The Celebrity Effect in Fast Fashion Industry

With the progressively ferocious market competition in manner industry, famous person consequence as a selling tool has become progressively popular for the manner trade name. Harmonizing to some analysis in United States in1995, about 20 % of the telecasting advertizements use celebrated individual as an subscriber ( Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995 ) . By 2000, this figure had been increased to 25 % ( Shimp, 2000 ) . The usage of the famous person consequence is going more widely in corporate on street advertizement and the manner debut in magazines. Without exclusion, famous person indorsement may increase trade name consciousness and materially better fiscal returns. ( Farrel et al, 2000 ; Edogan et Al, 2001 )

In recent old ages, H & A ; M and Zara have developed quickly around the universe. The fast manner trade names purchases by consumers widely. Fast manner is well-known by its speedy response to the manner tendency. This means clients can happen the latest manner from the manner shows or the famous person trends in the shops within short period. Furthermore, the effectual usage of famous person consequence is besides a cardinal point for their success.

In this essay, it will seek to calculate out the influence of famous person consequence in fast manner industry. It could impact both consumers and companies. The famous person consequence will act upon consumers chiefly via media and the consumers ‘ purchasing behaviour straight. On the other manus, the consequence on houses will be their strategic selling determination, the direct net income and the possible returns. Furthermore, this essay will utilize the instance survey of H & A ; M and Zara and offer a SWOT analysis in order to analyze this consequence in more item.

2. The usage of famous person subscriber on consumers

The famous person subscriber is defined as “ any person who enjoys public acknowledgment and who uses this acknowledgment on behalf of a consumer good by looking with it in an advertizement ” ( McCracken, 1989 ) . The preconceived image consumers have for any famous person subscriber will reassign to the endorsed trade name ( Atkin and Block,1983 ) . Firedman and Firedman ( 1979 ) found empirical grounds that, utilizing a famous person subscriber would convey a great credibility in advancing merchandises in psychological and/or societal hazard.

Furthermore, several surveies have shown that famous persons can hold a direct positive impact on advertisement likeability and besides an indirect consequence on trade name attitude and purchase purposes ( Pelsmacker et al, 2007 ) . For cases, the direction of Pepsi attributes its 8 % addition in gross revenues in 1984 to the Michael Jackson indorsement. Additionally, the Spice Girls were responsible for 2 % planetary market portion addition in 1997 ( Erdogan, 1999 ) . There are two sides which the famous person subscriber affects on the consumers foremost via the media and secondly by consumers ‘ ain purchasing behaviour.

2.1 Through the media

Celebrities are used extensively in about every industry particularly in the manner industry. They surely attract a batch of attending, non merely from the mark group, but besides from the media. The literature calculating out that famous person indorsement had by and large two foundational beginning theoretical accounts: the source-credibility theoretical account and the source-attractiveness theoretical account ( Erdogan, 1999 ) .

The source-credulity theoretical account is defined by Ohanian ( 1990 ) as “ a communicator ‘s positive features that affect the receiving system ‘s credence of a message ” . Harmonizing to the source-credibility theoretical account, the famous persons should be believable in other words that they are professional and trusty. The trustiness of an subscriber is defined as the grade to which the subscriber is perceived to be honorable and credible ( Till and Busler, 2000 ) .

On the other manus, based on the source-attractiveness theoretical account, “ attraction refers in this context to the grade that the famous person is known, is physically perceived to be attractive and is liked by the mark group ( Pelsmacker et al, 2007 ) ” .

Tungate ( 2008 ) showed that one time the famous persons put on one trade name of apparels, it will straight impact sale particularly for the fast manner trade name. The gross revenues of Jimmy-Choo Collection for H & A ; M from November 2009 had a satisfactory start with an addition of about 11 % compared to the same period as the old twelvemonth ( H & A ; M Financial Reports, 2009 ) . They could fabricate the latest manner in short period and sell them to the populace. The more the famous persons wore the stylish apparels in the media, the more inspiration provender into fast manner.

2. 2 Affect through consumers ‘ purchasing behaviour

To successfully take the manner tendency of ingestion, houses must fulfill the consumer ‘s psychological science and manner sense. Populating in the epoch of amusement, famous persons ‘ behaviours are ever concerned and copied by the populace. Therefore, it can be easy found the most stylish frocks from the magazine, Television or even the advertizements. Traditionally, consumer research workers have attacks decision-making from a rational position. In this point, consumers reorganize the information every bit much as possible calmly and carefully in order to acknowledge what they already know about a merchandise, fastidiously sing everything, and geting at a satisfactory determination ( Solomon et al, 2006 ) .

