when high towers, used for both defensive and residential intents, were in manner.

From the latter half of the fourteenth century to about 1500, the brick palace stage, must be considered as the most important building stage in the history of Hame Castle. The stuff used for edifice was brick, which was much better adapted than greystone to the demands of the Gothic manner, particularly when it came to detail. Earlier influences were overruled by new 1s from Germany, for illustration in the inside informations of ornamentation of the nor’-east ward wall. The approximative size of a brick at this point was 2800x1400x1000mm. The most of import alteration was the new, 2nd floor built for Chamberss and halls for ceremonial and residential intents. During this period besides the nor’-east and northwest wings were formed.

Finally, a dramatic event in the terminal of the fifteenth century lead to the last stage of the building ; the constructions of the north corner were no longer able to back up the weight of the vaults built during the early brick stage, and fell in. When mending of the harm was started, some changes were carried out every bit good ; the room temperament in both nor’-east and northwest wings was changed and the corner towers were raised, the South and east towers by a floor, the West and north towers by two floors. The brick size besides changed to around 3200-3500×1500-1600×900-1100mm. The first floor had a sort of warming system, an “ air range ” , which likely besides heated some of the other chamber on this floor. After finishing the corner towers, the wings between were covered with carinate roofs tending towards the interior ward.

After the last medieval constructing stage each of the palaces four corners had a tower. In the center of the wings, which are named after half-cardinal points, was an interior ward and there still remains a wooden gallery encircling it on the degree of the first floor built in the fifteenth century. The gallery provides entree into the suites on the first floor. The palace was surrounded by a drape wall, from which 1 could besides entree the first floor from the Fatabur and Dansker tower to the Northwest and Northeast wings. The palace ‘s wings had two existent residential floors, with some of the suites being located between the floors. On the 3rd floor was a defense mechanism transition which was covered by a steep roof inclining towards the interior ward.

What comes to the existent infinites of mundane life, research has made possible to acknowledge the intent of about every individual room in the fortress. The square interior ward has ever been the bosom of the palace ; it was used to traverse from the land floor suites to those on the other side, and at the first floor degree it was possible to walk along a wooden passageway connected with the palace ‘s most of import suites via beautiful portals. Stone steps up the ward made it possible to make the first floor without utilizing the narrow staircases inside the walls. Most of the land floor suites day of the month back to the first building stage in the late thirteenth century, and are the best preserved in the palace. Almost all the greystone walls and brick vaults are still in original status. Subsequently, when the first floor was finished, these suites became excess and were used for family jobs and storage. Some of the most interesting inside informations in the palace are the ward decorations in the deferral environing the chapel door at land degree and the upper subdivisions of the nor’-east and sou’-east wall. The brick ornamentation, ‘Windberge ‘ alliance of the bricks, is one of the most advanced illustrations of High Gothic in Finland.

As the land floor program shows, suites 114, 107 and 101 at the northern corner of the castle pervert from the line of the larger suites on the same floor. That is because these three suites used to be towers in the cantonment munition built in the 1260 ‘s. The room 102 is tardily dated back to the thirteenth century. The original great hall of the palace from the late thirteenth century every bit good, is the room 103, known as the Constable ‘s Chamber. The blackened vaults indicate that fume spread around when the room was being heated, in malice of the gaps made in the vault for airing. Room 104, built in the greystone garrison stage, is in the lone corner that did n’t hold a tower. Room 107 is considered to perchance been built at the first building stage, which would intend that it is the oldest barrel vault in the palace and one of the oldest in the full state. The contemporary greystone walls of the room show the edifice method of the clip. The rocks were equal in size and even approximately equal in form. With the aid of cuneus they were laid every bit equally as possible. The plaster was harsh but highly difficult. The cosmetic deferral of the room 110 reveals that it is more of import than the others ; the E to west location and the Markss on the wall interpreted as the remains of consecration crosses suggest that the room was used as a chapel in the late thirteenth century. Room 112, where the original well is situated, is below ward degree. In mediaeval times, room 115 served as a kitchen, cogent evidence of which can still be seen in the signifier of the base of the large oven in the northern corner.

In the in-between ages the first floor consisted of the Gate Tower and a series of halls and Chamberss. Originally these suites were meant for the Godhead of the palace and for those nearest him. The first floor suites make it possible to organize some sort of image of the life led in medieval palaces. Most of the suites were inguens or barrel vaulted, the Windowss were little, the walls whitewashed, and the floor either brick or boards. The suites were heated with unfastened hearths or air ranges, and the few pieces of furniture were benches or beds, tabular arraies and thoraxs. There were shock absorbers on the benches and knitted and fur screens were used. As a life infinite, the palace must hold been everything but healthy ; cold and dark, hard to heat and illume despite the legion amahs hired to maintain the hearths on at all times, even though the floors were made of wood and different sorts of drapes and wall apparels were hung to adorn and do the infinites cosier. During the earlier portion of the Middle Ages in Finland, the chief palace functioned as a abode for the castle staff every bit good, but after going excessively crowded for all, homes and working suites were built following to the protective drape wall and even outside it.

Part of the contemporary room 202 was destroyed in the collapsing mentioned earlier. The northeasterly window deferral with its seats used to be portion of one of the old smaller Chamberss and the southeast door lead to a span into the latrine tower. Room 203, known as the ‘Queens Chamber ‘ , was built in the late fourteenth century, and leads to the room 204, which is called the ‘King ‘s Hall ‘ or originally ‘Great Hall ‘ , which has exceeding six-partite vaulting in Finish palace architecture. Room 206 was the chief residential floor of the Gate Tower and following to it a little, closet-like infinite that used to belong to the gatekeeper. The following room, 208, was used to support the south tower and there was an gap taking to the room 107 straight below it. For Medieval life room construct, the room 212 fits the best, and the remains of a range in the northeasterly wall can still be viewed. Rooms 213 and 216 have likely been used as residential Chamberss by the Godhead of the palace himself. The hall of the northwesterly wing, room 216, was built in the fifteenth century.

Throughout the ulterior centuries the premises were grown by a bakeshop, a gatehouse tower, workshops, storage installations and a new guardhouse. In the seventeenth century the metropolis around the palace was developing and took the name Hameenlinna, the equivalent of Castle of Hame in Finnish. After going redundant in military sense, bastions and the palace fosse were added to the drape wall during the eighteenth century. After those add-ons, the palace was used as a prison in 1837-1953, before huge Restorations of the palace were carried through. During this period, in 1917, Finland attained independency from Sweden. In 1956 the Restoration works of most of the palace and its surrounding edifices were begun, take by an archeologist Knut Drake, 84, who wrote his thesis of the building stages of Hame Castle in 1968 in German. After a few decennaries, in 1980, Hame Castle was opened to the audience as a well restored but immensely original medieval palace museum. In 2007 the local newspaper wrote an article about the current status of the cherished memorial, and how some of its parts show marks of acquiring weathered. After that, the local congresswomans brought the issue to the Finnish parliament and subsequently same twelvemonth Hame Castle among other two Finnish medieval palaces were granted in entire 1,5 million Euros to restitute the blemished constructions. The beginning of the Restoration of Hame Castle is scheduled to take action by 2012.