Retail Sector In India : Opportunities And Challenges

Retailing is a distribution channel map, where one administration buys merchandises from providing houses or industries merchandises themselves, and so sells these straight to consumers. The retail industry is divided into organized and unorganized sectors. Organized retail such supermarkets histories for merely 4 % of the market as of 2008. India, in the first place in 2009, scaled back to the 3rd place in 2011. The retail concern in India is estimated to turn at 13 % from $ 322 billion in 2006-07 to $ 590 billion in 2011-12. A good endowment pool, limitless chances, immense markets and handiness of quality natural stuffs at cheaper costs is expected to do India catch the universe ‘s best retail economic systems by 2042, harmonizing to industry participants. This paper covers the growing narrative of organized retail in India, challenges and future chances in this sector.

Keywords- Retail, Wholesale, FDI, Franchise, Strategic Licensing.


Retailing is the interface between the manufacturer and the single consumer purchasing for personal ingestion. This excludes direct interface between the maker and institutional purchasers such as the authorities and other majority clients. A retail merchant is one who stocks the manufacturer ‘s goods and is involved in the act of selling it to the single consumer, at a border of net income. As such, retailing is the last nexus that connects the single consumer with the fabrication and distribution concatenation. Retailing is one of the pillars of the economic system in India and histories for 13 % of GDP.

The retail industry is segmented into organized and unorganized sectors. Over 12 million mercantile establishments operate in the state and merely 4 % of them are larger than 500A sqA foot ( 46A M2 ) in size. Organised retailing refers to trading activities carried out by accredited retail merchants, that is, those who are registered for gross revenues revenue enhancement, income revenue enhancement, etc. These cover the corporate-backed hypermarkets and retail ironss, and besides the in private owned big retail concerns. Unorganised retailing, on the other manus, refers to the traditional formats of low-priced retailing, for illustration, the local kirana stores, proprietor manned general shops, paan/ beedi stores, convenience shops, manus cart and paving sellers, etc. In India, a tradesman of such sort of stores is normally known as a dukandar.

Most Indian shopping takes topographic point in unfastened markets and 1000000s of independent food market stores called kirana stores. Organized retail such supermarkets histories for merely 4 % of the market as of 2008.Regulations prevent most foreign investing in retailing. Furthermore, over 30 ordinances such as “ signboard licenses ” and “ anti-hoarding steps ” may hold to be complied before a shop can open doors to clients. There are revenue enhancements for traveling goods to provinces, from provinces, and even within the provinces.

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2.The larger Picture

Global Retail Development Index ( GRDI ) , one-year study of 30 emerging markets conducted by A.T.Kearney, helps retail merchants to develop the schemes of their planetary enlargement while ranking the commercial attractive force of these states. Tonss are based on 25 variables including political and economic hazards, the retail market growing and impregnation. This twelvemonth, Middle East and North Africa are the most attractive parts.

India, in the first place in 2009, scaled back to the 3rd. While retail growing is expected to travel on, the flow of foreign retail merchants, an attractive existent estate, but limited and expensive, and limitations in Foreign Direct Investments, have pushed the retail trade near adulthood. In fact, most retail merchants are now concentrating on a profitable growing and force their development programs like Bharti Retail. Established retail merchants are embarking into new shop formats: community shopping, small town promenades and finish shopping shop etc. Foreign retail merchants still interested in this state are chiefly supermarket ironss. But, existent estate is a existent challenge for them due to a excessively high commercial supply and a deficiency of quality sites in urban countries.

Retail gross revenues are estimated at $ 410 billion ( or 375 billion harmonizing to assorted beginnings ) and organized retailing still accounts for 5 % merely. Gross saless might lift to $ 535 billion by 2013 including 10 % for the organized retailing.

While China and India continue taking their fast enlargement, the Asia-Pacific part is no longer the merely 1 to be attractive. In Middle East markets, growing is still superb and Latin America resisted the recession rather good. Further, this alteration of the competitory landscape shows that houses have to compare different markets for assorted chances.

3. Growth

Organized retail is a new phenomenon in India and despite the current downswing in the market, the market is turning exponentially, as economic growing lifts more of India ‘s people into the consuming categories and organized retail enticements more and more existing shoppers into its unfastened doors.

An increasing figure of people in India are turning to the services sector for employment due to the comparative low compensation offered by the traditional agribusiness and fabrication sectors.

The retail concern in India is estimated to turn at 13 % from $ 322 billion in 2006-07 to $ 590 billion in 2011-12. The unorganised retail sector is expected to turn at approximately 10 % per annum with gross revenues expected to lift from $ 309 billion in 2006-07 to $ 496 billion in 2011-12.