Celebrities could be defined as consumer ‘s consciousness, larning and mention groups. Bearden & A ; Etzel ( 1982 ) highlight that mention group influence on merchandise and trade name purchase determinations. In people ‘s day-to-day ingestion activities, mention groups lead consumers ‘ purchasing behaviour. Celebrities every move can impact their supporters. They imitate, learn to dress their manner in order to be closer their graven images. However, sing the cost, people could non afford the high street trade name greatly.

Mention groups affect consumers through the ends, criterions, norms and life styles. Celebrities can be trust as a mention group. They are besides the ingestion of goods consumed by the symbol. They by and large impact consumers in three ways. First, the famous person formation of group norms through the force per unit area of the consumer behaviour of people and tend to some sort of “ harmonisation ” . This uses famous person effects to consumers who have similar points with the force per unit area to run into consumer behaviour or consumer pick consistence ; Secondly, consumers trust to consumers capable to psychological, to increase merchandise trustiness ; Third, the consistence of famous person affect on consumer purchasing behaviour. When a consumer chooses to purchase a merchandise or merely taking a peculiar action, the famous persons featured in the merchandises will greatly act upon their pick, consumers will purchase before the factors to see in this respect ( Bearden & A ; Etzel,1982 ) . This offers a opportunity for the fast manner trade name which has the most stylish manner but the lowest monetary value.

3. The consequence on fast manner houses

The usage of famous person indorsement will besides act upon the company ‘s development. This is shown really clearly in the net incomes returns. The importance of famous person subscribers does non merely depend on the fact that those houses wish to increase gross, but besides show in adding value for the company, trade name or merchandise. The added value of famous persons through the procedure means a sort of transportation ( McCracken 1986,1989 ) .

3.1 The consequence of strategic selling determination

Celebrities lead the tendencies. It is non merely influence on the consumers ‘ behaviour but besides act upon the strategic selling determination for fast manner industry.

A figure of surveies about the economic value of strategic selling determinations are progressively attention-grabbing in selling literature. These surveies have examined “ the consequence of strategic selling determinations such as merchandise invention, research and development outgos, advertizement outgos, merchandise quality, and consumer satisfaction on house profitableness ( Capon, Farley, and Hoenig, 1990 ; Szymanski, Bharadwaj, and Varadarajan, 1993 ) . ” Therefore a turning figure of houses are seting more accent on famous person indorsement to heighten the value of advertisement and construct trade name equity. The economic returns from the investing in this signifier of advertisement will act upon many things from the initial design, betterment to marketing tool choice ( Agrawa & A ; Kamakura, 1995 ) .

Take Zara as an illustration, what the famous persons prefer or what shows in the manner hebdomad are the major inspiration Zara has. The design organisation is focused on careful reading of catwalk tendencies suited for the mass market. The Zara interior decorators attend the read-to-wear manner shows in Paris, New York, London, Milan and etc. They get inspirations from those shows and the frocks of the famous persons who attend these shows and get down to develop the initial studies for a aggregation near to nine months before the start of the season ( Ghemawat & A ; Nueno, 2003 ) .

Furthermore, the profitableness of the famous person indorsement advertisement scheme is besides a cardinal point that needs to be discussed. The impact of famous person indorsements shown in the old researches provided a batch of positions of famous persons publicizing and the consumer response to it. “ It is of import for a director to cognize whether a famous person indorsement scheme generates a favourable consumer response, every bit good as understand whether the economic returns justify the costs associated with such a scheme. ( Agrawa & A ; Kamakura,1995 ) “

3.2 The direct net income for utilizing famous person consequence

Celebrity indorsements are expensive for the company, nevertheless it is really utile. Depending on the position of the famous person, returns could be 1000000s of dollars for several old ages. The forte and cost of advertisement runs frequently rely on famous persons ( Agrawa & A ; Kamakura, 1995 ) . Managers will prefer the famous person indorsement as an investing in intangible assets and hope to countervail with greater hereafter gross revenues grosss and net incomes. Such as H & A ; M, it cooperated with several famous persons in order to utilize their repute to increase their gross revenues or even their trade name celebrity.

