Amalgamations and acquisitions ( M & A ; A ) are one of the strategic options that organisations adopt to confront the planetary competition. However, research shows that big figure of amalgamations and acquisitions has failed to accomplish their stated purposes. The rather frequently ground for this failure could be the issues of cultural differences and these differences would be rock-hard between the cross-border companies. This study discusses the acquisition of US-based Reebok International Limited ( Reebok ) by German based Adidas-Salomon AG ( Adidas ) . The purpose of this study is to look at the nucleus purpose of this merger/acquisition and to happen out up to what widen these purposes have been achieved. The first portion of the study discusses the background of the trade so explains the declared purposes of the acquisition. The 2nd portion of the study analysis the accomplishment of stated purposes and so concluding portion present the decision of the study.
Background of instance:
In ( August 3, 2005 ) , Adidas ( the German athleticss company and the universe ‘s second-biggest athleticss goods shaper after Nike ) announced the plane to get the Reebok International Ltd at an approximated value of a‚¬ 3.1 billion ( $ 3.78 billion ) include premise of net hard currency of a‚¬ 69 million ( US $ 84 million ) . Reebok stockholder will have US $ 59.00 per portion in hard currency. August 2, 2005, this offer monetary value signifies a 34.2 % premium over the shutting monetary value of Reebok ( Reference 1 ) .
The trade attracted attending because it would unite the figure two and figure three athleticss footwear and leisure vesture makers and bring forth a pudding stone with about $ 11 billion in one-year gross revenues. Nike at this point a leader in filed and earns $ 13.7 billion in gross revenues ( Reference 2 ) . However, the trade besides drew attractive force because of the difference in the companies ‘ civilization, history, mark clients, corporate scheme, and mark market.
Sudden consequence of market:
Harmonizing to Sudarsanam et al. , 1996 that markets reacts on trades and on August 10, Reebok portion increased sum of $ 13.19 to shut at $ 57.14. However, portion monetary value has fallen to $ 56.70 within one month, as of September 9. On August 9, Adidas portion monetary value has besides seen addition of 7.4 % on the German stock market ( David C. cited at ( Reference 2 ) .
Need for acquisition:
Before the amalgamation, Adidas had a market capitalisation of about $ 8.4 billion, twelvemonth before it had gross revenues of $ 8.1 billion and reported net income of $ 423 million. Reebok had a sale of about $ 4 billion and reported net income of $ 209 million. Furthermore, Harmonizing to 2004 figures by the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association International ( Reference 3 ) , Adidas had 8.9 % and Reebok 12.2 % market portion in the athletic-footwear market in the U.S whereas Nike had about 36 % . While analysts opined that the purpose of the amalgamation was clear because Adidas was figure two featuring goods maker worldwide, but it was fighting in the U.S. ( the biggest sports-shoe market of the universe ) . Adidas was considered to hold comfy merchandises with good quality whereas Reebok was seen as a hip-hop trade name. Nike has both the qualities. So, clearly it would be better to vie together than divide against Nike. In add-on to that Adidas was confronting a difficult competition with Puma ( the figure four featuring goods trade name ) , after the declaration of enlargement programs through entry into new sportswear country and acquisition ( Reference 3 ) .
Closing of acquisition:
On January 31, 2006, Adidas-Salomon AG closed the acquisition trade with Reebok with a footmark of around a‚¬9.5 billion ( $ 11.8 billion ) in the universe athleticss leisure vesture, footwear and hardware market ( Reference 4 ) .
Chairman and CEO of the Adidas Herbert Hainer said that we are really happy with trade and the combination of two respectful trade names will open a new history of our group. The sets are good established so they would still be traded individually. Furthermore, The Germany, Herzogenaurach, will stay the central office of the group. Adidas North America Inc. will stay its central offices in Portland, Oregon, and Reebok will retain its central office in Canton, Massachusetts ( Reference 4 ) .
Aim of Acquisition:
The cardinal motivations of Adidas and Reebok were to go a planetary participant worldwide and pass on its rivals through sweetening in portfolio of the planetary trade names which truly asses the demand of dynamic demand of its consumers. Adidas believed that combination will make synergism. The group expect that they can accomplish some strategic and fiscal benefits after the acquisition.
The group ‘s thought the first and the foremost important purpose was to widen geographical range and more balanced gross revenues profile. Reebok was good established in North America and Adidas wants to spread out its concern in North America. Because the 50 % of the planetary sporting goods market represented by North America. The Adidas believed that with the aid of Reebok their group gross revenues in North America will more than double to a‚¬3.1 billion ( U.S. $ 3.9 billion ) . Furthermore, Adidas has strong control in Europe and Asiatic market and has considerable selling expertness. So, Adidas wants to portion their expertness with Reebok and expects to further develop Reebok presence in these countries ( Reference 5 ) .
