The chief topic for treatment in making relevant goods is consumer ‘s perceptual experience of the merchandise itself. Peoples are different as their positions for certain things differentiate from each other. Pull offing and planing proper communicating to convey the most of import features of merchandises to consumer has become effectual due to the survey of possible costumier ‘s attitude and beliefs. For illustration, when it comes to the visual aspect of the merchandise and some will believe of it as important property, attempts should be made to be assured that clients see the merchandise position desirable. However, it is non possible to concentrate merely on one facet. Same merchandise can transport different values for different people. Therefore, it becomes significant to place which facet is the most important one for consumers in order to pull off the merchandise successfully.
In order to understand and unwrap existent motivations behind buying symbolic merchandises the selling research was carried out. The aim of research was to place motivations taking people to purchase aroma.
1. Theoretical facets for buying symbolic merchandises
1.1. Merchandise categorization identified by demands
A individual is driven by a figure of demands or wants which motivates him or her to purchase a peculiar merchandise. Motivation itself defined as a drive force within personalities that impels them to action ( Shiffman, Kanuk, 2010 ) . The procedure of motive is built around human demands, which in the most general signifier is experiencing of deficiency of certain things. The end to carry through the demands generates motive. Depending on type of demand people do desire to fulfill different types of motive can be defined. Harmonizing to the assorted theoretical attacks there are several ways to categorise demands. One of them divides them into functional, hedonistic and symbolic demands.
Functional needs originally motivate people to seek for merchandises that solve ingestion related issues, which can be current or future issues. For illustration, buying a garden scissors solves a current demand whereas purchasing burglar dismay, which prevents a possible job.
On the other manus hedonic ( experiential ) demands are those that desire for merchandise that provides centripetal pleasance and cognitive stimulation. For illustration, people can take winging first category to bask gourmet repasts and plusher seats.
Finally, symbolic demands are defined as desires for merchandises that fulfil internally generated demands for self-enhancement for function place, group rank, or ego-identification ( article ) . These demands relate to how people perceive themselves, how they are perceived by others, and the regard that others give them.
1.2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on symbolic merchandise penchant
As Hirschman ( 1982 ) argues, symbolism constitutes an of import beginning of invention, and by pass oning new and different societal significances, a merchandise can run as a symbolic invention.
Harmonizing to Truong, McColl and Kitchen ( 2010 ) purchasing a symbolic merchandise such as aromas or new and stylish apparels may depend on two basic sort of motives-
Intrinsic – individualism, relationship, assurance
Extrinsic – public assistance, popularity, self-image.
The Intrinsic motivations are those motivations which are internally driven and fulfilled by a individual for complacency. The exhilaration of conveying a new acquisition back from the store, demoing it to friends and household members are of import dimensions of sing these symbolic merchandises. The feelings related to new merchandises in the metaphoric portrayals include exhilaration, felicity, joy, and wonder. When a consumer purchases such merchandises, a period of geographic expedition Begins. A individual involves himself in purchase of these merchandises for some particular juncture or jubilation every bit good irrespective of their gender, age and cultural capital degree.
The Extrinsic motivations are those motivations which a individual fulfils because of one or the other external factor. A consumer purchases these symbolic merchandises in order to demo their position and power in a society. These merchandises have long been associated with power and position. Harmonizing to Marx ( 1954 ) , such expensive merchandises reflect the category dealingss within the society. Marx regards this as the most important agencies through which societal differentiations and inequalities among people are constructed, experient and legitimized. Symbolic merchandises may besides be purchased to exhibitionist and to affect the group a individual will look in.
1.3. Low and high degrees of merchandise engagement
Another facet of specifying consumer ‘s motivations to buy symbolic merchandises is people ‘s engagement into the buying procedure. Harmonizing to Schiffman and Kanuk ( 2010 ) the degree of engagement with a merchandise alters depending on person ‘s involvement. Some people may be passionate to purchase a new suit tie ining it with their life style and societal credence while others prefer to buy the same merchandise as ordinary apparels for the occupation. This is what they call the construct of digesting and situational engagement harmonizing to Schiffman. The deep-rooted sort of digesting engagement explains that the connexion between the consumer and merchandise ballads on the use of symbols and images.
By concentrating in specific symbolic merchandise class – aroma, consumer engagement can diversify get downing from high engagement to low. In old surveies Kapferer and Laurent identified five chief facets of consumer ‘s motivations in purchasing symbolic merchandises:
Merchandise significance. Peoples buy their favorite merchandise when there is a connexion between them, if merchandise represents consumer ‘s self-image, values, or demonstrates of import characteristics. However, based on the survey, it is a next-to-last motivation for buying a aroma.
Emotional attractive force. For some consumer being emotionally attached to the merchandise plays an of import function. For illustration, many purchasers of Nokia phones remain loyal to that trade name explained by affinity for the merchandise even if its functional visual aspect is non every bit good as Apple ‘s Iphone.
Changeless involvement in merchandise. Consumers who have certain involvements in one class of merchandises will invariably buy it, for illustration voguish people.
Degree of hazard. Several types of hazards can be gained changing from fiscal, physical, societal or technological. Nevertheless, hazard is considered as the least of import 1 among all constituents to buy a aroma.
Identified as a norm by society. All people live in the society and every society has its ain regulations and norms, so the bulk of consumers buy certain merchandises to run into these demands, for illustration if girl wants to travel to the graduation party or ball, she must purchase a frock even if she does non have on it normally. Therefore, by the research “ badge value ” was identified as the most important motivation in purchasing aromas.
In order to understand and to unwrap the existent motive towards symbolic merchandises buy behaviour the selling research was carried out. The mark population focused on immature people age between 20-30 old ages. The research was conducted through organizing two focal point groups, which consisted of eight respondents each. The focal point groups were divided by gender for work forces and adult females to understand variant factors relevant to consumer motives behind purchasing aromas. Perfume, which is the bright illustration of symbolic merchandises, was chosen to be a subject for treatment in focal point groups meetings.
