Sri Lanka Relations Securing Vital National Security Interest History Essay

1. Today, India is the most stable state in one of the most unstable parts in the universe. Insurgency, terrorist act and province failure pestilence South Asia with repeating watercourses of force, perpetrated by province and non province histrions. This instability threatens India ‘s ain stableness and economic involvements in the part. Besides, as India ‘s position in the universe has grown, so has the outlook that it can play a function in cut downing the instability in its part, peculiarly in its immediate vicinity. India ‘s response to this outlook has been one of reluctance. A state is safe and unafraid if its neighbor is safe since the immediate menace to any state arises in its vicinity. It is necessary to keep stableness, peace and friendly relationship with neighbouring provinces, which is considered basic rule of a state ‘s foreign policy. That is why India ‘s dealingss with its neighboring states constitute a critical constituent of its foreign policy.

2. Mahatma Gandhi said “ It is, at least it should be impossible for India and Ceylon to dispute. We are the nearest neighbors. We are heirs of a common civilization. But even as blood brothers sometimes differ, so do following door neighbors. And like brothers, they normally adjust their differences and are frequently more closely knit together after the clearance ”[ 2 ]. Though the Father of the Indian State made this statement about 70 old ages ago, the sentiments expressed have withstood the transition of the old ages. Indeed, they have possibly even gained in relevancy at this present occasion, with the historic clearance or terminal of the struggle which affected parts of Sri Lanka for over a one-fourth century.

3. With the licking of the LTTE, Sri Lanka now has a alone chance to work out the cultural struggle and ship upon nation-building. It could potentially emerge as one of the major participants in the part. Sri Lanka has besides diversified its foreign policy and now has a turning relationship with China, Pakistan and other states which is dismaying for India.[ 3 ]Despite these positive developments, cardinal uncertainnesss which could barricade Sri Lanka ‘s growing remain. The cultural struggle has non been resolved. Sinhala patriotism is on the rise in the aftermath of LTTE ‘s licking. The Tamil minorities continue to experience discriminated. Sri Lanka ‘s human rights record has besides come under international examination. This has earnestly dented the state ‘s international image. In visible radiation of these uncertainnesss, it is of import for India to constructively prosecute with Srilanka and seek to emerge as a major driver in its foreign policy.

4. Post LTTE though India has contributed significantly to resettlement and rehabilitation attempts in Sri Lanka. But, the non-resolution of the Tamil issue continue to project a shadow on bilateral dealingss. Therefore on the political forepart, volatility in bilateral dealingss is expected. Domestic political irresistible impulses of India could besides impact Indo-Sri Lankan dealingss.

5. Sri Lanka could besides be tempted to play the China card when there is a souring of dealingss with India. India ‘s policy towards Sri Lanka should endeavor to prosecute battle at the political, economic and people-to-people levels.China ‘s military presence in Sri Lanka could turn out to be a game modifier in Indo-Sri Lanka dealingss. The bilateral relationship should be depoliticised every bit much as possible.[ 4 ]


Statement of the Problem

6. Geo strategic location of Sri Lanka in Indian Ocean has lured many a states in past to set up good political, military and diplomatic dealingss with her to spread out ain influence in the part. Post LTTE it is bound to pull greater planetary attending. and even China will non go forth any rock unturned to capitalise on the chances for helping Sri Lanka with an oculus for future Indan Ocean Region aspirations. Owing to the same and Sri Lanka ‘s strategic location in India ‘s regional backyard it is imperative for her to protect it ‘s critical national security involvement in Sri Lanka and it is desirable in her involvement that no external power nevertheless benign in it ‘s purpose acquires influence in the island state.


7. To counter the influence of other states in Indias vicinity there is a demand for vigorous diplomatic and military enterprises by India while prosecuting Srilanka station LTTE.

Justification of Study

8. Sri Lanka is most strategically located India ‘s neighbour which has direct bearing on India act uponing its hegemony in the Indian Ocean Region. With the death of LTTE and race by other regional participants there is a demand to reexamine the relation between the two states so that India can capitalize on the new drawn chance and increase its planetary range.


9. The range of this survey would be to analyze the assorted stages of Indo Sri Lanka dealingss station independency, have a reappraisal of impulse of dealingss station LTTE. To look into the importance of Indian Ocean Region and critical geo strategic location bestowed upon Sri Lanka by geographics pulling regional and trans regional participants in exerting influence in the island state. By making so it will look into the restraints on Indias purchase, China ‘s turning influence in the island state and work upon the route in front for dealingss with Sri Lanka to protect critical national security involvement in regional backyard.

Methods of Data Collection

10. The information for this thesis has been collected from a big figure of books, periodicals, magazines and diaries that are available in the Defence Services Staff College Library and reputed cyberspace sites.

Administration of the Dissertation

11. The survey has been divided into seven chapters. The chief text is contained from chapter II to VII with chapter I as the Introduction and Methedology. The chief facets of the survey as covered in each chapter are as follows: –

( a ) Chapter I – Introduction and Methodology. This chapter introduces the thesis and contains the methodological analysis of the survey. The statement of the job, the justification of the survey, range of the subject and the administration of the chapters are the of import parts.

( B ) Chapter II – Importance Of Indian Ocean Region & A ; Srilanka. This chapter will depict geographically the Indian Ocean Region, evaluate it ‘s importance, conveying upon the critical geostrategic location bestowed upon Sri Lanka by geographics, analyze the of import Sea Lanes of Communications go throughing through the part, the political economic system of Indian Ocean Region, and therefore will seek to set up the importance of keeping such a bilateral cooperation with Sri Lanka so that all its aspirations are fulfilled and an ambiance of fall backing back to India for all aspirations whether political, economical or security related develops within Sri Lanka.

( degree Celsius ) Chapter III – Indo-Sri Lanka Relations: Post Independence. This chapter covers the brief stages of Indo Sri Lanka dealingss station independency.

( vitamin D ) Chapter IV – Indo-Sri Lanka Relation Post the death of LTTE. This chapter highlights the impulse of Indo-Sri Lanka dealingss post death of LTTE. India ‘s declared place on the national rapprochement in Sri Lanka through a political colony and other countries of bilateral cooperation between the two states to include defense mechanism cooperation.

