This study reviews the literature on quality of work life ( QWL ) in footings of its significance and concepts, specifically contrasting the Mauritanian populace sector and the private sector. The definitions of sustainable work life and QWL are first reviewed in order to come up with a conclusive significance of QWL. Second, the tendencies in the populace sector and private sector are reviewed to infer where both sector stands in Mauritius presents. Third, the constituents of QWL are discussed and how these factors are present in both sectors.
Meaning of Sustainable Work Life Quality
1.1 Sustainable Work Life
Nick Paton ( 2003 ) suggests that to be able to achieve a sustainable on the job life, the employment rate must be high plenty such that productiveness criterions are met and there could be a lessening in ill-health costs, early retirement and invalidness pensions. However, this definition ignores the leisure clip, working environment and households which were considered by Green Party. It believes that good industrial dealingss, just wage, guaranteed occupation, safe working conditions, equal leisure clip, community activities, friends and households are besides critical in order to vouch a sustainable on the job life. Besides it besides considers the fact that workers should hold equal bargaining power so that they do non necessitate fiscal support from the authorities to gain a just income.
The most recent literature is from Wendy Koolhaas and others ( 2010 ) . Harmonizing to them, a cardinal factor for accomplishing a sustainable on the job life is ‘Staying healthy at work ‘ by:
( 1 ) Changing the consciousness and behaviour of workers by giving them more autocracy refering certain determinations
( 2 ) Bettering the ability of supervisors to take action in footings of competence development of the employees ; and
( 3 ) Exploiting to the fullest human resource professionals ( HRPs ) and occupational wellness tools available within the organisation.
1.2 Quality Of Work Life
Suttle ( 1977 ) defines QWL as the extent to which workers are able to fulfill of import personal BASIC demands through their experience in the organisation. However, this definition neglects the fact that the concept of QWL ( to be discussed subsequently on ) invariably evolves due to ever-growing demands of each and every employee and that it is extremely subjective. In the modern-day work environment, persons are more concerned about their high degrees demands as highlighted in Abraham Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory.
Hackman and Oldhams ( 1980 ) argue that an first-class QWL is come-at-able when the work environment is able to carry through the personal demands of employees. They further argue that the personal demands are satisfied when wagess from the organisation, such as publicity, compensation, development and acknowledgment meet their outlooks. Parallel to this definition, Lawler ( 1982 ) defines QWL in footings of occupation features and work conditions. Harmonizing to him, an organisation should take at bettering the wellbeing and productiveness of employees to be able to heighten the QWL and the nexus between these two variables is occupation design. However, Lawler accepted the fact that QWL is complex, because it comprises mental and physical wellbeing of employees.
Mauritanian Public Sector and Private Sector
Work life in the private sector is usually deemed to be feverish and many times nerve-racking. In the touristry sector, people normally work on a displacement footing, even at bitty hours ; hence flexible work is non possible. In the building industry, the type of work required is non easy as it is physically much demanding. The Information and communications engineering sector require immature individuals who have less responsibilities and duties in their personal life. The fiscal sector employees are really much affected by traffic congestion since the belief that clip is money holds true for them ( Ministry of Lab our, 2005 ) .Measures that will impact work life of Mauritians have besides been proposed in the 2010 Budget such as heightening fight of the fiscal services sector and to advance the state as an attractive tourer finish. ( Budget brief of Mauritius Employers Federation, 2010 ) .
On the other manus, the populace sector is nowadays concentrating on many undertakings which aim to upgrade the substructure in the state and at the same clip to heighten efficiency in the sector. Mauritius is puting in its route substructure to a great extent so to let for better circulation of vehicles, thereby cut downing traffic congestion well and this will positively impact the work life of people. Work hours are non the same for all public sector employees as undertakings and responsibilities of members differ from one another in footings of the nature of work. Appointment and publicity depends on the specific service committee. The age bound to fall in the public service is 35 old ages. The ministry decides about the wage and fringe benefits of the populace sector employee. Vacancies are to be filled when it is necessary to make so. A medical scrutiny is besides required.
