Self Brand Congruity On Purchase Decisions Marketing Essay

Abstraction

Purpose – The intent of the paper is to prove whether purchase determination of athleticss equipment amongst consumers is influenced by and in congruity with the Perceived Brand Personality and Self Concept of the individual.

Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was administered on the web. After make fulling up the ego construct graduated table, the respondents were shown the advertizements of the trade names before they filled up the Brand personality graduated tables for the several trade names.

Findingss – Correlation is found to be between self-concept and sensed trade name personality of sportswear trade names for consumers of athleticss wear

Research limitations/implications – The sample dwelling chiefly of pupils may hold introduced a prejudice of greater homogeneousness of perceptual experiences of ego than might be for a broader based population. The three branded merchandises selected for the trial bound the general pertinence of the consequences.

Practical deductions – The survey can be utile to Marketers and Advertisers to understand the consumer behavior in India towards athletic wear and equipments. Therefore, it will assist them section the market better and develop a trade name image congruent to the ego construct of the mark market.

Originality/value – Establishing congruity of Self Concept with Brand Personality for athletic wear and equipment has non been done earlier in the Indian Context.

Keywords – Self construct, Brand Personality, Self Brand congruity, Self image congruity, Sportswear, India

Paper type – Research paper

Introduction

Sellers and advertizers have recognized that merchandises every bit good as services have symbolic images. These images are frequently more of import than even the existent physical properties and features, to a merchandise ‘s success ( Aaker, 1991 ; Triplett, 1994 ) . Sellers have therefore tried making images for their trade names so that they are positioned to suit a distinguishable market section occupied by no other trade name. They aim at making a trade name image that is in congruity with the self-image of the mark consumers ( Aaker and Biehl, 1993 ; Kapferer, 1992 )

This research has been done to prove the relationship between consumers ‘ self-concepts and relevant facets of their consumer behavior with the perceptual experience of trade name personality that they have with regard to three trade names of athletic wear. The congruity between these two facets has been studied.

Self-brand congruousness for the intent of the paper means the congruousness that may be between the self image of a individual and the trade name personality of the merchandise which therefore affects or does non impact the purchase determination of the consumer. This term, though about similar in intending to self-image congruousness, is more specific and conveys the thought more conspicuously.

It is a good known fact that consumer merchandises have significance that goes beyond their useful, functional and commercial value ( Czikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton, 1981 ; Levy, 1959 ; Mick, 1986 ) . Bhat and Reddy ( 1998 ) have said that trade names have both functional every bit good as symbolic significance for clients.

Onkvisit and Shaw ( 1987 ) suggested that “ self-concept is important and relevant to the survey of consumer behavior as many purchases made by consumers are straight influenced by the image persons have of themselves. ” This position has been reinforced by a figure of other research workers ( for illustration Feinberg et al. , 1992 ; Schwer and Daneshvary, 1995 ; Sirgy and Ericksen, 1992 ) .

Literature Review

Self construct may be defined as “ the entirety of one ‘s ideas and feelings holding mention to himself as an object. ” ( Sirgy, 1982 ; Wily,1961 ) . The ego construct is a cognitive construction which in bend is associated with many emotions and feelings. It is besides postulated that ego construct is the cognition of oneself which includes the drive push of other behaviors. ( Zinkham and Hong, 1991 ) . Grubb and Grathwohl ( 1967 ) , constructing upon the theory of single ego sweetening ( Rogers,1951 ) , proposed that ego construct is formed in an interaction procedure between an person and the people around him, and the single shall endeavor to heighten the ego construct in due class of the procedure.

Traditionally, it was assumed that a individual has a stable set of personality traits and hence he or she should act in a similar manner across assorted contexts ( Aaker, 1999 ; Sirgy, 1982 ) . The above premise has been challenged at assorted points of clip in the last twosome of old ages. Persons can hold multiple egos ( Markus and Kunda, 1986 ; Markus and Nurius, 1986 ) where in they act varyingly with different clients and under assorted state of affairss. The basic thought behind this is that different personality traits can be accessed otherwise in different state of affairss ( Aaker, 1999 ; Markus and Kunda, 1986 ) .

