Qualitative And Quantitative Techniques Management Essay

This chapter presents the methods of informations aggregation and analysis with the justification behind them. It besides describes the process used for informations analysis and besides explains the statistics that can be employed in supplying replies to research inquiries.

Research is the systematic hunt for information or a procedure of enquiry. A systematic hunt for information can be carried out in libraries, research labs, classrooms, infirmaries, clinics and mills, in pages of the Bible, on street corners, in hayfields and woos, in places or in a herd of elephants. ( Graziano and Raulin, 1989 ) . Research method is a systematic and orderly attack taken towards the aggregation and analysis of informations so that information obtained from these informations ( Jankowicz, A.D, 2000 ) . Methodology can be referred to as the manner in which we approach jobs and seek replies ( Taylor and Bogdan, 1998 ) .

Focus will be based on the penchant of methods used during the research work as it relates to schemes and tools necessary for informations assemblage and analysis. It will do accent on the different methods available and warrant why one method was chosen over the other. First, there will be an scrutiny of different research doctrines available which includes the rationalist, interpretivist and phenomenological. The advantages every bit good as the disadvantages of each method will be looked into exhaustively and one will be selected. In add-on, the suitableness of both qualitative and/or quantitative nature of the research will be brought frontward. Afterwards, the informations assemblage method will be emphasised which are in the signifier of questionnaires, observation, interviews. Besides, the pick of participants will be identified and so explained. Last, the restrictions of the sample used will be given.


Harmonizing to Patton ( 2002 ) , Philosophy is chiefly concerned with strictly set uping, modulating and bettering the methods of cognition creative activity in all Fieldss of rational enterprise, including the field of direction research. It is more strict and an enquiring attitude of the head than an academic subject as largely assumed by many people.

Kuhn ( 1962 ) as cited in Lowe et Al ( 1991 ) used the term “ paradigm ” to depict the advancement of scientific finds in practise. There are several paradigms about research doctrine and the word paradigm is the development in scientific practises based on a homo ‘s doctrine and premises about the universe and cognition of nature. The most appropriate philosophical place from which methods should be derived are as follows ;




3.2.1 Positivism

Kolakowski ( 1972 ) said the term “ positive doctrine ” was coined by Auguste Comte ( 1798-1857 ) and it has lasted down to the present clip in the shorter signifier of “ positivism ” . Positivists contend that phenomena should be isolated and that observations should be quotable. Easterby-Smith et Al ( 1991:37 ) stated that “ the cardinal thought of positivism is that the societal universe exists externally and that its belongingss should be measured through nonsubjective methods instead than being inferred subjectively through esthesis, contemplation or by intuition ” . They stated further that the chief characteristics of the positivism paradigm are as follows ;

Basic belief:

The universe is external and nonsubjective

Observer is independent

Science is value-free

Research worker should:

Expression for causality and cardinal Torahs

Reduce phenomena to simplest component

Formulate hypotheses and so prove them

Preferred methods include:

Operational constructs so that they can be measured

Taking big samples.

Harmonizing to Keat and Urry ( 1975 ) , all scientific disciplines go through three phases of development: the theological, the metaphysical ; and the positive. In the first phase which is the theological phase, all events are caused by the exercising of the will of the Gods, or the will of God. In the metaphysical, abstract construct such as “ kernel ” replace the will of God, and so while in the concluding or positive phase, the subject gives up the pursuit for absolute cognition in the sense of the “ concluding will ” or “ first cause ” and alternatively turns toward endeavoring to spot the jurisprudence through relationships of coexistence and sequence by utilizing techniques of observation, experimentation and comparing.

In more general footings, Kolakowski ( 1972 ) described the word positivism as a aggregation of prohibitions refering human cognition intended to restrict the name “ cognition ” or “ scientific discipline ” to the consequences of those operations that are discernible in the development of modern scientific disciplines of nature. Albeit the mammoth paces of the rationalist doctrine, there are nevertheless, several unfavorable judgments that seems to dispute its acceptableness as highlighted by the Frankfurt school ( a group of sociologists composing in the center of twentieth century ) . A figure of these are based on the fact that positivism concentrates merely on things that can be observed and are hence categorised as being “ on the surface ” , instead than things which are hidden or the implicit in links between them. In add-on to this, it is incapable to gestate of the possibility of things being otherwise than they are.


Harmonizing to Gregor ( 2004 ) , interpretivists reject the construct of theory impersonal observations and the thought of cosmopolitan Torahs as in scientific discipline. It has been observed that advocates of these persuasions ( i.e. interpretivism ) portion the aim of groking the complex universe of lived experience from the point of position of those who live it. Interpretivist methodological analysiss do put lament accent on the thought that “ subjective provinces of head ” demand to be understood and taken into history when reexamining the societal universe.