Theoretical Concepts of Quality of Work Life
Normally it is said that employees are the most valuable assets of a company. The work clime in any organisation is recognized as confering imperative benefits on workers ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Carr et al, 2003 ) . A good established environment is believed to hold positive impact on employees work life and direction must guarantee this, be it in the private or public sector. For the employees work provides a beginning of income, sense of assurance and fulfilment, and the work topographic point may be regarded as a beginning of community in today ‘s high tech and fast-paced universe. However, harmonizing to research employees will hold different perceptual experience about their work clime since they base themselves on what they experience separately at the workplace ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Peterson and Smith, 2000 ) .
Many directors think that degree of employee public presentation on the occupation is relative to his wage. Though this might keep true in a minority of instances but the fact is that salary additions and fillips for public presentation, in many fortunes, have a really limited short-run consequence. Thus it can be concluded that the excess money is regarded as an entitlement non incentive.
It is the quality of the employee ‘s work environment that most impacts on their degree of motive and subsequent public presentation. The chief concern is how good they engage themselves in the organisation peculiarly with their environment ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Ostroff,1993 ) . And this significantly impact on their mistake rate, degree of invention, relationship with their co-workers, degree of absenteeism and finally for how long they stay in the occupation. In many instances employees have been go forthing their occupation because of the relationship with their immediate director or supervisor.
Main concern at any workplace is chiefly the classical dimension which incorporates the physical working conditions, the employees ‘ public assistance, job-related factors and employees ‘ aid. The other one being the modern-day dimension including wellness and safety issues, staffs ‘ engagement in direction determination, work life balance and so on. Accidents can impact the economic efficiency. Therefore, employees working in risky environment are insured against hurts, diseases and disabilities. Safety measures helps non merely to increase the workforce morale but to be productive. There are usually three chief causes of accidents. First being the human cause likewise wellness status, degree of experience and psychological factors. Second is the proficient cause such as usage of faulty equipment, risky agreement, hapless care and house-keeping. Third we have the environment itself like for case work being done in dim visible radiation, the country is non well-ventilated, overcrowding of employees working in one room, humidness at the topographic point of work which straight affects the forces ‘s wellness, long hours of work or covering with high velocity and noisy machines for extended hours.
Other environment factors include goal-setting, that is personnel engagement in puting meaningful aims for their occupation. Organizations devise formal and informal constructions for honoring their employees and this can be regarded as a beginning of motive. Consequently invention and coaction between direction and employees will make a positive work atmosphere.
Supervisor support is another component, whereby he acts on behalf of employees by administering the needful resources in order for them to make a good occupation. Immediate directors try to heighten the employees ‘ assurance and in most instances this provides a positive encouragement. Organizations guarantee that proper mentoring and coaching are carried out and those wise mans can be either internal or external to the organisation. They will help employees in developing new accomplishments and execute better in their current function. For the forces to be pattern their freshly acquired accomplishments equal clip and stuff are made available to them and why non since all concerns are runing in a disruptive environment. In a manner they try to minimise the staffs ‘ mistake rate and client dissection by providing those occupation AIDSs.
To what extent employees have an agreement among themselves reflect the clime strength of any public or private organisation ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Dickson et Al, 2006 ) . If there is high consensus among the forces it represents a strong environment but low consensus among staff consequences in weak environment ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Mischel, 1977 ) . The strong environment encourages more or less standard expectancies about organisational public presentation whereas in weak state of affairss people need to hold an appropriate behaviour attack towards their work environment. They need to conform to norms laid by the organisation ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Schneider et Al, 2002 ) . There exists a positive relationship between the forces ‘s psychological facet and work environment ( Vianen and Pater, 2009, adapted from Bliese and Halverson, 1998 ) .
In promoting the work force public presentation in today ‘s competitory environment, money is non the primary incentive. The organisations will hold to make a comfy on the job environment. Time and energy will hold to be given so as to supply public presentation inducements, directors have to prosecute employees in objective-setting, paramount here is the human to human interaction by promoting and back uping staff separately.