( vitamin E ) Chapter V – Constraints On Indias Levarage. This chapter will seek to set up the ties that bind India & A ; Sri Lanka since yesteryear and grounds for colombo diversifying its spouses in the past decennary due to Indias ambivalency over military aid.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Chapter VI – China ‘s Foray Into Sri Lanka And It ‘s Deductions For India. This chapter will cover with grounds for Sri Lanka diversifying its spouses, turning Chinese presence, intensifying ties with Pakistan and seek to analyze what India needs to make to cut down Chinese influence in the part.

( g ) Chapter VII – Road Ahead for Relations with Sri Lanka. With the economic growing of India it is of import that the state maintains a harmonious relation with its neighbors. In this chapter the future route of bilateral dealingss to prosecute Sri Lanka are proposed so that India ‘s critical national security involvement are secured.

( H ) Chapter VIII – Decision. This chapter will briefly summarize the thesis.

Chapter II


“ whoever controls the Indian ocean dominates Asia. This ocean is the key to seven seas in the 21st century and the fate of the universe will be decided in these Waterss ”[ 5 ]

Rear Admiral Alfred Thayus Mahan.

12. Alfred Mahan great American naval strategian described Indian Ocean as the most of import and strategic Ocean in the 20th century, and with the present geo political state of affairs as it is blossoming, his words are coming true. Indian Ocean is the most strategic & A ; imp ocean in the 20th century with the universe ‘s economic involvement routed through this ocean The Indian Ocean is going the focal point of strategic and political attending due to its strategic importance. Robert Kaplan, US Security analyst has argued that Indian Ocean forms the Centre phase for the challenges.[ 6 ]

Specifying the Region

13. Covering an country of merely over 68.5 million square kilometers and bounded by land masss on three sides, the Indian Ocean is the universe ‘s 3rd largest ocean. The Indian ocean part though complex is a distinct geographical entity.[ 7 ]

Wealth in the Indian Ocean Region

14. The Indian Ocean part contains an copiousness of minerals, oils and natural gases. The Indian Ocean part ‘s littoral provinces contain more than two-thirds of the known oil militias, 35 per centum of the universe ‘s gas modesty, 60 per centum of uranium,40 per centum of gold,80 per centum of all diamond sedimentations and a big assortment of mineral substances.[ 8 ]The Indian Ocean part contains a immense diversenesss of economic systems. The energy security of many states besides depends on the Indian Ocean, as the fuel demands of many industrializing states is met through the energy resources transported through it. For all these grounds and more, the Indian Ocean ‘s importance in the planetary context is really great. At the same clip, it must be noted that the stableness and nautical security of Indian Ocean is vulnerable to external menace.

Geo strategic Imporatance of Sri Lanka for India

15. “ Sri Lanka is as of import strategically to India as Eire is to the United Kingdom or Taiwan to China. Equally long as Sri Lanka is friendly or even impersonal, India has nil to worry, but if at that place be any danger of the island falling under the domination of a power hostile to India ; India can non digest such a state of affairs jeopardizing her territorial unity. ”[ 9 ]

16. Sri Lanka is the closest neighbor of India, separated from it at its narrowest point by 22 stat mis of sea called the Palk-strait. The deduction of such a close propinquity is that developments in each state have affect on the other. Sri Lanka is virtually located in the Centre of Asia and the sea lanes between the Far East and the African and Arab universes.

This location gives the island a cardinal place midway on the antediluvian maritime trade path between West and East Asia. Ships go throughing from Yangon and Kolkata traveling west to the Suez or the Cape or those sailing from Mumbai to the Gulf or due easts to Singapore still use Sri Lanka ‘s first-class seaport in Colombo and Trincomalee.[ 10 ]The island state therefore occupies an of import topographic point in the critical sea lanes of communicating. Trincomalee has the capacity to function as a major naval base, and an excess regional naval force could good rule the sea paths in the country and interrupt Indian transportation. That is why Sri Lanka has ever occupied an of import topographic point in India foreign policy computations.

17. Instability in Sri Lanka besides undermines security in the Indian Ocean, which India has a great economic interest in protecting. Sri Lanka occupies a critical location in the Indian Ocean ‘s strategic environment, as international transportation lanes flow right by Sri Lanka ‘s southern seashore. The port of Colombo is used as an entry and issue point for regional goods, edge for or incoming from the East and the West. The Indian Ocean accommodates half the universe ‘s containerized cargo, tierce of its majority lading, and two-thirds of its oil cargos. Therefore, its security is an indispensable consideration for all economic systems with important sea-based trade and energy demands.[ 11 ]India ‘s dependance on the Indian Ocean as a maritime trading zone and transit-way for oil trade has meant that procuring the Indian Ocean is important to its continued battle with the international market place, and the Waterss adjacent to Sri Lanka assume particular significance in these security agreements.

18. Additionally, Sri Lanka is besides situated at an of import location for projecting naval power into the Indian Ocean, and is therefore, envied as a military placement point for major powers with involvements in the part. While the battle over balance of power has diminished in the post-Cold War period, India retains strategic involvements in Sri Lanka because of matter-of-fact security considerations. Hence it is imperative that for India to include Sri Lanka in any of its foreign policy computations.

Chapter III


“ Interest does non bind states tighter ; it sometimes separates them.

But sympathy and understanding does unify them. ”[ 12 ]

– Woodrow T. Wilson.

19. Sri Lanka has ever occupied a outstanding place in Indias foreign policy which has undergone several turns and bends during the post-independence period. From a policy of active engagement during 1987-1990, Indian authorities in the station 1990 stage took a hands-off policy after blackwash of Rajiv Gandhi.

20. Major factors which determine India ‘s policy towards Sri Lanka are the huge disparity in their size, the specific geo strategic location of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean, Indian Tamil job, Sri Lankan Tamil struggle and influence of Tamil Nadu political relations. The outgrowth of alliance political relations at the national degree and increasing influence of regional political parties on foreign policy preparation in both the states over past two decennaries have infused excess dimension in finding India ‘s policy towards Sri Lanka. The fright and minority composite of the Sinhalese has got reflected in the Sri Lanka ‘s foreign policy and dealingss with India. Misunderstanding and misgiving between India and Sri Lanka resulted in many ups and downs in finding India ‘s policy. Keeping in head above said factors, Indian policy shapers have ever advocated harmonious dealingss with Sri Lanka.