Beginning: AT Kearny

4. The Indian Retail Market

Indian market has high complexnesss in footings of a broad geographic spread and distinguishable consumer penchants changing by each part asking a demand for localisation even within the geographic zones. India has highest figure of mercantile establishments per individual ( 7 per 1000 ) Indian retail infinite per capita at 2A sqA foot ( 0.19A M2 ) / individual is lowest in the universe Indian retail denseness of 6 per centum is highest in the world.1.8 million families in India have an one-year income of over Indian Rupee a‚?45 hundred thousand ( US $ 99,900 ) .

Diging further into consumer purchasing wonts, purchase determinations can be separated into two classs: status-oriented and indulgence-oriented. CTVs/LCDs/LEDs, iceboxs, rinsing machines, dish washers, microwave ovens and DVD participants fall in the position class. Indulgence-oriented merchandises include state-of-the-art place theater systems, camcorders, iPods, high-end digital cameras, , and bet oning consoles. Consumers in the position class bargain because they need to keep a place in their societal group. Indulgence-oriented purchasing happens with those who want to bask life better with merchandises that meet their demands. When it comes to the festival shopping season, it is chiefly the status-oriented section that contributes mostly to the retail merchant ‘s hard currency registry. The tabular array shows the ingestion disbursement of people in India in per centum.

Consumption disbursement in India




Leisure and amusement

Manner accoutrements

Consumer durable goodss

Health, beauty and drug company



Books and Music


Beginning: Pantaloon Retail 2009 analyst study

While India presents a big market chance given the figure and increasing buying power of consumers, there are important challenges as good given that over 90 % of trade is conducted through independent local shops. Challenges comprises of: Geographically dispersed population, little ticket sizes, complex distribution web, small usage of IT systems, restrictions of mass media and being of imitative goods.

5.Business theoretical accounts for entry in Indian markets

Due to the FDI limitations the international participants are looking for alternate avenues to come in the Indian markets. However FDI limitations in retailing have non deterred outstanding international participants from puting up stores in India. At present entry into India ‘s retail sector can be done through three different paths. The chart below shows the current formats permitted by the Government of India for the international participants.

5.1 Entry Options A For Foreign Players prior to FDI PolicyA

Although prior to Jan 24, 2006, FDI was non authorised in retailing, most general participants had been runing in the country.A Some of entryway routesA used by them have been discussed in amount as below: –

1.A A A A A A A A Franchise AgreementsA

It is an easy path to come in the Indian market. In franchising and committee agents ‘ services, FDI ( unless otherwise prohibited ) is allowed with the blessing of the Reserve Bank of India ( RBI ) under the Foreign Exchange Management Act. This is a most usual manner for entryway of speedy nutrient bondage opposite a world.A Apart from speedy nutrient bondage indistinguishable to Pizza Hut, participants such as Lacoste, Mango, Nike every bit good as Marks every bit good as Spencer, have entered Indian market place by this path.

2.A A A A A A A A Cash And Carry Wholesale TradingA

100 % FDI is allowed in sweeping trading which involves edifice of a big distribution substructure to help local makers. The jobber deals merely with smaller retail merchants and non Consumers. Metro AG of Germany was the first important planetary participant to come in India through this route.A

3.A A A A A A A A Strategic Licensing AgreementsA

Some foreign trade names give sole licenses and distribution rights to Indian companies. Through these rights, Indian companies can either sell it through their ain shops, or enter into shop-in-shop agreements or administer the trade names to franchisees. Mango, the Spanish dress trade name has entered India through this path with an understanding with Piramyd, Mumbai, SPAR entered into a similar understanding with Radhakrishna Foodlands Pvt. LtdA

4.A A A A A A A A Manufacturing and Wholly Owned Subsidiaries.A

The foreign trade names such as Nike, Reebok, Adidas, etc. that have wholly-owned subordinates in fabrication are treated as Indian companies and are, hence, allowed to make retail. These companies have been authorised to sell merchandises to Indian consumers by franchising, internal distributers, existing Indian retail merchants, ain mercantile establishments, etc. For case, Nike entered through an sole licensing understanding with Sierra Enterprises but now has a entirely owned subordinate, Nike India Private Limited.

6. Opportunities

AT Kearney ‘s survey on planetary retailing tendencies found that India is the least competitory every bit good as least saturated of all major planetary markets. This implies that there are significantly low entry barriers for participants seeking to setup base in India, in footings of the competitory landscape. The study farther stated that planetary retail merchants such as Walmart, Carrefour, Tesco and Casino would take advantage of the more favorable FDI regulations that are likely in India and enter the state through partnerships with local retail merchants. Other retail merchants such as Marks & A ; Spencer and the Benetton Group, who operate through a franchisee theoretical account, would most likely switch to a intercrossed ownership construction.

A good endowment pool, limitless chances, immense markets and handiness of quality natural stuffs at cheaper costs is expected to do India catch the universe ‘s best retail economic systems by 2042, harmonizing to industry participants.