Health and wellbeing of Quality Work Life ( QWL ) refers to physical and psychological facets of an person in any on the job environment. Iacovides, Fountoulakis and Kaprins ( 2003 ) revealed that the higher the occupation demand, the higher the strain work environment will be, therefore impacting the wellness and wellbeing. However, good wellness and psychological status are ensured with unstrained work environment which proves good to employees in both private and public sector to execute the occupation and non-work related maps comfortably. In other words, an unstessful work environment leads to comfortable work life.
On the other manus, high force per unit area at work has led to physical unwellness and psychological upsets. Stress has been harmful to our muscular system and circulation, therefore taking to the hazard of myocardial infarction. Employees, being exposed over two old ages in high strain work environment, are subjected to higher systolic blood force per unit area. Furthermore, another signifier of emphasis such as depression and anxiousness has been harmful to wellness. Assorted symptoms of emphasis that can turn out to be harmful to occupation public presentation, wellness and can even endanger the ability to get by with the environment, have been developed, in due class, by employees in both private and public sector.
The coming of information engineering ( IT ) has no uncertainty been the most amazing phenomenon of the 20th century. The figure of users multiplied drastically in merely a affair of decennary doing it clear that the IT offers countless advantages to which adult male has become addicted today. However, despite all the benefits, the drawbacks are really unsafe. The universe is a paralytic one if entree to internet is halted.
Harmonizing to Blatter and Bongers ( 2002 ) , and Cardosa and Wan Fauziah ( 1994 ) , there has been a important addition in work related upsets like musculoskeletal jobs in the information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) work environment due to routine work and severely designed instruments such as computing machines and furniture. IT professionals have been to the full exhausted and a autumn in their cognitive abilities has been clearly noticed due to the humdrum work environment that affects their encephalon. Research has besides shown that the figure of IT professionals, sing the Occupation Safety and Health results like musculoskeletal upsets, emphasis, and work related ill leave, has increased well.
Jobs in the environment of ICT have become a critical factor because a new set of stressors that are physically demanding, have been involved. The force per unit area of get the hanging the IT revolution, day-to-day defeats and sudden breaks of package bugs or system clangs have led to techno emphasis ensuing in work intensification and work topographic point emphasis. Technocrats have developed symptoms of techno emphasis which include backache, unsure piques, ulcers, acne, insomnia, low morale and occupation hopping.
A serious policy enterprise on computing machine users has been suggested by Cardosa and Wan Fauziah ( 1994 ) as there had been heated statement that the worker ‘s wellness should non be sacrificed for the interest of greater productiveness and efficiency in the industry. Furthermore, the continuance and the frequence of computing machine usage have significantly risen the wellness hazard of users ( Blatter and Bongers, 2002 ) , Most of the research conducted, signifies a significant rise in cervix, shoulder and manus or carpus job among all those who have spent longer hours with hapless biotechnologies patterns while working on computing machines.
Conclusively, bar schemes from hapless wellness and wellbeing must be adopted to guarantee a good QWL at workplace. Factors conveying approximately physical and psychological orders should be suppressed at an early phase for a good QWL confidence in the private and public sector. Stress direction techniques and complementary medical specialty can non decide the job wholly, although they have got some positive impact such as short term alleviation of strains. The bar schemes should put more accent on the conditions of work, alterations that occur in the work topographic point and besides the relationship between the occupation contexts. Furthermore, in order to do the staff experience comfy at work, these bar schemes must be of healthy and humanistic nature. Therefore, an unstressful workplace means a feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction derived by the employees from working, therefore taking to good wellness and wellbeing.
Job security is one of the nucleus facets QWL, particularly in the modern-day concern universe, where changeless retrenchment and outsourcing has become common pattern to prolong competitory advantage ( Watson et al, 2003 ) . However these have taken its toll on employee morale, trueness, motive and perceived occupation security. Job security is the ability of a house to supply a grade of permanency to employees ‘ current occupation place such that stableness in work life can be achieved ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008 ) .