21. The aim of this chapter is to analyze India ‘s policy towards Sri Lanka in the station independency epoch. On the footing of nature of India-Sri Lanka dealingss and the issue ruling the bilateral docket, the whole policy can be divided into four distinguishable phases- :

( a ) Decades of Divergences ( 1947-1982 ) .

( B ) India ‘s Policy of Intervention ( 1983-pre1990 ) .

( degree Celsius ) Policy of Non-Intervention and Partnership ( post1990-2009 ) .

( vitamin D ) Post LTTE-era Policy ( 2009 to Present Day ) .

Decades of Divergences ( 1947-1982 )

22. From 1948 to 1952 Sri Lanka saw India with distrust.and took all safeguards to run into any contingency of danger from India. They leaned to a great extent towards Britain for Sri Lanka ‘s defense mechanism. Sri Lanka signed defense mechanism treaty with Britain in 1947 which provided them naval and air bases. From the Indian position point, the strategic location of Sri Lanka, their attitude and western attack were non in India ‘s involvement. The issue of Tamils of Indian beginning caused strain between them. Although Senanayake and Kotelawala ‘s policies were West-oriented yet because of Jawahar Lal Nehru ‘s personality and actions, the dealingss between the two states remained affable[ 13 ]

23. Sino-India struggle 1962. India-Sri Lankan dealingss got labored when China attacked India in October 1962 and Sri Lanka did non knock the onslaught as it failed to trade name China as an attacker.[ 14 ]However, Srimavo-Bhandaranaike made efforts to intercede in the difference and tried to convey China and India on the dialogue tabular array. After the decease of Jawaharlal Nehru on 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Prime Minister of India. Though Shastri ‘s term of office was short yet he tried his best to work out the jobs with Sri Lanka.

24. The dealingss received farther reverse during the India-Pakistan war in December 1971, when Sri Lanka permitted flights from West Pakistan to East Pakistan through Colombo. Indian authorities stopped Pakistani over flights as it was believed that Pakistani military personnels were being transported in the pretense of civilians.[ 15 ]

25. In the General Election of March 1977, Indira Gandhi lost power and the first Non-Congress Government in India was formed at the Centre by Morarji Desai. Morarji Desai visited Sri Lanka in February 1979. He addressed a particular session of the Parliament. He showed his willingness for cooperation in economic and proficient field. Janata party openly criticized people demanding a separate province for Tamils.[ 16 ]

26. After the autumn of Morarji Government, Indira Gandhi came back to power in 1980. India-Sri Lanka dealingss during her 2nd term took a different bend. The personal equation between Indira Gandhi and J.R. Jayawardene were non excessively good. Jayawardene ‘s mostly western attack created problem for India as Sri Lanka refused to reprobate the puting up of an American naval base in Diego Garcia. Jayawardne gave Trincomalee Tank Farm, to a Singapore based company in secret linked with USA in 1981 for the redevelopment and enlargement of refueling installations while the Indian stamp for the same was rejected. In malice of this, both the states showed their committedness for cooperation.

27. The of import issues that have determined India ‘s policy towards Sri Lanka instantly after their independency boulder clay 1982.

( a ) Statelessness issue of Tamils of Indian beginning. Statelessness issue of Tamils of Indian beginning caused strain in India-Sri Lanka dealingss. This constituted Sri Lanka ‘s cardinal issue in relation with India till the bigger issue of Sri Lankan Tamil ‘s demand for a separate province came up. During the period of British disposal, the Tamil were British topics and enjoyed equal political and civil rights with other people of Sri Lanka.

The Sri Lankan authorities under Prime Minister D. S. Senanayake enacted Citizenship Acts of 1948 and 1949 which entitled citizenship of Ceylon either by the right of descent or by virtuousness of enrollment. The conditions of citizenship were farther restricted by the Indian and Pakistani Resident ( Citizenship ) Act of 1949, farther striping Indian Tamils in Sri Lanka of their citizenship rights and franchise. These Citizenship Acts had an immediate impact on India and its domestic political relations. Indian Government emphasised on duologue in malice of the provocative Acts of the Apostless of the Sri Lankan Government. Attempts were made to decide the difference through Jawahar Lal Nehru-Kotewala Pact 1954, Srimavo-Shastri Pact 1964, Srimavo Bandaranaike-Indira Gandhi Pact 1974, but the job persisted until 9th November, 1988 when President J. R. Jayawardane Government passed a measure to allow citizenship to all the staying homeless people of Indian beginning. Indian Tamil job took about three decennaries to eventually come to an terminal amicably.[ 17 ]

( B ) Maritime Boundary dispute-Kachchathivu issue. At the clip of independency Sri Lanka had unresolved maritime boundary differences with India, affecting disputed ownership of Kachchathivu. The job was farther aggravated when both the states extended their bounds of territorial Waterss. In order to decide the Kachchativu difference a nautical understanding was signed on 26th June 1974 and a boundary line was demarcated. This understanding placed the disputed Kachchathivu Island within Sri Lanka ‘s bounds and marked the successful apogee of the attempts of the two states to decide the long standing job between them through peaceable dialogues and in a spirit of complete equality, friendly relationship and common adjustment. The most of import addition of all was that India won the assurance and apprehension of the little Island neighbor by esteeming its wants. A farther maritime boundary understanding was signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1976 and the difference on nautical boundaries with Sri Lanka came to an terminal.[ 18 ]

( degree Celsius ) Fishing Disputes. Despite the being of bilateral understandings of June 1974, March 1976, Joint Working Group and luxuriant apprehension, fishermen differences has ever remained a irritant in diplomatic dealingss between two states. Harmonizing to official informations, more than 400 Tamil Nadu fishermen have been killed after 1983, including every bit many as 118 between1991 to 2010.[ 19 ]

India ‘s policy of Involvement ( 1983- pre1990 )

28. The events between 1983 and 1990 marked the most troubled and conflictual old ages in the India ‘s policy towards cultural struggle in Sri Lanka. India ‘s engagement embittered its relationship with both the authorities and people of Sri Lanka. The Government of India had been, right from the beginning, interested in a negotiated political solution to cultural struggle, and it had been pressing the Sri Lankan authorities to get at such a solution. India ne’er wanted a separate province to emerge in Sri Lanka, as it could hold fuelled a breakaway Movement in Tamil Nadu. India besides did non wanted any foreign pesence in and around Sri Lanka which would hold jeopardised it ‘s ain critical national security.