JIMMY CHOO for H & A ; M -Shoes in luxury stuffs Legendary accoutrements trade name Jimmy Choo created in fall 2009 a sophisticated, stylish guest aggregation of places and accoutrements along with a capsule vesture scope for work forces and adult females. From 14 November, 1000s of eager clients were given the opportunity to detect the aggregation, which was sold in around 200 selected metropolis shops. ( H & A ; M 2009 Annual Report, 2010 )

Furthermore, H & A ; M launched a aggregation which was typical Matthew Williamson-wonderful colorss and forms finely designed. A guest aggregation of underwear from Gallic manner house Sonia Rykiel was launched in clip for the Christmas season. ( H & A ; M 2009 Annual Report, 2010 )

Key ratios



Gross saless including VAT, SEK m



Gross saless excepting VAT, SEK m



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Operating border, %



Net income after fiscal points, SEK m



Net income for the twelvemonth, SEK m



Net incomes per portion, SEK ( before and after dilution )



Change, %



Tax return on equity, %



Tax return on capital employed, %



Share of risk-bearing capital, %



Equity/assets ratio, %



Entire figure of shops



Average figure of employees



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The gross revenues and net income rise evidently through the cooperation with famous persons. Therefore, utilizing the famous persons indorsements helped H & A ; M and brought it direct net incomes.

3.3 The possible returns

Open any manner magazines, the trade name advertisement can be seen in utilizing different methods of perform. Now, manner advertisement is going an progressively of import portion in trade name image constitution. Manner advertizements are non merely for simple apparels, accoutrements and cosmetics and other merchandises information, but besides for the trade name image of the “ overall visual aspect ” . Practice has shown that people consumes certain sorts of manner merchandises, non merely because their physical characteristics and practical maps meet their demands but besides because its advertisement promotes the abstract. Different sorts of advertizements contain different values and religious orientation, represents a different attitude to life, life style, life doctrine and political orientation ( Hu, 2001 ) .

For the international trade names, advertisement has long been be aftering and running an built-in portion of trade name development. A trade name ‘s success needs advertisement, but advertisement can non construct a trade name. A authoritative advertisement should be able to lift to the desire to purchase, because the original intent of advertisement to consumers is to buy goods. For illustration, Chanel ‘s celebrity non merely attracts consumers but is more attractive to famous persons, from actress Marilyn Monroe to Kate Moss, even if non as a trade name of specially appointed advocator, they are more willing to buy the points ( Tungate, 2008 ) .

4. Different manner of pull offing the trade names: H & A ; M and Zara

Comparing the concern scheme of H & A ; M and Zara, it is rather obvious that these two companies use different selling tools. H & A ; M tend to give rather big money in utilizing famous person consequence in order to heighten its net income and its trade name image. This offers consumers an image of ‘fashion and quality at the best monetary value ‘ . However, Zara, same as a fast manner house, uses a different attack and pass less on advertisement ( H & A ; M Annual Report 2009 & A ; Inditex Group Annual Report 2009, 2010 ) .


“ The house spends merely 0.3 per centum of its one-year turnover on advertisement ( Ghemawat & A ; Nueno, 2003 ) . ” Normally it is at the beginning of the gross revenues season or on the juncture of a new shop gap. The shop is considered its most effectual communicating tool.

“ Zara relies on its store windows to pass on its trade name image. Displaies are changed on a regular basis, harmonizing to plan sent by central offices, and are critical for Zara to stay seeable and entice clients. ” ( Kumar & A ; Linguri, 2006 )

H & A ; M

H & A ; M ‘s concern construct is to “ offer manner and quality at the best monetary value. ” ( H & A ; M Annual Report 2009,2010 )

“ Every twelvemonth H & A ; M launches a figure of major runs, which are complemented by smaller run. This increases the involvement around the new aggregations of the season. H & A ; M topographic points high demands on all communicating, which must ever be of the highest quality. H & A ; M uses all channels in its communicating. ( H & A ; M Website, 2010 ) “

Harmonizing to their different ways in selling, SWOT analysis will be used to happen the virtues and demerits and their hereafter development.

H & A ; M

Inditex ( Zara )


Started in 1947

About 2,000 shops in 35 markets and about 76,000 employees.

gross revenues including VAT SEK 118.7 billion ( 12,4 billion euros )

Lack of advertisement, merely 0.3 % of turnover.

Established in 1985

4,607 shops in 74 states and 92,301 employees

11,084 1000000s of euros in gross revenues

4 % of turnover spent on advertisement.


High trade name consciousness through the run with famous persons and Charity

Cooperate with famous persons to establish new merchandise lines

H & A ; M does non have any shop premises, which gives the company flexibleness

Own 8 trade names, each of which has a different and specific entreaty to offer to its clients

Rely on its store windows to pass on its trade name image

Preferred shop locations

Rapid response to market demands

Have ain mills ; easy to command the logistic ;

H & A ; M

Inditex ( Zara )


Costss batch on selling communications which influence a batch to the one-year net income.