Consumer behaviour identifies Self Concept as a multidimensional construct consisting of the undermentioned five constituents: the ideal ego, the evident ego, the societal ego, the perceived ego and the existent ego ( Burns, 1979 ; Markins, 1979 ; Rosenberg, 1979 and Sirgy 1981,1982,1986 ) . The assorted constructs are described by Markins ( 1979 ) at length. Each of them is described as “ the sensed ego is how one sees oneself ; the societal ego is how a individual thinks others perceive them ; the ideal ego is the theoretical account individual one aspires to be ; and the evident ego being how the people really see the individual. The existent ego, hence, is the complex of all the aforementioned ego constructs. ”

The multidimensional ego construct, as explained above, could be used to explicate an person ‘s behaviour with mention to cite groups, sales representatives and viing trade names. This, in bend, could be utilized by sellers to plan and later tweak their selling runs to provide to the mark sections classified as per their ego constructs.

The aforesaid point was substantiated by a figure of surveies conducted over the old ages. Schiffman and Kanuk ( 2000 ) proposed that the 1 ‘s ego perceptual experiences are closely related to one ‘s personality in the sense that the single tends to purchase trade names whose personalities closely correspond to individual ‘s ain ego images. Consumers tend to buy trade names whose personalities are perceived to be congruous with one ‘s ain personality ( Aaker, 1999 ; Kassarjian, 1971 ; Sirgy, 1982 ) .

Brand Personality

Aaker ( 1997 ) defines Brand Personality as “ the set of human features that consumers associate with a trade name. ” Brand personality, by agencies of the traits associated with it, provides the consumer extra grounds to link with a trade name ( Keller, 1998 ) . Brand Personality provides an individuality for consumers that conveys symbolic significance for themselves and to others ( Holman, 1981 ; Solomon, 1983 ) . Aaker used the “ Large Five ” Personality Model to come up with a model that consisted of five trade name personality dimensions. These dimensions were: earnestness ( wholesome, honest, down to Earth ) , exhilaration ( exciting, adventuresome, make bolding ) , competency ( intelligent, confident ) , edification ( capturing, glamourous, smooth ) , and huskiness ( strong, masculine ) .

The NK Malhotra Scale ( 1981 ) besides supports the measuring of the trade name personality by agencies of mensurating the merchandise constructs.

To the extent that different trade names can develop different personalities, they can be differentiated in the heads of the consumer and later, the pick penchants of the client can be altered ( Freling and Forbes, 2005 ; Crask and Laskey, 1990 ) . It was McCracken ( 1986 ) who went on to propose that consumers might seek for trade names whose personalities match their ain ego construct.

Brand Personality in athletics has become a hot subject in the last few old ages ( Gladden and Funk, 2002 ; Gladden and Milne, 1999 ; Parent and Seguin, 2008 ) . In add-on to concentrating chiefly on the jock ‘s personality, many surveies have focused on the development of Brand Personality for a batch of athleticss trade names or equipments ( Gladden and Funk, 2002 ; Gladden and Milne, 1999 ; Parent and Seguin, 2008 ) .

Brand Personality in Sport is affected by a assortment of factors including: packaging, distribution, communicating schemes ( Gwin & A ; Gwin, 2003 ) , consumer interaction with the trade name ( 2005 ) etc.

All the aforesaid schemes have to be taken into head before planing a selling run for athleticss goods or athletic wear.

Self – Image Congruity

Self congruousness indicates the grade of similarity between a consumer ‘s self image or ego construct and that of a trade name. It is the grade of consistence between the ego image and the trade name image ( Sirgy, 1992 ) .

The significance of self-concept prevarications in the fact that in a batch of instances what a consumer bargain is mostly influenced by the image or construct that the consumer has of himself or herself ( Zinkham and Hong, 1991 ) . The consumers, in consequence, usage merchandises to expose their ego constructs to themselves ( Sirgy, 1982 ; Wallendorf and Arnould, 1988 ) .

Since purchase and ingestion are good adequate media of self-expression, therefore consumers put in an attempt to buy and devour merchandises whose image lucifers those of theirs which consequences in Self image Product image congruousness, better known as “ Self-image congruousness ” .