29. In July 1983, serious cultural public violences took topographic point in Sri Lanka. These public violences began the flow of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees into India. Indira Gandhi appointed G. Parthasarthy as her particular minister plenipotentiary to assist Sri Lanka in work outing the Sri Lankan Tamil Conflict. But Jayawardene considered this act as intervention and intercession in its internal personal businesss. The resurgence of defense mechanism pact with UK, the Trinocomalee armored combat vehicle farm trade, enlargement of range of the Voice of America, Sri Lanka ‘s Collaboration with a private British security administration Keeny Meeny Services, holding ex-Special Air Services forces and many such stairss created a discordant relationship between India and Sri Lanka.[ 20 ]The Tamil Nadu Assembly moved a declaration on 24th October, 1983, showing commiseration for the guiltless Tamils who were killed in Sri Lanka. Another thing which gave Tamil Nadu ground to demo legitimate involvement in the crisis in Sri Lanka was that it was Tamil Nadu who had to bear the big figure of Tamil refugees.

Their figure reached around 150,000 after the cultural public violences of 1983. After 1983 July public violences, Jayawardene made frenetic entreaties to several states including US, UK, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Israel for political and military aid. Sri Lanka prorogated to these states that there was a menace to its integrity and unity from Tamil terrorist act which was supported and encouraged by the authorities and people of India.[ 21 ]Therefore, the Government of India could non stay a inactive witness to mass violent death of the Tamils, as Tamils in India were watching Government of India ‘s deficiency of action with anxiousness. The people and political parties in Tamil Nadu exerted force per unit area to coerce India to salvage the lives of “ their brethren ” in Sri Lanka. The Indian Government condemned the violent death of Tamils in Sri Lanka.

30. After the blackwash of the so Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in November, 1984, Rajiv Gandhi assumed power and became the Prime Minister of India. Rajiv Gandhi pledged to beef up the ties with India ‘s “ immediate neighbors in South Asia ” and wanted to work out cultural struggle of Sri Lanka ” on the footing of common regard, autonomous equality and friendly relationship. ”

31. The cultural crisis of Sri Lanka took a new bend when the LTTE started transporting out its program to take over the civil disposal in the North which was under military control. In response to these activities of LTTE President Jayawardene imposed an economic and communicating encirclement on the Jaffna Peninsula in January 1987. This caused considerable adversity to the civilian population in Jaffna. Faced with mounting force per unit area from the difficult line Sinhalese and fundamentalists, Jayawardene launched ‘Operation Liberation ‘ in the Jaffna Peninsula in May 1987. In Indian Parliament and in Tamil Nadu, the inquiry of economic encirclement and violent death of Tamil civilians by Sri Lankan forces outraged public sentiment and there was a immense force per unit area on Rajiv Gandhi, to make something immediately.On 3rd June, India sent alleviation supply to Jaffna in a flotilla of 19 angling boats winging the Red Cross flag ( Operation Poomalai ) . The Government of Sri Lanka rejected the supplies and blocked the Indian flotilla ‘s entry into Sri Lankan territorial H2O. In a “ drastic move ” Indian authorities sent five Indian Air Force AN-32 conveyance aircrafts escorted by four Mirage 2000 combatant planes on 4 June, 1987 to Sri Lanka ( Operation Eagle ) . They dropped twenty five dozenss of alleviation supplies in and around Jaffna. During this period, dealingss between the two states reached about interrupting point with hazard of military confrontation. In this manner India ‘s policy changed from mediation to arbitration and direct engagement.[ 22 ]

32. Indo-Sri lanka Peace Agreement of 1987. The Government of India was committed to a peaceable negotiated political solution of the cultural crisis. Therefore started the period of meetings and dialogues with both the LTTE and the Sri Lankan authorities. This culminated in the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Agreement of 1987. Unfortunately, as the agreement was signed hastily and under irresistible impulses, the LTTE did non hold to it. Very few attempts were made to include the LTTE in the procedure. No uncertainty on 29th July, 1987 Indo-Sri Lanka agreement accommodated a figure of demands of Sri Lankan Tamils without professing them a separate place land and prevented the entry of foreign elements in Sri Lanka. As per the commissariats of the understanding IPKF was sent to Sri Lanka to supervise the execution of the agreement. LTTE later turned out that IPKF intended to cut the LTTE out, the result was breakout of belligerencies between the LTTE and IPKF. India decided to forcibly demilitarize the LTTE. This made India ‘s dealingss with Sri Lanka troublesome and by and big conflictual. Subsequently, president of Sri Lanka R. Premdasa arranged the IPKF backdown by procuring ceasefire agreement with the LTTE in March 1990. IPKF made sincere attempts to convey down the breakaway motion but IPKF were withdrawn without carry throughing its mission on history of assorted pulls and force per unit areas. 1250 Indian soldiers lost their lives to salvage the integrity and territorial unity of Sri Lanka. The most tragic effect of 1987 understanding was the blackwash of Rajiv Gandhi by LTTE. India ‘s engagement in Sri Lanka between 1983 to 1990 was ineluctable non merely due to the branchings of Sri Lanka ‘s oppressive and prejudiced policies against its Tamil citizens but besides in footings of India ‘s national security concern due to the Sri Lankan authorities ‘s security connexions with US, Pakistan and Israel.[ 23 ]Not merely this, but it was besides India ‘s sincere desire to safeguard the integrity and territorial unity of Sri Lanka.[ 24 ]

India ‘s Policy of Non-Intervention and Partnership ( Post 1990-2009 )

33. India ‘s policy of Non- Intervention. India-Sri Lanka policy in the station 1990 period underwent a contextual alteration all together with alterations in India ‘s foreign policy perceptual experiences. After the terminal of the Cold War and with the outgrowth of US as the exclusive ace power, India ‘s foreign policy perceptual experiences besides changed. In maintaining with the altering planetary economic and trade scenario, India ‘s strategic precedences in Indian Ocean part underwent a alteration during the last two decennaries. India ‘s national security perceptual experiences was enlarged to include economic security, free trade and commercialism, energy security, and societal security of the population in add-on to territorial unity. India-Sri Lanka policy in this period was affected by the regional power kineticss, with external powers seeking to increase their ain, and counter the influence of others. Keeping in position all the developments, India changed its policy towards Sri Lanka from intercession to non-intervention. At the nucleus of India Sri Lanka policy was a reduplication of the Indian authorities ‘s committedness to protect Sri Lanka ‘s integrity, sovereignty and territorial unity. While declining to play any direct function in the struggle, India ‘s consistent policy has been in favor of, “ a politically negotiated colony acceptable to all subdivisions of Sri-Lankan society within the model of an undivided Sri-Lanka and consistent with democracy, pluralism and regard for human rights. ” India ‘s non-intervention policy resulted in the engagement of extra-regional powers in deciding the cultural struggle. The cultural war continued till the licking of the LTTE in May 2009 by the Sri Lankan forces with the silent support of India. India ‘s matter-of-fact policy of non-intervention in the internal personal businesss of Sri Lanka and Sri Lanka ‘s committedness towards India ‘s security concern did created a believable ambiance and accordingly brought a new epoch in dealingss between two states. India ‘s new policy has contributed to take the cultivated fright composite of Sri Lanka.

