Occupational health is the protection and promotion of the health of the worker, the identification and control of health risks in the workplace, including not only physical, chemical and biological, but also psychological and social factors that may have adverse effects on health and labor productivity
( Torp, S. & Moen, 2013).
Zain Abbas, et al (2014) stated that occupational health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being for workers in all professions.
Occupational health and safety is a multidisciplinary approach that is mainly focused on the health, safety and welfare of people who work at work (Schuster, 2011). Safe working environment gives many benefits directly and indirectly. The immediate beneficiaries are the workers themselves as well as the company. Generally consumers, contractors, insurance companies, families and society are the indirect beneficiaries of occupational safety (Mossink, 2012).
Occupational health and safety can help to improve the employability of workers with the best design in the workplace, provide a healthy and safe working environment, train and evaluate work requirements, medical examination, health examination (Qamar et al., 2014).
The health factor is essential for sustainable social and economic development at the global, global and local levels. The traditional approach to health and safety in the workplace has focused mainly on enforcement of legislation and assessment of premises to ensure compliance with health and safety standards ( Torp, S. & Moen, 2013).
In developing countries, occupational health and safety is more serious due to many factors, such as inadequate medical facilities and the illiterate workforce. There is a lack of reliable data on accidents, deaths and occupational injuries (Hogstedt & Pieris, 2012).
However, most accidents are not reported to the Ministry of Labor until there are no OSH data available. Diseases and accidents are a terrible tragedy in the workplace. Since thousands of workers are routinely exposed to hazardous chemicals, the incidence of occupational diseases and injuries is very high (Leamon, 2013).
The situation of health workers in each country has a direct and direct impact on the national economy. Health workers are the most productive and useful. The textile industry is one of the most dynamic industries in Egypt. Workers are exposed to various environmental factors, especially in the spinning and weaving sectors, which play a role in the high rate of industrial health risks (Burkean, 2012).
High accident rates, occupational diseases, and unhealthy work environments are the product of introducing risk techniques into the industry. The majority of the labor force is illiterate and unfamiliar with preventive measures to be adopted during its work. Most manpower is unwilling to deal with the risks posed by manufacturing and industrial processes (Ahsan & Partanen, 2013).
Most countries do not have the basic and qualified infrastructure to provide occupational health and safety services to the workforce. Therefore, a large number of workers will be at risk if no future attempts are made to improve Oh & S.(Ahsan & Partanen, 2013). The rate of rapid change in working life will also require increased flexibility, taking into account occupational health, hygiene and safety requirements in different workplaces (Leamon, 2013).
The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that nearly 2.2 million people die from work-related causes each year. Every 15 seconds, a worker dies of an accident or a work-related illness. Every 15 seconds, 153 workers have a work-related accident. Every day, 6,300 people die as a result of occupational accidents or work-related illnesses – more than 2.3 million deaths a year. 317 million accidents occur during work each year. Many of these resulted in a long absence of work ( ILO, 2016).
The rate of fabric accidents is high in various fabric processes and takes the form of direct trauma, deformity, bruising, fractures and accidents involving fingers and hands. Accidents are a major cause of absenteeism among workers (El Sewfy et al,. 2012).
Workers’ morale was severely damaged by unsatisfactory industrial conditions. These conditions force workers to leave their jobs (Smallman and John, 2013).
Workers often need to wear protective equipment to protect against injury, illness and death from workplace hazards (AAOHN, 2012).
The use of proper lighting system is very necessary. This would better prevent the labor force against many eye diseases. The workplace environment is very unhealthy and as a result workers suffer from allergies, skin diseases and rashes. Ventilation system of textile plants creates many respiratory problems and diseases among workers (Rana, 2012).
The World Health Organization (WHO) contributes to the idea that the workplace can be a place where accidents, diseases and health are protected. Moreover, the workplace is able to provide an environment to improve or shape good health. Health workers are industrious and raise healthy families. The health worker plays a vital role in overcoming poverty. Safe environments for workplaces contribute to the development of sustainable development in the country (Qamar et al., 2014).
Health promotion is an essential part of the mandate of a health professional. Doctors, nurses, health workers and health educators will play different roles in promoting health in the workplace and should be trained accordingly. The role of the occupational health nurse is to educate, examine and advise workers, as well as to assess the control of health risks while keeping pace with the development and advancement of health promotion programs ( CDC, 2013).
In Egypt, workers’ safety and health have been a worrying legal issue since the beginning of the last century. The first legislation on occupational health in Egypt dates back to July 1909. It concerns the employment of children in cotton mills. This was followed by a number of laws including sections dealing with the health and well-being of factory workers. Law No. 91 covers the employment of workers, working conditions and occupational safety and health agencies, as well as penal provisions.