Second, they thought the acquisition will unite the world-class and gifted employees. The group will be benefited from talented and experient employees every bit good as employees will hold even more callings chances ( Reference 5 ) .
Third, the new group will be benefited from the broader portfolio of world-renowned trade names. The well established trade names could better function the dynamic demands of the consumers and offer merchandises that serve the demands of American athleticss market ( Reference 5 ) .
Fourthly, the combine group will hold better presence across squads, participants, conferences and events which will increase the world-wide visibleness of its trade names. Finally, the acquisition will heighten the R & A ; D capablenesss and give engineering advantage ( Reference 5 ) .
Adidas-Salomon AG anticipates that the acquisition will hike their earning and create operation synergisms which help them to cut down cost. Furthermore, the robust operating hard currency flow of Adidas group will beef up the group and aid to cut down their debts. The group fiscal purposes are as follows ( Reference 5 ) .
Gradual better in net incomes: Group net incomes per portion will better in the first full twelvemonth after shutting.
Return in surplus of cost of capital: The acquisition will bring forth return in surplus of cost of capital in the 3rd full twelvemonth after shutting.
Robust operating hard currency flow: The acquisition will bring forth adequate hard currency that strengthen the group place and enable it to cut down debt and go on funding the group ‘s established growing enterprises.
Extensive operating synergism: The foremost important purpose of the acquisition to make an operating synergism that will cut down one-year cost of about a‚¬125 millionA ( U.S. $ 150 million ) by the 3rd twelvemonth after shutting. Furthermore, the group expects the incremental gross and net incomes from all the consumer sections.
Accomplishment of purposes:
The 2nd portion of my study will analyze the Adidas group public presentation harmonizing to its purposes stated at the clip of acquisition. First of all we will analysis the fiscal purposes and so travel on to strategic purposes.
The Adidas group said that it ‘s gaining will hike after the stopping point of first twelvemonth. As we can see the tabular array attached in appendix, net incomes per portion were a‚¬2.37 for 2006 ; it increased in 2007 and reached to a‚¬ 2.71. That was group ‘s purpose and they have successfully achieved its first purpose. Their net incomes per portion have still increased in 2008 and reached to a‚¬ 3.25 per portion. However, these net incomes per portion have been calculated on less figure on portion so they had before. In 2008 they reduced their figure of outstanding portion by 5.0 % . Furthermore, the group could non keep their net incomes per portion and it fallen in 2009 and they merely declare a‚¬ 1.25 per portion. The ground for this diminution is really clear ; first their net income has well low in 2009 and back their figure of portions has increased about by 8 % . However, their group purpose was really simple that to bit by bit increase the net incomes per portion by the terminal of first full twelvemonth after the amalgamation which is really obvious from all the amalgamation surveies that net incomes per portion frequently addition after the first twelvemonth.
The 2nd purpose was that the return in surplus of cost of capital and 3rd purpose was to bring forth a healthy operating hard currency flow. As harmonizing to group return on capital employed, it showed an addition in 2007 and merely somewhat lower in 2008. So, from 2006 to 2008 return on capital employed was good and they were acquiring return surplus than capital employed. However, in 2009 return on capital employed has declined and reached to 11.3 % which is still good but less than earlier. But there basic purpose was that return would excess that cost of capital at the stopping point of 3rd full twelvemonth which was surplus. Furthermore, their purpose was to bring forth more hard currency flow to cut down their debts. So, in 2006 to 2007 their operating hard currency flow place was really healthy and they have successful to cut down their debts but 2008 shows the diminution in their operating hard currency flow and net adoption have increased once more. That was the negative side of the acquisition.
The chief purpose of acquisition was to bring forth the operating synergism which would cut down the cost and increase the gross and net income from all the consumer sections. So, the gross border of the Adidas Group increased from 2006 to 2008 and increased 1.3 per centum points to 48.7 % in 2008 ( 2007: 47.4 % ) ( Appendix attached ) . This is the highest one-year gross border for the Group since the IPO in 1995. This development was mostly because of an bettering regional mix, farther own-retail enlargement and a more favorable merchandise mix. The acquisition generates cost synergism which leads to increase gross revenues gross for the Adidas group reached to a‚¬10.799 billion in 2008 versus a‚¬10.084 billion in 2006. Furthermore, gross net income of the Adidas group reached to a‚¬ 5.256 billion versus a‚¬ 4.495 billion in 2006. Same as, the net incomes before involvement revenue enhancement and deprecation ( EBTIDA ) , runing net income, gross net income border, runing net income border, and the net income attributable to stockholders increased from 2006 to 2008. These fiscal accomplishments assist them to accomplish their strategic purposes such as sweetening in the research and development capablenesss and better position for employees. We can besides see in appendix that the figure of employees has been bettering since 2006. That reflects that group is turning bit by bit every bit good as supplying better occupation callings for employees.