34. India ‘s Policy of Economic Partnership. In the station 1990 stage consistent attempts have been made by India and Sri Lanka to upgrade bilateral economic dealingss. In this period, India and Sri Lanka established a dense bilateral web of establishments and mechanisms so as to guarantee sustained cooperation irrespective of domestic political relations and alterations in the external environment of the two states.[ 25 ]Free Trade Agreement was a important measure frontward in heightening economic partnership.

Chapter IV



35. New Delhi ‘s dealingss with Sri Lanka in the three old ages since the licking of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ( LTTE ) had chiefly deliberated upon supplying human-centered aid to displaced Tamils in the North and E. Supporting major development undertakings. Pressing the Sri Lankan authorities and the chief Sri Lankan Tamil political confederation, the Tamil National Alliance ( TNA ) , to work towards a negotiated colony of cultural struggle through the degeneration of power to Tamil-majority countries in the North and E and promoting greater economic integrating between the two economic systems.

India ‘s Attempts in Bettering Bilateral dealingss Post LTTE

37. Internally Displaced Persons. The decision of the armed struggle saw the outgrowth of a major human-centered challenge, with about 300,000 Tamil civilians housed in cantonments for Internally Displaced Persons ( IDPs ) . In the immediate wake India provided a sum of 250,000 household alleviation battalions for the IDPs. Though the Government of India put in topographic point a robust programme of aid to assist these IDPs return to normal life every bit rapidly as possible after the terminal of the cultural struggle, by purveying of stuff and fiscal aid nevertheless the procedure has non gained much gait as it should hold.

36. De-mining. As it was a major restraint on the velocity of relocation, the Government of India to the full financed seven Indian de-mining squads, engaged in assorted sectors in northern Sri Lanka to assist hasten relocation.

39. Reconstruction and Development. With the displacement from alleviation and rehabilitation to Reconstruction and development, the Government of India turned its attending to the lodging demands of the IDPs. The work on the pilot stage is in advanced phases of completion. The first batch of completed houses was handed over to donees on 18 January 2012.[ 26 ]An MOU with the Government of Sri Lanka on the modes of execution of the following stage of the Project for staying 49,000 houses was besides signed.

40. Provision of Agriculture Implements Since agribusiness is the primary agencies of support in the countries affected by the struggle, Government of India has focused its attending on back uping this sector with a position to jump-start the resurgence of the local economic system through a wide-ranging programme for agricultural reclamation.[ 27 ]India resorted to provide of tractors and other machinery to farmer administrations in northern Sri Lanka. 500 tractors with four implements each ( rotovator, tiller, cage-wheel and disc Big Dipper ) have been supplied to farmer organisations and agricultural service Centres in the Northern Province.

41. Development Credit. Sri Lanka is one of the major receivers of development recognition given by the Government of India. A line of recognition of $ 167.4 million for fix and upgradation of the tsunami-damaged Colombo-Matara rail nexus is already to the full operational. The upgraded coastal railroad path between Galle-Matara was inaugurated on 16 February 2011. During his visit to Sri Lanka in January 2012, Minister of External Affairs Mr. S.M. Krishna handed over the Galle-Hikkeduwa section.[ 28 ]Another understanding for a recognition line of US $ 382.37 million for path laying on the Pallai-Kankesanthurai railroad line, puting up of signaling and telecommunications systems for the Northern railroad line and other undertakings as may be reciprocally agreed by the Governments of India and Sri Lanka was signed during the visit of Minister Krishna in January 2012.

42. Renovation Projects. India is besides involved in undertakings for redevelopment of Palaly Airport, Kankesanthurai Harbour, building of Cultural Centre in Jaffna, interconnectedness of electricity grids between the two states, building of a 150-bed infirmary in Dickoya and puting up a coal power works in Sampur as a joint venture between National Thermal Power Corporation ( NTPC ) and Ceylon Electricity Board ( CEB ) ..[ 29 ]

43. Smaller Devlopmental Projects. India besides continues to help a big figure of smaller development undertakings in countries like instruction, wellness, conveyance connectivity, little and average endeavor development and preparation in many parts of the state through its grant support.

44. Improved Trade and Investment. India and Sri Lanka bask a robust trade and investing relationship, with bilateral trade turning quickly in the last decennary and a figure of taking Indian private sector companies puting in Sri Lanka and set uping a presence in this state. Sri Lanka is India ‘s largest trade spouse in South Asia.

45. Cultural Cooperation. Cultural cooperation is a really of import facet of the bilateral relationship. A Programme of Cultural Cooperation ( PCC ) for 2010-2013 was signed during the June 2010 State visit of President Rajapaksa.[ 30 ]The PCC seeks to heighten the degree of cooperation in a broad assortment of Fieldss such as executing humanistic disciplines, ocular humanistic disciplines, libraries, museums, archives & A ; cultural certification, archeology, handcrafts, athleticss and young person personal businesss, publications and professional exchanges and mass media.

46. Education. Education has remained a nucleus country of cooperation between India and Sri Lanka. Both states agreed to establish an India Sri Lanka Knowledge Initiative during the visit of President Rajapaksa to India in June 2010. During the visit of Minister of External Affairs Mr. S.M. Krishna in January 2012, a about treble addition in scholarship support to meriting Sri Lankan pupils was announced.[ 31 ]

47. Defense mechanism Coopreation. India and Sri Lanka besides enjoy a turning defense mechanism relationship built on extended preparation and Service-to-Service linkages. The commonalty of concerns of both states, including with regard to the safety and security of their sea lanes of communicating, informs their bilateral exchanges in this field.