The regulations have been developed and gradually expanded to cover all risks and economic sectors. It should be noted that Egyptian legislation on occupational safety and health was widely promoted in July 2003. It now covers a large part of the requirements and provisions of the ILO’s major occupational safety and health Conventions ( WHO,2013 ).
This study went to explore the problems and needs and the factors responsible for maintaining the occupational health and safety for workers in the textile industry. It may be useful in the formulation of educational sessions for textile workers in order to increase awarness of workers’ related to health and
Aim of the study
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of occupational health program for workers in textile industry through:
1. Assessing the occupational health hazards among the workers in textile industry.
2. Assessing workers’ knowledge and practices as regarding occupational hazards, safety measures and first aid in textile industry.
3. Designing and implement of occupational health program on safety and health protection from industrial hazards.
4. Evaluate the effect of occupational health program on workers regarding safety measures for textile industrial workers.
Occupational health program for textile workers will improve their knowledge and practice regarding safety measures.
This part describes briefly some of the key features of the basic concepts that make up Occupational Health. It discusses the rationale as well as the aims and goals for which Occupational Health was set up. It further examines the effects of Occupational Health on both the employer and the employee. The need for occupation health was also explained.
Occupational Health and Safety (OS) is an area concerned with the safety, health and welfare of working or working persons (Abrams, 2012).
As defined by the World Health Organization, “Occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and is strongly focused on primary prevention of hazards” ( WHO, 2015).
In addition, occupational health is a multidisciplinary area of health care in relation to enabling an individual to carry out his or her job, at least to the detriment of his or her health. Health has been defined as contradictory, for example, with the promotion of health and safety at work, relating to the prevention of harm from any accidental risks, arising in the workplace ( WPRO, 2015)
It is regrettable that some employers have little responsibility for protecting the health and safety of workers. Indeed, some employers do not even know they have moral responsibility and legal responsibility to protect workers. As a result of threats and lack of attention to health and safety, work-related accidents and diseases are common throughout the world ( ILO, 2015).
In developed countries, infection is the leading cause of disability and mortality. In the developing world with demographic transition and epidemic epidemics occur injuries have become a relatively more important cause of health years than loss of life. In Egypt there are different reasons for industrial accidents such as noise, chemicals, machinery, fire, energy, explosion and fall ( ILO, 2015).
The objective of occupational health is to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all professions such as prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions, and also aims to protect workers in their work from the risks caused by adverse factors to health. In addition the development and maintenance of the worker in a professional environment adapted to physiological and psychological abilities ( WHO, 2015).
The main objective of occupational health is to promote the health and safety of people at work through prevention and early intervention. Occupational health and safety affect not only the worker but also his family and other senior members and his community (Salazar, 2014).
Although work provides many economic and other benefits, a wide range of workplace hazards also pose risks to the health and safety of people at work. These include, but are not limited to, “chemicals, biological agents, physical factors, uncomfortable favorable conditions, allergens, complex network of safety hazards” and a wide range of psychological and social risk factors. Personal protective equipment can help protect against many of these risks ( concha etal., 2015).
Education is the fundamental right that helps the nation grow. Education helps workers to gain knowledge about medical rights, legal and social behavior. Most uneducated people do not know occupational health and safety in the workplace. Helps educators acquire information through accident prevention training, hospital facilities and safety signs (Nazia Mlik, 2013).
Factors Affecting Occupational Health
Asogwa, 2014 stated that many factors have affected the successful outcome of occupational health, especially in the developing world, where a lack of geographical access to occupational health services negatively affects efforts to improve the occupational health conditions of workers in most cases, especially where the occupation is in a remote area. In addition to the highway system and transport services in most developing countries, they do not provide efficiently. This situation makes it very difficult to reach workers in rural or small towns away from large urban centers. Many of these workers work in appalling conditions.
More quality and quantity of health services affect occupational health conditions and persistent poverty in most countries remains a critical determinant of occupational health conditions. In most cases, people in developing countries are unable to obtain basic necessities for food, housing, public services, clothing and safety for survival ( Asogwa, 2014).
Another factor as noted by Mayers, (2013) that Affect occupational health and income associated with the level of education. The lower the level of education, the lower the wage.
This means that malnutrition generally affects the health of the worker. Some workers find it difficult to meet the minimum food requirements even if they spend their entire household wages on food only. For example, in some studies, it was found that the calorie requirements of workers in textile industries are 3,500kcal / day. Some people had a calorie intake of less than 2,500 kcal / day. This created a vicious cycle of malnutrition, reflected in both health and work outcomes, which in turn led to lower wages, making it more difficult to purchase food ( Mayers, 2013).
Factors that Contribute to Health Problems of Workers
Factors that contribute to the problems of workers in the field of work include: physical, psychological, social, behavioral and health systems (Clark, 2014).
