Peoples in Late Middle Ages have lost much of the geographical cognition possessed by antiquity.A Maps that were compiled in the Middle Ages in the monasteries, had small to make with the geographics of the land, including the lone major metropolis, indiscriminately puting them on a map and some of the sea and rivers.A In the centre of the map was Jerusalem, at the top of the same on the E ( the maps were oriented otherwise than they are now ) .A These maps were instead an look of people ‘s perceptual experiences about the universe as a whole.A However, it should be distinguished between such theoretical constructs and practical cognition of merchandisers, pilots, navigators.A After all, the journey continues, from that time.A
At the same clip, the Vikings committed to alone bravery to swim to Iceland and Greenland to North Africa and North America.A Unfortunately, the bulk of these trips medieval people had forgotten, and modern historiographers, including archeologists, in our clip dug out the remains of their colonies in those topographic points, re-told about these ocean trips of the universe.
More legion and longer journeys began in the epoch of the Middle Ages.A In XII-XIII centuriesA there were maps of sea coasts.A They, unlike the old maps, respected the graduated table of distances.A They were drawn to the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and the Atlantic coast.A Such images became known as “ card ” and a in writing representation of land bore the name “ Mappa ” .
In XII-XIV centuriesA boundaries of the universe widened to Europeans to China, Japan, last but non least, thanks to the celebrated Italian journey of Marco Polo in Mongolia and China.A Already in XIVA Portuguese and Spanish crewmans began to come out into the Atlantic Ocean.A In the Fourteen century wereA discovered the Canary Islands. Fifteen century – was the start clip for the abroad enlargement of Portugal and so Spain and the great geographical discoveries.A By the terminal of this century, Europeans had already been known on the seashore of about the full African continent, the manner to India around Africa, the find of America.A At the beginning of the XVI centuryA Magellan reached the southern tip of America and crossed the Pacific, holding become acquainted with the islands of Oceania.A After the decease of Magellan in the Philippines, his comrades completed the first in the history of circumnavigation.A
Contrary to popular belief, mediaeval individual reveals himself funny about the universe, and he starts to truly research it from the 13th century. The concise definition of miracles for the Late Middle Ages people: they mean what surprises, what seems strange or even unnatural.A We should besides add an component of exoticness and phantasy, and the mixture of beauty and horror.A Miracles can be both empyreal and terrorizing. We can get down to populate in two fantastic illustrations of states ( including people ) for a adult male of mediaeval India and Africa.
First, it appears at the beginning of the mediaeval imaginativeness in the West, because it is related to Alexander the Great, the ancient figure who remains at the bosom of the Middle Ages.A India was the topographic point all the dreams and phantasies all for the people of the Middle Ages.
Africa is much less discussed, and “ known ” , with the exclusion of Ethiopia.A What stroke the West in the Middle Ages, was the clime and work forces in Africa.A A Cartographers of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and even in the early 15th century, were fighting for a topographic point in Africa and to gauge its size and shape.A
Traveler from the Middle Ages had already in his head a vision of the universe inspired by antediluvian texts and literature of this clip, and expects to run into sometimes admirations on his manner when he has to travel to undiscovered land.A The purpose of these research workers, nevertheless, were to depict the universe as they see it, non needfully to turn out or confute the being of these miracles, because many of them were non to the full swearing descriptions that they read about in the antediluvian texts, or even of modern travel.
Another of import myth in the heads of medieval travellers was the missive of Prester John, mentioned, and one of the intents of research would be to look into if the Priest John was non truly great Khan.A We have seen that the travel Rubroek, and particularly of Marco Polo ( who lived at the tribunal of Khan ) , the myth of travel to Africa, where Prester John is a spouse until the terminal of the 15th century Negus.A Nevertheless, despite the fact that Prester John was “ discovered ” and therefore showed the myth, the fable continues to be printed until the 16th century.A This suggests that people know some things while staying unfastened to larning about the universe. Columbus could hold besides been inspired by miracles.
However, the inquiry should be asked about the importance of miracles in great finds, and how far the research workers believe that, for some anyway.A When Christopher Columbus referred to the readying of his trip to India, he said: “ The ground, mathematics and the universe map, I could non utilize it. “ A Inspired by the Marco Polo precisely, was expected to fall towards Cipango ( Japan, it merges with Cuba ) and castles covered with gold by a Venetian, and run into the miracles he has played in assorted plants uniting trips and wonders.A Columbus will construe the words of the indigens he met in November 1492, believing that they speak with him from the land of the Cyclops and the Kingdom of the Amazons.A He hoped to finally detect the Garden of Eden, and he considered it necessary to near to happen the fresh Waterss of Orinoco perforating far into the sea… A It is obvious that gold is one of the most powerful myths, Las Casas, Columbus himself, that he was near to the beginning of gold, and that God will demo him precisely where it is produced.
We know that the enticement of gold led to the Conquistadors of the 16th century, compounded by the myth of the Sun and solar metropolis, which marked the Renaissance, it goes far beyond fiscal addition ( although it should non deny it ) .A Indeed, travel and find are discussed in the 15th century, as a manner to idolize God, and they are replaced in the heads of the modern campaign, it became virtually impossible.
There were really two traditions in the late Middle Ages: the terminal of the 13th century and experience in the East, which, of class, partially saturated with beautiful images, but fundamentally unfastened to freshness and observation, and the geographic expedition that brings a sort of mystical experience, near to the ideal of gallantry, A and even inspired the ancient literature is an illustration of Columbus, Portuguese or go forthing for the campaign of Guinea, and called out Zurara Inc. , a librarian, Henry the Navigator, important facts in the conquering of Guinea.
The development was slow and travels from the late Middle Ages ( and beyond ) continue to confound many admirations and worlds, despite the parallel advancement of mapmaking. Elders remain excessively long the benchmark of geographics and political orientation, even more with the humanitarianism of the Renaissance.A Researchers are besides seen as followings of the antediluvian, but more observations and experience will be highlighted.A Experience is the footing of alterations in the mentality of the late 15th century and consciousness of the being of the New World, ignored veterans in the first decennaries of the 16th century had success.A That is why there are no admirations any longer and the mentality has changed radically, and people have entered the modern epoch.