Less trade names to run into clients ‘ demands

Not set up a impressive trade name image

Cost big sum of money in its logistic


Continuously cooperate with celebrated interior decorator in order to establish a popular aggregation

New market, new clients, new trade name image

Establish more new trade names

Devote more in advertisement in order to heighten trade name consciousness

Own mills, easy to command the quality

Quick response system acquire more consumer informations


More fast manner trade name turning into international market

The right of first publication for High street trade name


Carmen Lopez and Ying Fan, “ CASE STUDY Internationalization of the Spanish manner trade name Zara ” , Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management Vol. 13 No. 2, 2009 pp. 279-296

H & A ; M Annual Report 2009, Access from:

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Inditex Annual Report 2009, Access from:

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Jennifer E. Smith, “ Flattery or Fraud: Should Fashion Designs Be Granted Copyright Protection? ” Entree from: hypertext transfer protocol: //

It is rather clear that H & A ; M and Inditex Group both have advantages and disadvantages. H & A ; M focuses more on the selling communicating, while Inditex Group puts more accent on operation.

Since 2004, H & A ; M launched several merchandise lines utilizing celebrated interior decorators and manner icons. Designer coactions encouragement concern construct and makes the merchandises more attractive and desirable to clients. Furthermore, H & A ; M published four magazines a twelvemonth offering the clients know the manner tendency and cognize their new merchandises. “ H & A ; M keeps in close contact with the media, both to showcase our manner and to provide/information about H & A ; M. We besides communicate on a regular basis with the concern imperativeness and fiscal markets. ” ( H & A ; M Website, 2010 ) On the other manus, Inditex Group uses different selling scheme. It merely devoted 0.3 % in selling which merely in the beginning of a new shop unfastened which was one-tenth of ordinary manner trade name.

The suited utilizing of famous persons consequence brings H & A ; M a high rank of trade name value which ranks 63 and has a trade name value of 12,131 million US dollars in 2010. Zara was given with a rank of 80 which has a trade name value of 8,966 million US dollars. ( Millward Brown: Top 100 Most valuable planetary trade name 2010, 2010 ) Comparing this with the trade name value and the market value for both H & A ; M and Inditex, it could cognize as follows.

H & A ; M

Inditex ( Zara )

Brand Value

$ 12,131 million

$ 8,966 million

Market Value

SEK 337,521 million ( about $ 50,587 million )

31,442 million in euros ( about $ 40,119 million )

Percentage of trade name value in entire market value

24 %

22 %


H & A ; M Annual Report 2009, Access from:

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Inditex Annual Report 2009, Access from:

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Therefore, it means the famous person consequence has the stopping point relationship with the trade name image and besides the returns, particularly in the mutable fast manner industry.

5. Decision

Celebrity consequence influences both H & A ; M and Zara and their consumer through their ego infective. They have ever been the object of public concerns and the mention object. The purpose is for consumers to purchase more apparels which are similar with the famous persons and to cut down the distance between them. At the same clip they could demo their alone vision and nice gustatory sensation of manner. Celebrities give the famous person consequence for manner trade name selling and convey new life to the industry by enhance trade name image.

Celerity consequence plays a important function in fast manner trade names. It could develop a high trade name value. H & A ; M is rather successful in set uping it trade name image through the famous person consequence. That helps it rank the first in planetary entreaty industry and ranks 63 in all industry. The rank is much higher than another fast manner house, Inditex. As we have seen antecedently, high trade name value lead to high market value. Furthermore, the famous person consequence has the direct consequence to the per centum of trade name value in entire market value which shows that H & A ; M is 24 % and Inditex is 22 % . As a consequence, H & A ; M is more successful in branding than Inditex which means it is rather wise for fast manner houses to utilize the famous person consequence to set up trade name image and open the market. Furthermore, fast manner houses besides need to set more accent on this factor and utilize different channels of media to accomplish maximal efficiency, and maximal consequence in their overall selling program such as Fashion magazines, Television shows, Television plans, advertizements, web and etc.

Celebrities bring their ain positive consequence on the selling of fast manner trade name. Their engagements in fast manner trade name ‘s runs offer consumers a usher for manner. However, for trade names, they get an advertisement chance for their new aggregation from the famous persons and the trade name image enhanced. This is a common benefits state of affairs for both consumers and fast manner companies.