Human biological factors are those related to maturity, aging, genetic heredity, and physiological functions. Another problem based on contributions is the situation in which there is a shortage of skilled manpower and the inability of employers to impose a retirement ban at a certain age.
These health problems are related to the work environment, and personal behaviors of employees both inside and outside the work environment. Other problems that may occur are breaks out of skin diseases that indicate a risk in the work environment that needs control measures (Clark, 2014).
Psychological problems anxiety and stress may appear as a result of pressures associated with excess work, organizational structure of occupation, job insecurity, interpersonal relationships and interpersonal relationships with co-workers, employers or supervisors, attitudes or discrimination in the workplace (Clark, 2014).
The social environment of the working situation can affect the employee’s health situation either positively or negatively. The nature of the impact depends on social interactions between staff and attitudes towards work and health (Clark, 2014).
They include lifestyle factors to be considered; the type of work done, consumption patterns, test patterns, exercise and the use of safety devices. The type of work done by the employee in the framework can significantly affect the health of the employee. Identifies the risk of exposure to various physical risks and stress level experienced. Important consumption patterns include food and nutrition, smoking and drug use (Clark, 2014).
Causes of Occupational Diseases
Anderson, 2013 listed the factors responsible for the elimination of occupational diseases as follows: lack of protection devices (safety) by employers of workers, inadequate or non-use of safety devices by the worker concerned. Non-compliance with the company’s rules can prepare the worker for different diseases. Also the health status of the worker. The worker who is sick is likely to be affected and confirmed, and poor personal and environmental hygiene. Early investigations may be initiated early or workers may be screened to identify those who are likely to have been ill or indeed ill. Types of medical examination should include x-ray examination and laboratories.
Other causes of occupational diseases lack most of the containment, prevention and exposure to defective equipment and tools. As well as exposure to skin factors that can be subjective. These substances include gold absorption, arsenic mercury and biological factors and mechanical factors. As well as toxic substances and hazardous agents such as contaminated food, vegetables and fruits. Over neglect of workers and dangerous lifestyles such as excessive smoking, uncontrolled and messy ingestion. The inability of the worker to conduct the medical examination as a precautionary measure (Khogolaiz., 2013).
Health and safety programme
Workers and employers are informed of health and safety hazards at the workplace. Effective workplace health and safety programs can help save workers’ lives by reducing risks and their consequences. Health and safety programs also have positive effects on workers’ morale and productivity, which are important benefits. At the same time, effective programs can provide employers with a great deal of money (Allender, 2015).
Occupational health professionals
Occupational health professionals should assist workers in obtaining and maintaining work, not with existing health deficiencies or disabilities, on the basis of the principle of equity. The health needs of workers should be recognized as determined by factors such as gender, age, physiological status, social aspects, communication barriers or other factors ( OSHA, 2015).
Occupational health professionals are intended to include all those who, in their professional capacity, perform occupational safety and health, provide occupational health services or participate in the exercise of occupational health. Occupational health professionals include physicians, occupational health nurses, factory inspectors, occupational health professionals, occupational psychologists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation therapists, accident prevention, improved work environment and occupational health and safety research. The trend is to mobilize the efficiency of these occupational health professionals within the framework of a multidisciplinary team approach (Mallon et al., 2015).
The health and safety representative is found in any organization, the main role is to work proactively (this means taking action before becoming a problem problem) to prevent workers from being exposed to occupational hazards, this is done through a good knowledge of the various hazards in the workplace and possible solutions to control On those hazards, work hand in hand with the Federation and the Employer to identify and control the risks as shown in Figure 1 (Umeokafor et al., 2014).
Figure ( 1 ) The role of occupational health professional
International Labour organization 2015 available at : http://training.itcilo.it/actrav_cdrom2/en/osh/intro/inmain.htm
Occupational Health Service
The introduction of the concept of basic health-care services has its roots in the 1978 Declaration of the World Health Organization’s Alma-Ata, which states: “Primary health care is basic, scientifically sound, socially acceptable, and is the first level of interpersonal communication Family and community with the national health system that brings health care as soon as possible to the places where people live and work. ”
More than 80 percent of the world’s 3 billion workers live without access to occupational health services (Ohs). Although several reliable bodies, including the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), many professional organizations and workers’ organizations, have already stressed the need for services for several decades. Coverage, ie, the proportion of workers and workplaces with access to services, is shrinking today rather than expanding. ILO Convention No. 161 on Occupational Health Services and the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All call for the organization of services for all workers in the world. This remains elusive, and coverage is unlikely to expand without concerted efforts. To meet new health and safety needs, WHO has embarked on a new global plan of action on workers’ health and the ILO has issued a global strategy on occupational safety and health and ILO Convention No. 187 on the promotional framework (WHO ; ILO, 2013).