48. However India ‘s attack has so far paid merely limited dividends. Intensifying mobilization and Sinhalisation in the northern state have increased the insecurity and political marginalization of Tamils and are sabotaging chances for inter-ethnic rapprochement. The authorities continues to defy any probe or accounting for mass atrociousnesss in the concluding months of the war. Democratic administration is under sustained assault throughout the state, onslaughts on independent media and political oppositions continue.

Problem Areas in Bilateral Relations

49. Indias Stated Position on National Reconciliation. The demand for national rapprochement through a political colony of the cultural issue has been reiterated by India at the highest degrees. India ‘s consistent place is in favor of a negotiated political colony, which is acceptable to all communities within the model of a united Sri Lanka and which is consistent with democracy, pluralism and regard for human rights. The Government of Sri Lanka has conveyed its confidence that political proposals constructing on the 13th Amendment to the Constitution will be discussed with the Tamil leading of the state nevertheless no major headroom has been made on the same.

50. Srilankan Refugees. Inspite of Indian attempts of Reconstruction and development of war ravaged northern and eastern state Srilankan refugees still occupy cantonments in Tamil Nadu which instigates Tamil sentiments.

51. Fishing Disputes. Give the propinquity of the territorial Waterss of both states, particularly in the Palk Straits and the Gulf of Mannar, incidents of straying of fishermen are common. Both states have agreed on certain practical agreements to cover with the issue of bonafide fishermen of either side traversing the IMBL, nevertheless these agreements are grossly deficient. Ms Jayalalithas recent filing of a Public Interest Litigation Writ Petition, under Article 32 of the Constitution, pressing declaring unconstitutional the two understandings signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1974, and in 1976 under which the island of Kachchativu was ceded to Sri Lanka and the traditional fishing rights of Indian fishermen were given up will farther worsen the job.

52. Regional Power Dynamics With external powers seeking to increase their ain influence and counter those of others. China is non merely presently one of Sri Lanka ‘s major military providers, but besides has been eying for possible economic investings and substructure undertakings.

53. Domestic Political Compulsions. The dealingss between two states is farther marred due to domestic political compusions being faced by the United Progressive Alliance Government at Centre with of all time turning force per unit area from the provincial authorities. The recent strong reactions to preparation of Sri Lankan defense mechanism forces in the province of Tamil Nadu is a manifestation of the same.[ 32 ]

54. Indias Position in The UN Human Rights Commission Resolution. India ‘s ballot in favor of the UN Human Rights Commission ( UNHRC ) declaration against SriLanka titled “ Promoting rapprochement and answerability in Sri Lanka “ being prompted by the Tamil Nadu political relations has farther created a rift in the bilateral dealingss between two states.[ 33 ]

55. Trade Restrictions. At present there are a big figure of points in the negative lists every bit good as quantitative limitations. India and Sri Lanka are rivals in the international market for tea, gum elastic, spices, garments and fabrics and agricultural merchandises. India and Sri Lanka have besides some trade related jobs like ; regulations of beginning job, menace to similar domestic merchandises, non competitory sectors besides included in negative list, and unauthorised trade etc. Consequently, in June 2003, the two authoritiess decided to put up a Joint Study Group to research possibilities of get downing dialogues for a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement.[ 34 ]

Chapter V


“ Fears were non about a menace from Sri Lanka, but that if anybody with unfriendly involvements towards India gained a bridgehead in the island state, India ‘s security involvement could be adversely affected. ”[ 35 ]

57. India attempt towards a sustainable peace station LTTE is non doing a major caput manner. Despite India ‘s active battle and unprecedented fiscal aid, the Sri Lankan authorities has failed to do advancement on pressing post-war challenges. Government actions and the turning political power of the military are alternatively bring forthing new grudges that increase the hazard of an eventual return to force.[ 36 ]To back up a sustainable and just post-war colony in Sri Lanka and restrict the opportunities of another autocratic authorities on its boundary lines, India needs to asseverate itself more comprehensively.

58. Despite of many foreign policy irresistible impulses, the Indian goverment has the capacity to make more to force the Sri Lankan goverment to do grants to Sri Lanka ‘s minorities, as many in the international community have hoped it would make post LTTE. However India has remained loath, to play a more proactive function. This is chiefly due to history of dearly-won and counter-productive engagement in Sri Lanka ‘s political relations, in peculiar, the bequest of the IPKF. “ There is a common perceptual experience among Indian policy shaper ‘s that Sri Lanka was India ‘s Vietnam ” .There are other, considerable restrictions to India ‘s purchase, even if there is political will in New Delhi to supercharge Colombo. However while the restraints are fomidable, none is unsurmountable.[ 37 ]

59. Economic Ties. India is Sri Lanka ‘s largest trade spouse and its largest beginning of imports. Economic force per unit area might be called India ‘s “ atomic option ” , to be exercised if renewed civil war in Sri Lanka straight threatens India ‘s security. However the recent refusal of President Rajapaksa to subscribe the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement as a consequence of India ‘s ballot in favouour of UNHRC declaration might be a major hindrance in promotion of economic ties.

60. Sri Lanka Diversifying Its Partners. Since independency, Sri Lanka, has been wary of India ‘s paternalistic inclinations in the part. Colombo has frequently sought to equilibrate the relationship by making out to India ‘s antagonists. While the scheme produced some short-run additions in the yesteryear, nevertheless it finally drew New Delhi ‘s fire and Sri Lanka returned to India ‘s orbit.[ 38 ]Now, nevertheless, Sri Lanka has more options when it comes to economic, military and political aid. Global displacement in economic and political power have allowed Sri Lanka non merely to play China off against India but besides to turn to others such as Pakistan, Iran and Libya for support. India therefore has ceded strategic infinite in its regional backyard in such a mode that Bhutan now remains its exclusive pocket of influence.[ 39 ]

61. India ‘s Turbulent Experience in Sri Lanka. India ‘s worsening influence, nevertheless, is non new and has been underway since the 1990s. When India withdrew from Sri Lanka ‘s political relations after the IPKF and Gandhi ‘s blackwash, and others filled the void. ,

62. Exigencies of Domestic Politicss. Has produced a deep ambivalency, peculiarly within the Congress party leading, about the agencies and extent to which India should prosecute in the island ‘s politics.The recent developments in Tamil Nadu on Sri Lanka foretell bad luck for Centre province ties, which have flared up a spot owing to certain events apart from posting New Delhi a message to no longer neglect Tamil sentiments.Incidents such as protests against Sri Lankan military forces undergoing preparation at Wellington, non leting junior Sri Lankan football squad to play in Chennai, onslaught on Sri Lankan Pilgrim coachs, protests against visit of Sri Lankan President Rajapaksa to Sanchi and AIADMK main Jayalalitha ‘s request in the Supreme Court disputing the gifting of Katchatheevu to Sri Lanka bears testimony to the same.[ 40 ]With the phase set for the 2014 election, Tamil Nadu is expected to foster its run against Colombo, which would be hard for cardinal Government to disregard in entirety.