Congruency impacts are desirable as they affect a consumer ‘s self image in a positive mode. On the other manus, incompatibilities and incongruousnesss are likely to ensue in the feeling of insufficiency and dissatisfaction with the picks made ( Johar and Sirgy, 1991 ; and Sirgy and Su, 1992 ) . The above survey has been followed by assorted surveies that substantiate the aforesaid posits. Previously conducted researches indicate that ego – image congruousness can act upon consumer ‘s purchase purposes and their concluding purchase determinations ( Ericksen, 1996 ; Mehta, 1999 ) . Ericksen ( 1996 ) , in a survey conducted for a European car maker, figured out that a relationship did be between Self image Congruity and the concluding merchandise purchased.

Merchandises that are conspicuous in nature and necessitate a strong trade name image / personality might impart to a great extent to the ego construct ( Mehta, 1999 ; Zinkham and Hong, 1991 ) . However, the above premise made is non a given across all merchandise classs. The self image congruousness theory has been tested across assorted merchandise classs. Some of these merchandise classs include: places, auto, vesture, beer etc.

Measurement of Self Concept

Traditionally, the ego construct could be measured by utilizing the semantic differential graduated table or Likert type graduated table. ( Malhotra, 1981 ; Sirgy et. Al 1997 ; Wylie 1981 ) . The ego construct of the single utilizing the given Likert graduated table is obtained. Similarly, the person ‘s perceptual experience of the Brand Personality is obtained by inquiring him to rate the Brand on certain parametric quantities. By comparing the two tonss, the spreads or lucifers between the individual ‘s ego construct and his or her perceptual experience of the trade name personality.

The NK Malhotra graduated table was developed in 1981 to mensurate self constructs, merchandise constructs and individual constructs. The graduated table was developed on certain sound theoretical considerations which were obtained straight from the work of Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum ( 1957 ) . The writer selected a semantic differential graduated table on the mention made in a survey which read “ the semantic derived function graduated table has enjoyed a popularity in market research that is unmatched by any other psychological grading procedure ” ( Green and Tull 1978, p. 191 ) . An initial pool of 70 points was developed to mensurate the ego construct which was shortened down to 27 points after independent ratings by 4 Judgess. After carry oning studies with two samples of 167 pupils and 187 pupils each sing ego constructs and cars and self constructs and histrions severally, a factor analysis was conducted on the 27 points. This was followed by a bunch analysis and later a arrested development analysis to suit these 27 points into a decreased multi-dimensional graduated table. At the terminal of it, a graduated table of 15 points was obtained which came to be known as the NK Malhotra graduated table.

However, Sirgy et Al. 1997 was critical of the traditional methods to calculate the ego construct and trade name personality. The reviews included:

The use of disagreement tonss

The possible usage of irrelevant images

The likely usage of compensatory determination regulation

Sirgy et.al, 1997 hence later proposed an alternate method to measure the person ‘s ego construct. The surrogate method computed the self-image congruity straight instead than indirectly mensurating it through the usage of merchandise user images and ego images. The prognostic cogency of the new method conducted under six different studies provided important support for the comparatively higher predictiveness of the new method over the older one.

Hypothesis

H1: There is correlativity between Self Image and Brand Personality

H2: The congruousness between Self Image and Brand Personality influences purchasing behavior

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In carry oning this research, it was necessary to happen physically tantamount merchandises with different trade name names. This state of affairs was found to refer in the athletic wear trade names which were more or less indistinguishable in design and use but were offered to the clients under different trade name names. The three trade names used were Nike, Reebok and Adidas.

Sample

The population used for the research consisted of station alumnus pupils who had purchased one of these trade names at least one time in the past six months.

The questionnaire was floated on the web. After make fulling up the ego construct graduated table, the respondents were shown the advertizements of the trade names before they filled up the Brand personality graduated tables for the several trade names.

A sum of 168 utile responses were received. All responses were used for the intents of informations analysis.

The research instrument included 15 traits for each of the four parametric quantities being measured, viz. self-concept and the trade name personality for the three trade names taken for the survey. All of these were scored on graduated tables of one to seven.

In the initial stage, respondents were asked to rate themselves on the graduated table. Then, they were shown the advertizements of each of the three trade names which were portion of the survey, and the respondents were asked to rate each trade name on the graduated table, sing the trade names as individuals.

After a clip spread, respondents were questioned about their pick among the three trade names if they would be doing a purchase determination, and their responses were recorded.