The retail industry in India, harmonizing to experts, will be a major employment generator in the hereafter. Presently, the market portion of organized modern retail is merely over 4 per centum of the entire retail industry, thereby go forthing a immense untapped chance. The sector is expected to see an investing of over $ 30 billion within the following 4-5 old ages, catapulting modern retail in the state to $ 175-200 billion by 2016, harmonizing to Technopak estimations.

6.1 The Potential of the Indian Retail Sector

The high growing projected in domestic retail demand will be fuelled by:

The migration of population to higher income sections with increasing per capita incomes

An addition in urbanisation

Changing consumer attitudes particularly the increasing usage of recognition cards

The growing of the population in the 20 to 49 old ages age set.

There is retail chance in most merchandise classs and for all types of formats

Food and Grocery store: The largest class ; mostly unorganised today.

Home Improvement and Consumer Durables: Over 20 per cent p.a. CAGR estimated in the following 10 old ages.

Apparel and Eating Out: 13 per cent p.a. CAGR projected over 10 old ages.

Opportunities for investing in supply concatenation substructure: Cold concatenation and logistics.

India besides has important possible to emerge as a sourcing base for a broad assortment of

goods for international retail companies

Many international retail merchants including Wal-Mart, GAP, JC Penney etc. are already securing from India.

7. Challenges in Retailing

The industry is confronting a terrible deficit of gifted professionals, particularly at the in-between direction degree.

Most Indian retail participants are under serious force per unit area to do their supply ironss more efficient in order to present the degrees of quality and service that consumers are demanding. Long intermediation ironss would increase the costs by 15 per cent.

Lack of equal substructure with regard to roads, electricity, cold ironss and ports

has farther led to the hindrance of a pan-India web of providers. Due to these

restraints, retail ironss have to fall back to multiple sellers for their demands,

thereby, raising costs and monetary values.

The available talent pool does non back retail sector as the sector has merely late

emerged from its nascent stage. Further, retailing is yet to go a preferable calling

option for most of India ‘s educated category that has chosen sectors like IT, BPO and

fiscal services.

Even though the Government is trying to implement a unvarying value-added revenue enhancement

across provinces, the system is presently plagued with differential revenue enhancement rates for assorted

provinces taking to increased costs and complexnesss in set uping an effectual

distribution web.

Rigorous labor Torahs govern the figure of hours worked and minimal rewards to be paid taking to limited flexibleness of operations and employment of parttime employees.

Multiple clearances are required by the same company for opening new mercantile establishments adding to the costs incurred and clip taken to spread out presence in the state.

The retail sector does non hold ‘industry ‘ position yet doing it hard for retail merchants to raise finance from Bankss to fund their enlargement programs.

Lack of Retailing Courses and survey options.

Intrinsic complexness of retailing – rapid monetary value alterations, changeless menace of merchandise obsolescence and low borders.

Government limitations on the FDI are taking to an absence of foreign participants ensuing into limited exposure to outdo patterns. Non-availability of Government land

and zonary limitations has made it hard to happen a good existent estate in footings of

location and size. Besides deficiency of clear ownership rubrics and high cast responsibility has resulted

in disorganised nature of minutess.

8. FDI or No FDI, India needs more retail merchants & A ; increased retail

Government ‘s favorable negotiations on Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) last twelvemonth ignited aspirations in many of the planetary participants to be among the first movers into a virgin retail district i.e. India. The issue of FDI has been debated clip and once more as the Indian Government has been under force per unit area to open up farther. The policy shapers continue to research countries where FDI can be invited without aching the involvement of local retail community. The Government of India allows FDI merely in the hard currency and carry formats and to the extent of 51 per cent in individual trade name retail. This brings an chance for Indian endeavor to join forces with planetary big leagues and convey in planetary best patterns in the concern of retailing.

Pro-active policy devising for retail industry would be welcome to guarantee that the consumers benefit from pick, handiness, better quality & A ; good pricing. All the current talk of retail industry growing has been buoyed by the growing of Indian macro economic system over the last few old ages. Once the industry growing rate stabilizes, this “ comfort factor ” would necessitate attending & A ; all futuristic growing programs need to be rational about this.

9. Decision

Liberalization of the Indian economic system and rationalization of concern processs have already ensured a high economic growing with a quickly spread outing base for the fabrication and hi-end services sectors. Fresh avenues for paid employment to a preponderantly immature and gifted population have created high disposable incomes that translate in to higher ingestion and therefore better chances for all verticals of Retail to boom.

Favorable demographic and psychographic alterations associating to India ‘s consumer category, international exposure, handiness of quality retail infinite, wider handiness of merchandises and trade name communicating are some of the few factors that are driving the retail in India. Over the last few old ages, many international retail merchants have entered the Indian market on the strength of lifting richness degrees of the immature Indian population along with the heightened consciousness of planetary trade names, international shopping experiences and the increased handiness of retail existent estate infinite.

Identifying growing countries, traversing barriers, making new markets – fulfilling categories every bit good as functioning the multitudes, Indian endeavors need to spread out the skyline of Indian retail.