As opposed to the rationalist doctrine, Goulding ( 1998 ) expressed the sentiment that in interpretivist doctrine, it is of extreme importance to recognize that question is ever context edge and facts should be viewed as both theory laden and value laden and the thought that findings are theory loaded remainders on the basic proposition that research workers approach the research state of affairs with a theoretical position developed from their academic background and personal involvements. Research workers will besides hold their ain personal paradigm or basic belief system, their values, which will mostly command ontological and epistemic underpinnings. This led to O’Callaghan saying that the research worker should hold:

A position to construct analysis from

An consciousness of substantial issues steering the research inquiries

A school of idea to assist sensitize the emergent constructs ; and

A grade of personal experience, values and precedences. This harmonizing to Guba and Lincoln ( 1994 ) aid to separate between what is known and so what can be discovered.

3.2.3 Phenomenology

The Oxford English Dictionary defines “ Phenomenology ” as the scientific discipline of phenomena as distinct from being ontology as that division of any scientific discipline which describes and classifies its phenomena. In its root significance, so, phenomenology is the survey of phenomena: literally, visual aspects as opposed to world.

Phenomenology is the survey of “ phenomena ” : frontage of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we experience things. Loughlin ( 1993:11 ) defined phenomenology as: “ The procedure of suspending opinion about the being of the universe around us by puting in suspension or parentheses our commonsense presuppositions about the universe and the relationship between the perceiving consciousness and objects in external world ” . Likewise, but in a much simpler term, Gray ( 2004:21 ) argues that: “ Phenomenology insists that we must put aside our predominating apprehension of phenomena and revisit our immediate experience of them in order that new significances may emerge ” .

Harmonizing to the Stanford encyclopedia of doctrine, phenomenology surveies constructions of witting experience as experienced from the first individual ‘s point of position along with other conditions of experience. Therefore, the term phenomenology covers these scopes of experiences among others. Basically, phenomenology surveies the construction of assorted types of experience runing from perceptual experience, thought, memory, imaginativeness, emotion, desire, and will to bodily awareness, embodied action, and societal activity, including lingual activity. This paradigm is associated with obtaining and understanding people ‘s perceptual experiences and feelings. It focuses on the ways that people make sense of the universe particularly through sharing their experiences with others via the medium of linguistic communication. ( Easterby-Smith et Al, 2002 ) .

For the intent of the research, the phenomenological attack will be implemented in order to accomplish a figure of valid decisions. Apparently, the rationalist attack would be a really unrealistic attack to follow merely because it would be impracticable that all respondents would give exactly the same replies to the inquiries. Since positivism depends on absolute consequences so different replies given by different respondents would thereby distort the process. In add-on, a phenomenological attack must be implemented so that the analysis of the responses given by the respondents will non be capable to bias and prejudice by the individual who will carry on the research. Therefore, the analysis should be done every bit objectively as possible.



Quantitative research is typically to be exemplified by the societal study and by experimental probes ( Bryman, 1988 ) . He farther explained that it is frequently conceptualised as holding a logical construction in which theories determine the jobs to which research workers address themselves in the signifier of hypotheses derived from general theories. Harmonizing to Denzin and Lincoln ( 2002 ) , the usage of qualitative informations in any research has its ain attractive forces ; it carries with it an aura of scientific reputability because it uses Numberss, nowadayss findings in the signifier of graphs or figures and tabular arraies and conveys a sense of solidness. One of the cardinal characteristics of this method is the preciseness with which research designs are established at the beginning of the survey. It is frequently used to analyze research aims that lie within the functional paradigm. Collis and Hussey ( 2003 ) cited illustrations of quantitative methods that are now good accepted in the societal scientific disciplines, these include study methods, research lab experiments, formal methods ( e.g. econometrics ) every bit good as numerical methods such as mathematical modeling.


Harmonizing to Tesch ( 1990 ) , Qualitative research is concerned with significance and the manner people understand things and besides concentrate with regard to form of behavior. Van Maanen ( 1983:9 ) defined qualitative technique as “ an array of interpretative techniques which seek to depict, decode, translate and otherwise come to footings with the significance non the frequence of certain more or less of course happening phenomena in the societal universe ” . It is frequently acceptable in analyzing research aims that are within the kingdom of the phenomenology paradigm. Qualitative research tends to be associated with participants observation and unstructured, in-depth interviewing ( Easterby-Smith et Al, 2002 ) . Techniques such as interviews and/or observations are considered chiefly associated with qualitative method.