Analysis

The analysis on the collected information was done in four phases:

Factor Analysis was conducted on the 15 points of the graduated table for all the four parametric quantities under measuring, viz. Self-Concept and Brand Personality for the three trade names to happen out the factors

Canonic Correlation was performed between the self-concept factors and the trade name personality factors to place which self-concept factors are related to which of the trade name personality factors

The responses were tested for Congruity with regard to each trade name with the respondent ‘s ego construct

Finally, Logistic Regression was performed to estimate the impact of self-brand congruousness on purchase determinations

The graduated table designed by Naresh K. Malhotra, which is used for mensurating self-concept and trade name personality, is a 15-point graduated table. The 15 points representing the graduated table are as below:

Rugged – Delicate

Excitable – Composure

Uncomfortable- Comfortable

Predominating – Submissive

Thrifty – Indulgent

Pleasant – Unpleasant

Contemporary – Non-Contemporary

Organized – Unorganized

Rational -Emotional

Youthful – Mature

Formal – Informal

Orthodox – Broad

Complex – Simple

Colourless – Colourful

Modest -Vain

EFA ( Exploratory factor analysis )

EFA is used to place points that are correlated with each other and therefore placing points for informations decrease. The sample size was 168 and SPSS was used for EFA. Varimax Rotation was used.

RESULTS of EFA

The consequences of Factor Analysis are as below:

For Self-Concept measuring:

Rotated Component Matrixa

Component

1

2

3

SCF1

-.005

.808

.147

SCF2

-.816

-.064

.211

SCF3

.794

.063

.031

SCF6

.705

.336

.004

SCF9

.210

.743

.147

SCF11

.092

-.019

-.081

SCF12

.025

-.072

.798

SCF13

.139

-.131

-.673

SCF14

-.219

-.727

.223

For Brand Personality of the trade name Nike:

Component

1

2

Cumf1

-.113

.223

Cumf3

-.316

.352

Cumf5

-.211

.836

Cumf6

-.230

.529

Cumf7

.128

.784

Cumf9

-.646

.311

Cumf10

-.119

.531

Cumf11

.728

-.007

Cumf12

.740

-.148

Cumf13

.145

-.234

Cumf14

.709

-.019

For Brand Personality of the trade name Adidas:

Component

1

2

3

AD1

-.147

-.086

.664

AD3

.191

-.041

.749

AD4

-.107

.104

-.137

AD5

.946

-.160

.097

AD6

.946

-.160

.097

AD7

.387

-.014

.059

AD9

.182

-.714

.163

AD10

.351

-.013

.626

AD11

-.282

.633

-.010

AD12

-.063

.735

.134

AD14

.152

.744

-.380

For Brand Personality of the trade name Reebok:

Component

1

2

R1

.366

-.114

R4

.031

.673

R5

.849

-.072

R6

.279

-.244

R7

.856

.200

R11

.073

.717

R13

-.322

.236

R14

-.051

.799

Canonic correlativity

Following measure was canonical correlativity. Canonic correlativity is the correlativity between two sets of variables. One of these sets is covariate i.e. independent while other set is dependent. Canonic correlativity can be used in many-to-many relationships unlike multiple arrested development and hence is rather utile in survey affecting human behavior where the variables have many causes and many effects.

In our survey, though the graduated table was same while mensurating self construct every bit good as mensurating perceived trade name personality of the three trade names involved, it was used in different contexts and hence we wanted to set up correlativity between the two sets of variables involved. We analyzed correlativity of ego construct with trade name personality of each of the three trade names individually. The consequences were as follows:

Canonic correlativity between Self construct and perceived trade name personality of Nike:

The of import consequences obtained were as follows:

Trial Name

A Value

A Approx. F

A Hypoth. DF

A Error DF

Sig. of FA

Wilks

A .03974

A 5.09515

A 117.00

A 1104.67

A .000

Along with Wilk ‘s Lambda consequences for few other trials like Pillai ‘s, Hoteling ‘s and Roy ‘s were produced in SPSS, nevertheless Wilk ‘s Lambda is the most common method of analysis. The significance of F ( p-value ) is shown merely up to 3 decimals and we can see that it is less than.05 connoting that the void hypothesis is rejected and therefore we can state that a correlativity exists between the two sets of variables. However, we ca n’t construe the magnitude of correlativity from these consequences and hence we will look into some extra consequences.