The obtained consequences of the research shows, that, ab initio, women`s attitude towards perfumes overall, is chiefly cognitive, they perceive the aroma as something personal and inseparable from themselves.A For a inquiry “ why do you like your favorite aroma ( s ) , ” the group was meeting in two minds.A The first 1 is that every aroma associates with the certain temper, for case, if the temper is cheerful and playful, adult females opt more flowered and sweet olfactory properties, whereas the sense of unhappiness and melancholy forces them to take profound and fresh aromas.A Consequently, it can be noted that the aroma in some manner emphasizes the current internal province of the person. The 2nd position is based on the fact that a peculiar odor plays a important function in making the ego image through which individual is identified by other members of the society. One of the respondents elucidated that when she has an of import twenty-four hours for her as a presentations or interviews, she picks a stronger aroma, which helps her to experience equanimous and represents her as a serious person.A Two other respondents besides agreed in that the usage aroma to construct up particular character ; they prefer bold and recognizable olfactory properties in order to pull attending and to place themselves as self-assured personalities.
Different replies were received when inquiring the chief inquiry about the motive that stands behind the purchase. Generally, females stated out that they buy aromas to be liked by opposite sex, to make recognizable image, to experience belonging to the manner and humanistic disciplines universe ( one of the participants pointed out she considers its design of the bottle as a work of art ) , every bit good as to be alone and separate from the remainder of the crowd. As it can be seen, all of these motivations are emotional instead than rational. Harmonizing to the group treatment, rational motivations does non inflowing buying procedure much, it was identified that aroma perceives as one of the manner of self look, societal function designation and merely at last resort it is a mean of protection from unpleasant odor. During the conversation it was defined that for bulk of respondents extrinsic motivations are more valuable than intrinsic, while for the remainder of respondents intrinsic factor has a high-priority significance. Those who impacted by extrinsic factors stated that they are reflecting themselves as a respectful and high position personalities through utilizing branded and expensive aromas, and the other members indicated that the odor and the temper that is provided by aroma are important for them.
Another determination is that the advertisement has besides has a considerable impact when taking a perfume.A Any advertizement is ab initio constructed to bespeak and stand for peculiar personal image. Peoples instantly begin to suit created image on themselves or desire to be like a famous person, who advertises the aroma while watching advertisement.A If the individual does non like the character and the image of the advertisement, the likeliness of that he or she will purchase this aroma is really little, every bit good as if he or she does non like the famous person in that commercial.A Conversely, if a individual is inspired by advertisement and / or by famous person, so the chance of buying that aroma is more, even if the perfume`s functional features are non wholly fulfill the costumier, because the emotional constituent is much stronger here than rational.
Both correspondent and instead contrary facts were denoted while comparing the female group responds and male group responds. The work forces focus group could bring forth a figure of responses which reflected the perceptual experience of the group members. Some of the sources who were economically good off instead blase attitude towards buying of expensive aromas. They believe that by working hard they earn the right to botch themselves with expensive aromas. For sources with lesser fiscal agencies, an opposite instance emerges. Thus, few of the sources ever purchased expensive aromas like Channel or Calvin Klein, falling for its trade name image while on the other manus few sources had a perceptual experience that these expensive aromas are alone, chiefly for immature people and give them a sense of freshness. On the contrary few sources merely went for the “ experience good ” factor and ignored the trade name image of a peculiar aroma. Five of the sources who were economically good off had about same standards for choosing a aroma for themselves, they would maintain the trade name of a aroma as their first penchant, aroma as their 2nd and Price as their 3rd penchant. While on the other manus, three sources who were non really good off, would believe about monetary value or the aroma, and give no importance to trade name.
It is of import to observe that compared to female group, which was positive towards advertisement influence, all the male group members had a common position that the advertizement has no impact on purchasing of any sort of aroma for them, as one of the sources quoted “ advertizements are misdirecting and most of the clip will non uncover the truth ” . Another singular determination relates to the functional side of the merchandise, participants explained that have oning different and new aroma to every meeting they attend is about a demand, in order to extinguish societal embarrassment of holding a bad olfactory property, which can be interpreted as importance of the functional motivations for male respondents more than for females. On the other manus few of the sources feel that a aroma should non merely fulfill the basic demand, but must be good plenty to affect the group they are in. Members besides had a interesting perceptual experience that buying a aroma of a peculiar aroma depends on the clime as good, as one of them said “ aromas which have base notes of musk or woody olfactory properties are more suited to the winter clip when it is ice chest. Floral notes in the aroma tend to be associated with the summer or hotter climes. When asked about the sum of money they would wish to pass on a bottle of aroma, all of them had different positions, one source who was economically good off noted that trade name is what they care about non monetary value, another source who was besides comfortable felt that write off excessively much on a little bottle of aroma is non deserving, even though he had ability to purchase it. Few of the respondents who were non economically stable marked that the monetary value is the most of import standards for purchasing a aroma.
Correspondingly to female group, work forces besides feel that one of the chief grounds for them to purchase these expensive aromas with strong and long permanent aroma is to pull members of the opposite sex and some of them feels that it provides a individual a sense of ego assurance and helps positioning himself better in his societal group. It was agreed that a simple application of favorite aroma is adequate to experience sexy and in control
Therefore, in a nutshell we can state adult females are inseparable from aroma, but of class now work forces are besides non far behind in have oning it. However motives behind purchasing these expensive aromas are driven by a figure of factors, such as Gender, societal and economic category, climatic conditions and sometimes to exhibitionist and to construct a good repo in their societal milieus.