However, Adidas Group gross revenues grew in all parts except North America which contradicts with its chief strategic purpose that to diversify its concern in North America because of biggest athleticss market. But in North America, Group gross revenues has been continuously worsening since 2006 ( a‚¬3.234 billion ) and reached to a‚¬2.520 billion in 2008 ( appendix attached ) . In 2007 group gross in North America declined to 9 % as compared to 2006 and in 2008 the gross declined significantly by 14 % as compared to 2007. It besides contradicts with its 3rd most of import fiscal purpose that the group gross would increase in all consumer parts but this part has demoing uninterrupted diminution. Furthermore, a intelligence article written by Lefton T, cited at ( cite 6 ) , presents some findings which reflects that since 2006, Nike U.S. market portion of athletic footwear has been continuously bettering since 2006 and rose to 34.61 % in 2008 ( 2006: 29.73 % ) and Adidas and Reebok have lost their U.S. market portion of athletic footwear. Adidas reached to 5.86 % in 2008 as compared to 10.62 % in 2006 and Reebok dropped to merely 2.66 % in 2008 as compared to 4.68 % in 2006.
* Does non include the Nike-owned Jordan or Converse trade names.
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sportsbusinessjournal.com/article/62189
These grounds shows that acquisition ‘s nucleus purpose has non to the full achieved but this coup d’etat generates the new value such as group public presentation is acquiring better in all other section like Latin America and specially Europe and Asiatic part. The group gross has significantly increased in these sections and group is now perforating to new European and Asiatic markets. Particularly, group gross has shown a important addition in Asiatic market in 2007 it increase by around 12 % as compared to 2006 and in 2008 gross increased by 18 % as compared to 2007 ( appendix attached ) . This considerable addition shows that group combination making new value which is exemplify the study presented by direction advisers Hay Group, Dangerous Liaisons: Amalgamations and Acquisitions – The Integration Game, reveals that 91 per cent of amalgamations fail to accomplish their declared aims. aˆ¦ In add-on, good under a 3rd – 28 per cent – of concern leaders told Hay Group that their amalgamation created important new value. “ Adrie new wave lair Luijt cited at: ( refrence7 ) .
The study aimed to analyze the declared motivations of the acquisition and to judge up to what extent those motivations have been achieved. The Adidas and Reebok chief purpose was to diversify their concern in North America because of biggest athleticss dress and footwear market and besides to pass on its rival Nike from this part. The grounds presented above shows that the group have failed to accomplish its chief purpose and now emerging to new European and Asiatic markets. These grounds are typify the study presented by direction advisers Hay Group that 91 % amalgamations or acquisition failed to accomplish their sated purposes.
Adidas Background Acquisition Information: Retrieved March 05, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.adidas-group.com/en/pressroom/archive/2005/2005_08_03b.aspx
Share monetary value consequence information: Retrieved March 05, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //media.www.themsj.com/media/storage/paper207/news/2005/09/12/Sports/AdidasSalomon.Ag.Acquires.Reebok.Sets.Sights.On.Nike-982090.shtml
Market portion information: Retrieved March 06, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //management-case-studies.blogspot.com/2008/03/adidas-reebok-merger-case-study.html
Need of the acquisition: Retrieved March 06, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.adidas-group.com/en/pressroom/archive/2006/2006_01_31.aspx
Purposes of the acquisition: Retrieved March 06, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.adidas-group.com/en/pressroom/archive/2005/2005_08_03a.aspx
What ‘s following for Reebok? ‘Fun and fit ‘ by terry Lefton intelligence article: Retrieved March 06, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sportsbusinessjournal.com/article/62189
Report by direction advisers Hay Group, Dangerous Liaisons: Amalgamations and Acquisition: Retrieved March 01, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //dofonline.co.uk/economy/less-than-one-third-of-mergers-creates-new-value9284.html
Fiscal high spots: Retrieved March 06, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.adidas-group.com/en/investorrelations/financial_data/default.aspx
Adidas group web site: Retrieved March 01, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.adidas-group.com
Sudarsanam, S. , Holl, P. and Salami, A. ( 1996 ) “ Shareholder wealth additions in amalgamations: consequence of synergism and ownership construction ” Journal of Business Finance and Accounting