Objectives of BOHS
Basic occupational health services are essential for protecting the health of people at work, promoting health, well-being and work capacity, as well as preventing ill health and accidents. The Pohus program provides services using socially sound and socially acceptable occupational health approaches through primary health care approaches. The objective of basic occupational health services is to ensure the provision of services to all the world’s workplaces in both industrialized and developing countries (Ladou, 2013).
Activities and content of BOHS
In many international guidelines, it has been emphasized that occupational health and safety must be multidisciplinary and address not only health, but also safety, comfort, psychological, social, organizational and technical aspects of work and working conditions. In terms of quality the scope of BOHS activities follow this principle, but as resources are often available only doctor and nurse, multidisciplinary content must be achieved with the help of adequate training for BOHS staff, if possible, with support services. The Bohs model content is described in Figure 2.
Figure ( 2 ) The flow scheme of activities within the framework of BOHS
Mizoue T, Higashi T, Muto T, Yoshimura T, Fukuwatari Y.
Occup Med (Lond). 2013 Feb;46(1):12-6.PMID:8672787
The BOHS cycle follows the conventional action model: identification of needs ?> assessment of problems ?> management of actions ?> evaluation of effect ?> revision of the programme. The various steps indicated in Figure have a dual target: the work environment-oriented activities (outside the action cycle) or the worker-oriented activities (inside the action cycle), and often both simultaneously. It is important to see BOHS as a functional process instead of a number of separate actions (Mizoue etal., 2013).
Functions Of Occupational Health Service
Pre-employment medical examination, first aid and emergency service, supervision of the work environment to control hazardous materials in the work environment, special periodic medical examination especially for workers in hazardous operations. Health education to disseminate information about hazards and risks identified in the work environment, private examination and health monitoring, advice to the employer or management to improve working conditions, risk status, monitoring of the work environment for risk assessment and control, supervision and sanitation, hygiene and canteen facilities, Safety, maintaining medical records for medical examination and follow-up to maintain health standards (Higashi et al., 2012).
Factors that affect occupational health services
Many factors can affect occupational health services as the nature of the industry; small, medium or large and location, existing infrastructure for health services and trained manpower. As well as the participation of workers and the commitment of employers, and monitoring the working environment through epidemiological studies and tests (Alli, 2014).
The textile industry is one of the oldest industry in the world. The oldest known textiles, dating back to about 5000 BC, are scraps of linen cloth found in Egyptian caves. The industry was primarily family and local one until the first part of the 1500s, when the first plant system was established. Today, the textile sector in Egypt consists of more than 3,000 companies, ranging from very small companies (employing less than 8 workers) to very large companies (more than 20,000 workers). These companies are both public and private.
The textile industry is the fifth largest source of foreign profits. It is the second largest industrial sector in Egypt and represents 25% of the total industrial production.Processing of Cotton Based Textiles
Cottons and cotton-based textiles are processed through three main stages, comprising spinning, knitting or weaving and wet processing.
Preparatory processes – preparation of yarn
Ginning, bale-making and transportation is done in the country of origin.
– Opening and cleaning
known as a lap as shown in figure 3. (Majeed, 2012).
Figure (3) Opening and cleaning machine
Majeed, A (January 19, 2012), Cotton and textiles — the challenges ahead, Dawn-the Internet edition, retrieved 20-02-12
– Blending, Mixing & Scutching
The scrolling machine works by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then beating it with iron bars or steel bars called beater or racket (Hills, 2013).
Carding: The fibers are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver or two) at the close of this stage.The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibres as shown figure 4 (Hills, 2013).
Figure (4) carding machine
Hills, Richard Leslie (2013), Power from Steam: A History of the Stationary Steam Engine, Cambridge University Press, p. 244, ISBN 0-521-45834-X, retrieved January 2013
Is optional, but is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn as shown figure 5 (Hills, 2013).
Hills, Richard Leslie (2013), Power from Steam: A History of the Stationary Steam Engine, Cambridge University Press, p. 244, ISBN 0-521-45834-X, retrieved January 2013
Many slides are merged. Each sliver will have thin and thick spots, and by combining several fragments together they can reach a more consistent size. Since the combination of many fragments produce a very thick rope of cotton fibers, immediately after the combination of the slides are separated into the Ruffings. These Ruffings (or Sloopings) are then used in the spinning process (Collier, 2015).
Spinning is a process that converts raw fibers into filaments or filaments. The fibers are prepared and then drawn and twisted to form the yarn, then the wound is on a reel or cone. The spinning process is completely dry, although some threads may have been dyed and finished as the final product for customers. The spinning process is illustrated graphically (Saxonhouse, 2014)