Eigenvalues and Canonical Correlations

Root No. Eigenvalue Pct. Cum. Pct. Canon Cor. Sq. Cor

1 1.14476 25.99836 25.99836.73058.53375

2 1.04607 23.75700 49.75536.71502.51126

3 1.01838 23.12809 72.88344.71032.50455

4.44604 10.12977 83.01321.55539.30845

5.32992 7.49268 90.50589.49807.24807

6.20079 4.56005 95.06594.40892.16721

7.12439 2.82507 97.89100.33261.11063

8.07704 1.74961 99.64061.26745.07153

9.01582.35939 100.00000.12481.01558

Here the root no. represents the canonical map and there would be as many maps as there are variables in smaller set which is 9 here in instance of forecaster set i.e. set of variables in ego construct. The highlighted 3 rows are the most important as the first 3 maps we see explain sensible sum of discrepancy within their maps. ( 53.37 % ,51.12 % and 50.45 % severally ) . Even maps 4 & A ; 5 have sensible values of squared correlativity. ( 30.84 % and 24.8 % ) . Here there is no direct manner of proving each map individually alternatively they are tested in hierarchal manner i.e. first map 1 to 9, so map 2 to9 and so on. The concluding maps are frequently weak and are non that important.

Next we will see the correlativity between dependant and canonical variables and correlativity between covariate and canonical variable to set up relationship between the two sets of variables. ( We will be making this for map 1 and 2 merely )

Note: For inside informations about all the variable abbreviations used in canonical correlativity, position appendix. The concerned variables of import for analysis have been explained in consequence and reading subdivision for each trade name.

Correlations between DEPENDENT and canonical variables

Function

Variable 1 2

NF1.34068 -.21506

NF2 -.24706 -.55803

NF3 -.08692.34345

NF4 -.07453 -.20539

NF5.31850.44634

NF6.48801 -.25030

NF7.43841.19583

NF10 -.16064.01503

NF11 -.07411 -.09405

NF12 -.05688 -.58835

NF13 -.61180 -.21632

NF14 -.05226 -.58495

NF15 -.19784.00495

Structured coefficients above the value of.45 are emphasized here. ( therefore shown in bold above and afterlife ) . We will now be looking at similar structured coefficients for forecaster variables and eventually will set up relationship between the two sets for the trade name Nike.

Correlations between COVARIATES and canonical variables

Function

Covariate 1 2

SPF1.44324 -.22463

SPF2 -.36539 -.32056

SPF3.57424.13014

SPF6.67345.00658

SPF9.53882 -.59274

SPF11.41887.21475

SPF12 -.38726 -.05687

SPF13 -.19134 -.40352

SPF14 -.47597 -.21490

Consequence and Interpretation:

We observe that for map 1, NF13 ( complex-simple ) was the primary dependant variable while SPF6 ( contemporary-noncontemporary ) was the dominant forecaster variable. Negative value for NF13 and positive value for SPF6 implies there is reverse relationship.

A major consequence which we can reason from this is respondents who viewed themselves as modern-day, perceived Nike as simple trade name while those who viewed themselves as non-contemporary viewed Nike as complex trade name.

Apart from this dominant variable, there are secondary variables which showed that those who viewed themselves as modern-day perceived Nike as modern-day. ( relation between NF6 and SPF6- direct relation ) .

Similarly we can make analysis for map 2, but here map 1 is most of import as it is explicating 53 % of discrepancy already.

After holding explained canonical correlativity process in item for Nike we will merely concentrate on consequences and reading for Adidas and Reebok. The process and methodological analysis ofcourse remains the same.

Canonic correlativity between Self construct and perceived trade name personality of Adidas:

Trial Name

A Value

A Approx. F

A Hypoth. DF

A Error DF

Sig. of FA

Wilks

A .03814

A 7.01778

A 90.00

A 1020.83

A .000

Eigenvalues and Canonical Correlations

A

A

Root No. Eigenvalue Pct. Cum. Pct. Canon Cor. Sq. Cor

1 1.45383 31.12585 31.12585.76972.59247

2 1.37175 29.36863 60.49448.76051.57837

3.76189 16.31171 76.80619.65759.43243

4.47091 10.08203 86.88822.56582.32015

5.33323 7.13431 94.02253.49994.24994

6.15569 3.33318 97.35571.36703.13471

7.06015 1.28773 98.64344.23819.05673

8.03813.81633 99.45977.19165.03673

9.02523.54023 100.00000.15688.02461

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Correlations between DEPENDENT and canonical variables

Function No.