Furthermore, the international climbing unemployment rates and outsourcing tendencies have drawn greater attending on the much researched issue ( Probst,2003 ) . Therefore, it can be observed that even though Mauritius may pattern comparatively moderate unemployment rate, hapless work environment and ensuing hapless QWL may ensue if there is low occupation security.
Numerous research have been carried out on the impact of occupation security, one of them seeking to happen the nexus between occupation security and attitude conducted by Rosenblatt and Ruvio ( 1996 ) which indicated that occupation insecurity had an negative relationship with organisational committedness and perceived public presentation.
However, one of the new issues and tendencies originating in the concern universe, is the addition in undertaking based working agreements, whereby a squad of high value endowment professionals are hired upon contract. This new manner of work, regarded as the pick of employees, suggests that occupation security may non be so of import to the modern-day work force, as argued by critics and it can even be observed that seeking to retain high value endowments and nucleus workers is going of import to employers to continue long work civilization ( Cooper, 1998 ) .
The ability to accomplish better QWL by supplying occupation security is going a critical factor in the attempt to accomplish a competitory border over rivals and organisations strive to retain valued professionals through assorted agencies. However, altering employers as a calling scheme is going a world for modern professionals although most organisations provide occupation security.
A stable transmutation of the bing work force worldwide is being noticed by research workers and it will non take long for Mauritius to be affected every bit good. The transmutation is mostly in footings of high turnover civilization and the addition in cognition workers, emphasizes the importance of occupation satisfaction. Typically, occupation satisfaction is defined as the degree of positive attitudes that employees have and form towards their occupations or occupation state of affairs that better QWL ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008 ) . This definition, nevertheless, fails to integrate the cognitive and behavioural facets of the to a great extent studied subject.
Cognitive facet relates to the employee ‘s perceptual experience about his occupation. For illustration, an employee may happen his occupation stimulating and interesting. The behavioural constituent is reflected through the actions the employee exhibits and this may good be based upon the employee ‘s belief about his occupation ( the cognitive facet ) . For illustration, the action of regular attending, work dedication and committedness to the organisation reflects positive behaviour which in bend indicates occupation satisfaction ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008 ) .
The factors that affect the sensed impression of occupation satisfaction may differ among employees. For illustration, wage fiting the outlooks of the employee may be of import to one individual, but to person it may be disputing undertakings. Research shows that wage, supervising, peer colleague support and working hours are connected to occupation satisfaction ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008, adapted from Watson et Al, 2003 ) . Furthermore, hapless wage and calling development programs contribute to occupation dissatisfaction ( Martinsons and Cheung, 2001 ) . The employee may compare his compensation and wagess with that of rivals ‘ employees and in instance these are comparatively low, it may trip employees to go forth the organisation.
Therefore it is of import to cognize whether employees are satisfied or non. The conditions for sensed occupation satisfaction may change among the two sectors or even among persons, but the general base used in analyzing QWL in this facet remains good working environment that allow the maximal development of employee potency, employees ‘ pride of tie ining with the organisation and a sense of belonging ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008 ) .
A stable transmutation of the modern-day work force towards cognition workers is being noted by research workers such that competence development for employees at all degrees is going the key for organisational success in today ‘s competitory and complex concern universe. There is a strong consensus that employees need to constantly upgrade their cognition and accomplishments base in order to stay employable ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008 ) . This may be important in the private sector because of the greater grade of competition faced. A occupation should supply chances for accomplishments and knowledge growing by incorporating greater undertaking assortment, undertaking discretion and other development chances to develop competence which is important for sustainable QWL ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008, adapted from Jarvenpaa and Eloranthay, 2001 ) .