63. Fishing Disputes. The unabated torment of Indian fisherman by Sri Lankan navy excessively is a major constaint in India ‘s purchase. In the post-LTTE epoch, relaxations of angling limitations along Sri Lanka Coast have led Sri Lankan fishermen to venture into the sea. Indian fishermen, who enjoyed a monopoly of resource rich Waterss, have now got rivals in the signifier of their Sri Lankan opposite numbers. During the cultural struggle, the misdemeanors by Indian fishermen were frequently overlooked. However in the station struggle period, Sri Lanka Navy is policing the island ‘s maritime boundary lines which has lead to apprehensivenesss of Indian fisherman.

62. Ambivalence over military aid. New Delhi ‘s refusal to provide Colombo with violative arms during the concluding stage of the war is the clearest illustration of how India ‘s ambivalency gave its chief strategic rivals greater entree to Sri Lanka and the Indian Ocean, which India considers its primary domain of influence. India ‘s ambivalency was due to domestic political sensitivenesss, as it did non wanted to supply weaponries that would be used to kill Tamils in an election twelvemonth, peculiarly when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance ( UPA ) authorities was dependent upon Tamil Nadu parties for it endurance. When India refused, waiting in the wings were willing providers like Israel, Pakistan, Iran, Ukraine, Libya, and China.[ 41 ]While none of these trades or states threatened India ‘s strategic involvements, but they have closed off chances to Indian companies, thereby restricting New Delhi ‘s purchase over Colombo.[ 42 ]

63. Intensifying ties with Pakistan. Of greater concern to India have been the intensifying military and political ties between Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Pakistan has long been an vocal protagonist of the Sri Lankan province ‘s run against the LTTE, every bit good as one of the island ‘s largest providers of military hardware in recent old ages. Since the terminal of the war, the Sri Lanka-Pakistan relationship, which some Indian analysts suggest is encouraged by China to restrain India ‘s influence, has moved beyond weaponries supplies. The two sides have agreed to heighten intelligence-sharing on terrorist act, preparation of Sri Lankan constabularies and other security functionaries in counter-terrorism, every bit good as proviso of $ 200 million in soft recognition to ease trade. However there are bounds to Colombo ‘s relationship with Islamabad. Pakistan ‘s economic system is weak and the authorities has really few resources to put in Sri Lanka ‘s station war Reconstruction. Furthermore, the relationship with Pakistan could go an international liability. Islamabad ‘s reluctance to check down on the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba ( LeT ) , coupled with the turning concern that LeT members are runing from Sri Lanka to transport out onslaughts in southern India should sound dismay bells in Colombo. Any onslaught planned or funded from Sri Lanka by Pakistan-based terrorists would doubtless pull attending to the authorities ‘s failure to forestall its district being used to endanger international peace and security, non to advert sabotage its claims that Sri Lanka is the lone state to get the better of terrorist act.

Increased Profile Of The U.S. And China In Sri Lanka

3. During the war both U.S. and China asserted their functions with greater vision and gained a strong bridgehead. India is to be blamed for this as it facilitated this by playing a hushed function due to self imposed restraints and internal political relations. The war has left Sri Lanka in bad economic province and soon it is confronting two major jobs for which it needs immediate aid. The first is the rapid economic recovery so as to reconstruct and mend the disabling effects of war in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka. The 2nd is the turning force per unit area on Sri Lanka to convey to justice all those involved in war offenses during the behavior of Eelam IV. Though India can neither fit the U.S. or China in run intoing Sri Lanka ‘s economic demands, or act uponing the UN class of action against Sri Lanka which merely the US and China can make. This is traveling to be of import as the international anteroom is likely to come down to a great extent against war offenses in Sri Lanka. Hence logically, President Rajapaksa will wish to suit the U.S. and China more than India. Therefore New Delhi ‘s has to rapidly redefine its scheme towards Sri Lanka.[ 43 ]

Chapter VI


“ The Chinese will Come to Sri Lanka, construct some undertaking and travel, but the Indians will come here, they will construct and they will remain. This is the difference in our relation with China and India. ”[ 44 ]

Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa.

64. In the present universe, planetary power constellation is altering in favor of Asia, peculiarly China and India. The US and the West in general are losing the

Pre-eminent place. Smaller regional states are besides emerging with strong individualities. In this new scene, India finds its challengers doing inroads into Sri Lanka. China ties with Sri Lanka has given it foothold near the critical sea lanes and besides entry into what India considers being its backyard.

65. China ‘s close sea political relations has earnestly disturbed non merely India, but Japan, Australia, the US, and the ASEAN states. Traditionally, India has been the major trading spouse with its neighbors, but China is come ining India ‘s neighboring markets more sharply through assistance, trade and investing. China ‘s increasing demand of energy beginnings and entree to the international markets makes the South Asia and Indian Ocean ports really attractive.

66. Ever since the name ‘string of pearls ‘ gained currency, there have been some concerns among strategic analysts and observers about China ‘s aid and aid in the building of the Hambantota port on the Indian Ocean in Sri Lanka. There is a perceptual experience that it may be damaging to India ‘s strategic and security interests. , as it has possible for double usage.[ 45 ]The port in Hambontota is deeper than the 1 at Colombo, and is to be used as a refueling and docking station for the Sri Lankan Navy. Although China and Sri Lanka claim that this is simply a commercial venture, its future public-service corporation as a strategic plus for China can non be ruled out.[ 46 ]The Hambantota can function China in a figure of strategic ways- :

( a ) It can supply installations for Chinese flagged merchandiser ships, container vass, oil and gas oilers, and military vass including atomic pigboats to run in the Indian Ocean.