Variable 1 2

AF1.23568.58707

AF3.53498 -.21399

AF4.26208.17315

AF5.04233.25354

AF7 -.01386.20354

AF9.20822.09973

AF10 -.19976.09118

AF11 -.08510.24071

AF12 -.38568 -.46187

AF14 -.72613.12300

Correlations between COVARIATES and canonical variables

Covariate 1 2

SPF1.13449.53805

SPF2 -.40742 -.29325

SPF3.21251.25056

SPF6.92235.10881

SPF9.22708.68236

SPF11.17285.11867

SPF12 -.22835 -.24360

SPF13.07747 -.08953

SPF14 -.22155 -.79739

Consequence and Interpretation

The significance of F in Wilks lambda and the squared correlativity in Eigen value tabular array shows that correlativity exists between ego construct and perceived trade name personality.

SPF6 i.e. contemporary-non-contemporary came out to be the most ascendant predictable variable in map 1. It has direct relationship with dependent variable AF3 ( dominating-submissive ) and reverse relationship with AF14 ( colourless-colurful ) .

Therefore we can reason that those who view themselves as modern-day perceived Adidas as dominating and colourful.

Similar analysis can be done on map 2 but here once more function 1 explains most of the discrepancy and hence is given the precedence in reading.

Canonic correlativity between Self construct and perceived trade name personality of Reebok:

Trial Name

A Value

A Approx. F

A Hypoth. DF

A Error DF

Sig. of FA

Wilks

.04145

A 8.84436

A 72.00

A 926.08

A .000

Eigenvalues and Canonical Correlations

A

A

Root No. Eigenvalue Pct. Cum. Pct. Canon Cor. Sq. Cor

1 2.76750 53.38006 53.38006.85707.73457

2.98443 18.98784 72.36790.70433.49608

3.78155 15.07477 87.44267.66234.43869

4.25180 4.85678 92.29945.44850.20115

5.20719 3.99636 96.29581.41428.17163

6.14785 2.85176 99.14757.35890.12881

7.04415.85149 99.99906.20562.04228

8.00005.00094 100.00000.00698.00005

Correlations between DEPENDENT and canonical variables

Function No.

Variable 1 2

RF1.20689 -.28800

RF4.24627.47619

RF5.04741 -.45784

RF6 -.27067.23955

RF7.40571 -.21959

RF11.51645.43659

RF13 -.19108.22969

RF14.83414.27238

Correlations between COVARIATES and canonical variables

Function No.

Covariate 1 2

SPF1.14842 -.23339

SPF2.09861.57714

SPF3.44594 -.30822

SPF6 -.34575 -.11950

SPF9 -.15437 -.18270

SPF11.66461.41903

SPF12.04396.07343

SPF13 -.09267.17924

SPF14 -.11675.64681

Consequence and Interpretation

The significance of F in Wilks lambda and the squared correlativity in Eigen value tabular array shows that correlativity exists between ego construct and perceived trade name personality.

The most of import consequence for Reebok is for map 1 as it explains 73 % of discrepancy. Here we observe a direct relationship between SPF11 ( formal-informal ) and RF14 ( colourless-colourful ) . We can reason that those respondents who see themselves as formal perceive Reebok as colourless and those who view themselves as informal perceive Reebok as colourful.

The secondary reading is a direct relationship between SPF11 and RF11 which means respondents who view themselves as formal perceive Reebok as formal and those who view themselves as informal perceive Reebok as informal.

Arithmetical operations to prove the congruousness

After canonical correlativity, our following aim was to prove congruousness of each respondent with each factor. This analysis was done in Microsoft excel for two grounds 1 ) comparative easiness in making arithmetic operations such as average 2 ) our methodological analysis involved two-step recoding which would hold been cumbersome to make in SPSS

The arithmetic operations were as follows:

Step1 ) Find out the median for each factor for each of Self-concept, Nike, Adidas and Reebok

Step2 ) For each factor find out if answering prevarications on same side of median for concerned trade name.