Harmonizing to Collis and Hussey ( 2003 ) , both qualitative and quantitative methods have their advantages and disadvantages and they are stated below ;

Advantages of Qualitative method:

Data and analysis are grounded and world based.

Tolerance of ambiguity and contradiction acknowledges societal being.

Richness and item of informations, in-depth and focussed towards little graduated table research

A chance of alternate account draws on accomplishments of the research worker.

Disadvantages of Qualitative method:

Data possibly unrepresentative due to little sample.

Interpretation is bound up with the research worker, findings more cautious and probationary.

Danger of oversimplifying the account.

There is a possibility of de-contextualising the significance if reading is taken out of context.

Advantages of Quantitative method:

Confidence – credibleness in footings of readings

Measurement – readings based on mensural measures

Analysis – blink of an eye and research workers can interrogate consequences rapidly.

Presentation – good organised with table and charts

Scientific analysis appears to be based on nonsubjective Torahs.

Disadvantages of Quantitative method

Data overload – analysis can be complex and research can acquire swamped.

False promise – can accomplish informations hole with use to demo significance degree

Quality of informations – merely every bit good as the method ( s ) used in the aggregation of informations.

For the intent of this research both qualitative and quantitative methods will be implemented. The quantitative method will be used to obtain primary informations while the quantitative method will used to obtain every bit good as analyse secondary informations. These methods have been chosen because the quantitative attack makes it possible to mensurate the reactions of many people to a limited set of inquiries and as such enhances comparing and statistical collection of informations for the primary beginning while the qualitative attack allows for an addition of apprehension of the instances and state of affairss under survey ( in this instance the secondary beginning ) . Quantitative research allows the possibility to confirm the prevalence and strength of specific attitudes and behavior, across a representative sample. Demographic and regional differences will be highlighted in each study every bit good as fluctuations by chief administrations studied ( in this instance, Bankss ) .

Qualitative research method was implemented so as to do available thorough apprehension of the beliefs and attitudes driving administrations ‘ demands in scheme pick for Information Technology, enabling alterations to be identified in its aim. The commercial Bankss in Nigeria will be used as a instance survey, each at the same phase in IT scheme execution ( after consolidation scheme was implemented ) in the Nigerian banking industry. It is note worthy that a thorough scrutiny of experiences can offer great penetrations that might non of all time be grasped in a controlled scene. Here lies the possible value of implementing qualitative research method for this work.

Figure 4.6 shows the age group of the assorted clients that participated in the research. The 18-25 and 26-35 age scope made up approximately 60 % of the entire population, while the remainder made up the staying 40 % . In figure 4.7, 31.6 % stated their penchant to High IT, while 42.2 % preferable Medium IT and 26.2 % went with Low IT. Most of the respondents within the Low IT were from people aged from 46 and supra, in the same manner, the respondents that made up the 60 % of the entire population largely opted for High IT.

This questionnaire was fundamentally designed to demo relationship between IT execution with effectual client services which in bend brings about client satisfaction. On the norm of the full scope of services, a lower limit of the mean mean of 3.56 out of a possible 5 on a likert graduated table was obtained bespeaking an above mean satisfaction of the assorted services that IT provides. The study carried out besides showed their positive attitude/response with regard to IT execution. Most clients were really pleased with the great betterment on balance question, statement coevals and history rapprochement. This so answers the research inquiry set out in Chapter One of this survey, that on what norm is client ‘s response to motivate and effectual service bringing in the banking sector? The reply is given above with regard to client ‘s satisfaction.

The above agrees with findings Irechukwu ( 2000 ) who conducted an probe on IT execution in the banking sector and came to the decision that banking services ( such as history gaps, interlingual renditions carried out and recorded every bit good as client history authorization ) have been transformed as a consequence of implementing these groundbreaking engineerings. This besides agrees with findings Agboola ( 2002 ) who investigated on the impact of computing machine mechanization on banking services in Lagos and discovered a positive consequence of computing machine mechanization with regard to improved and effectual service bringing which resulted in an addition in client satisfaction. Besides there is a strong correlativity with the responses obtained from the bank staff, who to a really big extent agreed that there has been an betterment in service bringing and speedy minutess. Ovia ( 2000 ) besides provided grounds of Bankss offering flexibleness to bank clients with regard to minutess and operations of history ; the above findings and analysis by the research worker agrees with Ovia ( 2000 ) .

There has been important betterment in across- the- counter minutess. The banking hall is every bit a more contributing environment, which is delighting to both the clients and to the member of staff likewise.