( B ) China would be able to set up electronic systems and webs for supervising Indian Ocean military and civilian traffic, electronic transmittals from US base at Diego Garcia and the Indian atomic installation that is likely to come up at Rambilli in the Bay of Bengal.

( degree Celsius ) Hambantota besides offers a strategic location for China to put up its infinite monitoring systems, considered critical for its ballistic missiles, which can dispute US forces peculiarly the aircraft bearers who may endanger Chinese transportation in the Indian Ocean.

( vitamin D ) The Chinese fleet of fishing vass that can besides be deployed for intelligence assemblage responsibilities can be staged from Hambantota.[ 47 ]

67. Hambontota port is a robust illustration of China ‘s purposive battle with Sri Lanka which began in 1950s. A cheep into the bilateral interaction between the two states is implicative of how Beijing had been doing attempts to tribunal Sri Lanka to set up its footmarks at that place. The most blazing illustration of this is the Rubber- Rice Agreement of 1952, which has been renewed from clip to clip. .[ 48 ]

68. India ‘s involuntariness to supply Sri Lanka with violative arms allowed China to make full much of the spread. Beijing has long been Colombo ‘s largest weaponries provider but its support spiked from a few million dollars in 2005 to approximately $ 1 billion in 2008.[ 49 ]Beijing ‘s backup allowed Sri Lankan to win the war while besieging India, disregarding the West and blatantly go againsting the Geneva Conventions. After the war, China strongly opposed the UN Secretary-General ‘s constitution of a panel of experts on answerability for alleged war offenses, indicating out that the Sri Lankan authorities had already set up its ain committee in May 2010. Beijing ‘s importance to Sri Lanka, and the challenge it poses for New Delhi, is economic every bit good as political and military.

Turning Chinese Influence in the Post-LTTE Era

70. In the station LTTE epoch, security concern of India and Sri Lanka has taken an wholly different signifier. India ‘s menace perceptual experiences has grown as China has become more active in Sri Lanka. India is worried over the increasing Chinese influence and its deduction for India ‘s security.[ 50 ]An of import ground for the close ties between the Sri Lankan authorities and China is chiefly due to Beijing ‘s robust indorsement and support of Colombo ‘s behavior in the war against the LTTE. Mahinda Rajapaksa, government has forged a comprehensive strategic relationship with China. China ‘s strategic involvements and assistance diplomatic negotiations have led to shut cooperation between China and Sri Lanka..[ 51 ]

72. The Chinese presence in Sri Lanka has increased so much that there is no major substructure undertaking in which the Chinese have non invested. Besides the Hambantota undertaking, China is involved in several other undertakings on the island. It is building a 2nd international airdrome at Hambantota, a $ 248 million expressway linking the capital Colombo with the airdrome at Katunayake, $ 855 million coal power works at Norochcholai, and besides a acting humanistic disciplines theater in Colombo. India sees this Chinese manouevre as an invasion into its historic domain of Influence. Strategically, it is in India ‘s involvements to maintain its challenger out of its chief domain of influence.

74. India ‘s primary concern is to counter the menace posed by China activities in the Indian Ocean part and in Sri Lanka. India excessively to a limited extent is seeking to heighten it ‘s influence in the part and the same is bearing fruit, whether it is through the constitution of electronic monitoring system in Madagascar and Maldives or the efforts by Indian functionaries to counter efforts of their Chinese opposite numbers to court little but strategically placed states such as the Seychelles or Mauritius. India ‘s Hambantota consulate is aimed at “ maintaining an oculus ” on Chinese activity at that place. Such concern explains India ‘s attempts to construct close dealingss with Japan, Australia and Singapore. As a consequence, many leaders favour closer ties with the US.

Sri Lanka ‘s Response to India ‘s Concern

75. Sri Lanka has responded to India ‘s concerns about the turning Chinese influence in Sri Lanka, by saying India ‘s function in the Sri Lanka to be of a lasting nature, unlike other participants whose battle are limited to commercial undertaking they execute. Sri Lanka contends that China is merely one of the states which were involved in post-war development, and the China factor is raised as a bogy to upset the Indian populace and undermine Sri Lanka ‘s intensifying ties with India. Sri Lanka excessively has contended that it will non originate any action with any other state against India as it would be a ego get the better ofing act. Sri Lanka does non see India ‘s prosperity and power detrimental to them. In fact, Sri Lanka stands to profit from India ‘s prosperity.[ 52 ]

76. The turning Chinese influence in Sri Lanka and India ‘s neighbouring states has made it clear that China is following a planned scheme to encircle India which has deductions for India ‘s security. At the same clip, Sri Lanka has a right to develop close dealingss with China. Though Sri Lanka has taken attention non to let its confederation with China to pique India and has repeatedly clarified that it will maintain India ‘s security concern in head and will non compromise India ‘s security involvements. However there is a demand to follow a proactive attack to prosecute Sri Lanka and carry through its demand so that it did non fall into orbit of any other state.

Chapter VII


“ If the human race wants to hold a drawn-out and indefinite period of stuff prosperity, they have merely got to act in a peaceable and helpful manner towards one another. ”[ 53 ]

– Winston Churchill.

77. Sri Lanka and India have ever had friendly bilateral dealingss, but they were polemically affected by the Sri Lankan civil war and by the failure of Indian intercession during the war. India ‘s attack to Sri Lanka has so far failed to accomplish its stated purposes. Given Colombo ‘s stiff opposition and its willingness and ability to play China off against India and Western powers, India must switch its scheme to accomplish its policy aims. The Rajapaksa disposal ‘s close, militarized and ethnically biased attack to reconstructing the North and east station LTTE, and its repressive and autocratic manner of regulating the whole state, carry existent danger of an eventual return to instability and violent struggle.



78. Even though Sri Lanka celebrated the triumph and marked the terminal of Eelam War IV, the minute of exultation is merely short lived as the challenges before the Sri Lankan authorities are tremendous. The first and first undertaking is to make basic minimal substructure to tender to the indispensable demands of 2.8 lakh war displaced people, presently housed by the authorities in 29 impermanent cantonments in the territory of Vavuniya, Mannar and Jaffna.

Restoration of Faith and Confidence

79. The other major challenge before the authorities is of the the Restoration of assurance and religion in Sri Lankan Tamils, which really few have in the authorities. The undertaking of promoting the people of