Step3 ) If respondent lies on same side, the respondent has self-image congruousness for that factor for that trade name.

Step4 ) Carry out step2 autonomic nervous systems step3 for all factors and for all trade names.

Step5 ) Recode Congruity as ‘1 ‘ and incongruousness as ‘2 ‘

Step6 ) Recode Nike as ‘1 ‘ , Adidas as ‘2 ‘ and Reebok as ‘3 ‘ .

After this the information was copied in SPSS to make logistic arrested development. Further recoding utilizing SPSS was done for each trade name where if a peculiar respondent has chosen Nike, so for its variable, he would hold value 1 else 0. Therefore 3 variables were obtained after recoding: BPNike ( Brand personality-Nike ) , BPA ( trade name personality-adidas ) and BPR ( trade name personality-reebok ) . In the terminal, logistic arrested development was done for each trade name.

Logisitc arrested development

In our instance, polynomial logistic arrested development was carried out for each of the dependant variable, BPNike, BPA and BPR stated above. Please note that in BPNike, BPR and BPA we have stored respondents who have chosen that trade name and those who have n’t by recoding into ‘1 ‘ and ‘0 ‘ .

The consequences were as follows:

Nike:

Parameter Estimates

BPNike

A

Bacillus

Std. Mistake

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp ( B )

95 % Confidence Interval for Exp ( B )

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Lower Boundary

A

Intercept

-1.45233

1.482104

0.960225

1

0.32713

A

A

A

SN1

-0.05782

0.377268

0.023485

1

0.878202

0.943824

0.450567

A

SN3

0.302292

0.363335

0.692212

1

0.405413

1.352957

0.663762

A

SN5

0.307141

0.375314

0.66971

1

0.413153

1.359533

0.651511

A

SN6

0.186969

0.365465

0.261728

1

0.608936

1.20559

0.589

A

SN7

0.375267

0.009006

1

0.924393

1.036255

0.496637

A

SN9

0.548287

0.370102

2.194691

1

0.138487

1.730286

0.837697

A

SN10

0.030628

0.35794

0.007322

1

0.931811

1.031101

0.511237

A

SN11

0.160792

0.347876

0.213638

1

0.64393

1.174441

0.593907

A

SN12

0.718166

0.371583

3.735419

1

0.05327

2.050669

0.989929

A

SN13

-0.35832

0.356268

1.011559

1

0.31453

0.698849

0.347638

A

SN14

-0.83515

0.349706

5.703271

1

0.016933

0.433809

0.218589

Consequence and Interpretation:

From the consequences we ca n’t reason that the purchasing behavior of Nike was strongly impacted by the trade name personality properties and respondent ‘s self-image congruousness. Merely SN14 that is perceptual experience of trade name Nike as ( colourless-colourful ) had some impact on purchase behavior of respondents.

Adidas:

Parameter Estimates

BPA

A

Bacillus

Std. Mistake

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp ( B )

95 % Confidence Interval for Exp ( B )

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Lower Boundary

A

Intercept

-4.56844

2.183464

4.377668

1

0.036413

A

A

A

AN1

0.008845

0.410522

0.000464

1

0.98281

1.008884

0.451237

A

AN3

0.528877

0.433618

1.487631

1

0.222584

1.697026

0.725424

A

AN4

2.591741

0.635918

16.61042

1

4.59E-05

13.353

3.839585

A

AN5

0.875548

0.473999

3.411972

1

0.064725

2.40019

0.947932

A

AN6

0.472563

2.486671

1

0.114814

0.474643

0.187984

A

AN7

1.087561

0.415534

6.850056

1

0.008864

2.967028

1.31407

A

AN9

1.059727

0.475623

4.964352

1

0.025875

2.885582

1.136011

A

AN10

-0.70752

0.437562

2.614541

1

0.105888

0.492866

0.209062

A

AN11

-0.27065

0.418109

0.419021

1

0.517426

0.762884

0.336174

A

AN12

-0.24835

0.436628

0.323536

1

0.569491

0.780083

0.331499

A

AN14

-0.10447

0.452812

0.053233

1

0.81753

0.900798

0.370845

Consequence and Interpretation:

In instance of Adidas, there was strong impact of trade name personality properties and self-image congruousness on purchasing behavior of respondents who preferred Adidas. The factors which affected the most were AN4 ( thrifty-indulgent ) , AN7 ( organized-unorganized ) and AN9 ( youthful-mature ) . That is client who found self-congruence with Adidas on factors such as disbursement wonts, traits such as organized-unorganized and adulthood degrees were most likely to purchase Adidas.