Competences may non merely be developed through formal preparation, but through workplace preparation and self managed preparation. Knowledge Management Systems which are used to research and pull off the rational plus of the organisation is a comparatively new construct in Mauritius and will necessitate extended organisational civilization alteration such that the system may take clip to be introduced. Alternatively, the state may trust on more traditional factors such as higher liberty in the signifier of greater duty and undertaking complexness to take to better usage of single capablenesss. Furthermore, higher degree of engagement is a manner of advancing cognitive accomplishments through a transportation of cognition among employees ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008, adapted from Scully et Al, 1995 ) . These chances will hold guide towards sustainable QWL because it expands the employee cognition base and helps the employee to hold a holistic position of the organisation hence assisting in fulfilling self realization demands amongst others. In contrast, high occupation demands, coupled with lesser liberty cut down the chances for competence development and therefore implement negative attitudes and emphasis which deteriorate QWL ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008 ) .
Furthermore, it can be noted that new professionals frequently seek competencies related to creativeness, flexibleness and squad work ( Martinsons and Cheung, 2001 ) , while experient 1s seek to develop undertaking direction, interpersonal accomplishments and concern cognition ( Rethinam and Ismail, 2008, adapted from Jarvenpaa and Eloranthay, 2001 ) .
Furthermore, the competence development plans and tools that can be used are ; FOCUS training plan, Building Competency Models workshop, on-line eDevelopera„? , Pull offing Performance and development competences Video based plan, 360° degree feedback instruments amongst others[ 1 ].
It is indispensable to understand the constituents of QWL in footings of the work environment supplying chances for the development of indispensable competences such that the professionals are allowed to spearhead in their callings and good QWL becomes ensured.
Work and non-work life balance
The work and household life has an of import facet on life quality. In fact some research workers found out that a struggle usually occurs between the functions in the household sphere and in the work ( Samsinar Md-Sidin and Murali Sambasivan, 2008, adapted from Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985 ) . It refers to the force per unit areas of function from the household and work sphere that are unreconcilable in some regard. The members of household are happening troubles in playing their function both at personal and non personal life.
Today more adult females and work forces are go forthing the traditional life behind and are traveling more towards equality whereby both parties are holding multiple societal functions. Along with their nucleus duty towards their kids and house, adult females have besides indulged in a paid occupation. This has progressively led to struggle between personal ( household ) and work life. This dissension is depended on certain factors like the organisation that employed them, the sort of occupation they are assigned to, the societal, economic and cultural environment in which they live ( Baiyln, 1992 ) . Consequently, the employees in the sectors might endure from high degrees of emphasis which will impact the productiveness degree, satisfaction and committedness with their organisations. There might be more absenteeism and redundancies ( Adams et al. 1996 ; Boles et Al. 2001 ; Frye and Breaugh, 2004 ) .
The impact of the above struggle was studied in many theories:
The Role Enhancement theory ( Crouter, 1984 ; Kinnunen et al. , 2006 ) ;
The Gender-Role Expectation theory ( Galinsky et al. , 1991 ; Higgins and
Duxbury, 1994 ) ; and
The Role Stress theory ( Judge et al. , 1994 ; Katz and Kahn, 1978 ) ;
The Compensatory theory ( Staines, 1980 ) ;
The Spillover theory ( Staines, 1980 ) ;
The Self-Identity theory ( Schlenker, 1987 ) .
Among these six theories the spillover theory developed by Staines, 1980 is suggested as most efficient which identifies similarity between what occurs in the household and work environment. In other words, it highlights how the employees bring in their attitudes, accomplishments, emotions and behaviour that they create at work into their household and frailty versa. This procedure can be either negative or positive. The negative spillover lead to emphasize in persons while the positive spillover encourages increased satisfaction at work and household.
In order to cover with the struggle, ( Samsinar Md-Sidin and Murali Sambasivan, 2008, adapted from Brough and Pears, 2005 ) identified that societal support plays an indispensable function. To his perspective societal support received chiefly from the co-workers, supervisors at work and from partner in household reduces the emphasis. The societal support obtained at work helps with sharing information and work outing complexnesss while the societal support at place aid to decrease the emphasis caused by work-family struggle.