Reebok:

Parameter Estimates

BPR

A

Bacillus

Std. Mistake

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp ( B )

95 % Confidence Interval for Exp ( B )

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Lower Boundary

A

Intercept

-8.14435

3.105038

6.879844

1

0.008717

A

A

A

RS1

-1.09401

0.505265

4.688191

1

0.030371

0.334871

0.124393

A

RS4

2.480285

0.760907

10.62526

1

0.001116

11.94467

2.688368

A

RS5

0.747156

0.516665

2.091243

1

0.148145

2.110988

0.766831

A

RS6

1.282353

0.692408

3.429972

1

0.064023

3.605112

0.927983

A

RS7

0.909054

13.2517

1

0.000272

27.36372

4.60667

A

RS11

-0.73985

0.571498

1.675938

1

0.195465

0.477185

0.155678

A

RS13

0.109592

0.488669

0.050295

1

0.82255

1.115823

0.428193

A

RS14

1.513422

0.725566

4.350767

1

0.036992

4.542247

1.095639

Result an Interpretation:

In instance of Reebok, there was strong impact of trade name personality properties and self-image congruousness on purchasing behavior of respondents who preferred Reebok. The factors which affected the most were RS1 ( excitable-calm ) , RS4 ( thrifty-indulgent ) , RS7 ( organized-unorganized ) and RS14 ( colurless-colurful ) . That is client who found self-congruence with Reebok on factors such as excitement degree, passing wonts, traits such as organized-unorganized and manner of life were most likely to purchase Reebok.

Summary of overall consequences

Correlation ( obtained from canonical correlativity consequences )

There is strong correlativity between self-concept and trade name personality for each of the 3 trade names. The factors deferred in instance of each trade name. For Nike, it was contemporariness of ego and complexness of trade name personality which affected the correlativity most. For Adidas, it was between contemporariness of ego with ruling perceptual experience of trade name while for Reebok it was correlativity between formality in nature of ego with sensed colurfulness of trade name personality.

Buying behavior

There is strong impact of certain trade name personality attributes on purchasing behavior of clients. This nevertheless was really outstanding in instance of Adidas and Reebok. Nike did n’t demo any such consequences. For Adidas it was factors such as disbursement wonts, traits such as organized-unorganized and adulthood degrees which were most likely to ensue in purchase determination of purchasing Adidas. For Reebok, it was factors such as excitement degree, passing wonts, traits such as organized-unorganized and manner of life which were most likely to ensue in purchase determination of purchasing Reebok.

IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH

Congruity surveies have been performed earlier in the West, but this survey gives an penetration of the impact of congruousness on purchase determinations in an Indian context. From the sellers ‘ position, the consequences of this survey have multiple branchings.

It will assist sellers section the market and aim their publicities efficaciously. It besides reveals which traits play a more of import function in act uponing purchase determinations in instance of each trade name. Therefore, it identifies the “ differentiating properties ” in footings of making consumer perceptual experience for each trade name. Similarly, which parametric quantities do non make an impact strong plenty to act upon purchase determinations can besides be identified.

Hence, the survey can besides function to estimate the impact of promotional runs.

Finally, this survey helps in understanding the behavioral facet of consumers of athleticss equipments.

Restriction

The chief restriction of this survey was that it relied on a convenience sample of university pupils, non needfully representative of all university pupils or the general population. The sample was besides skewed with more work forces than adult females. Consequences of this survey should non be generalized beyond the group of pupils in the sample.

The usage of pupils may hold introduced a prejudice of greater homogeneousness of perceptual experiences of ego than might be for a broader based population. The three branded merchandises selected for the trial limited the general pertinence of the consequences.

The graduated table used is the N.K. Malhotra graduated table developed in 1981. Its relevancy in the present twenty-four hours is an issue of contention.