Mediterranean Diet And Statin Impact On Inflammatory Markers Health Essay

A computerized hunt was carried out using the databases Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Academic Search Elite, and Academic Search Premiere. The keywords to execute the computerized hunt were Mediterranean diet, cholesterin, cardiovascular disease, bosom disease, and lipid-lowering medicines.


The findings from the research revealed that depending on the patient ‘s medical history either Mediterranean diet or lipid-lowering medicines would be prudent. For patients that have history of anterior history of myocardial infarction and/or overly high cholesterin lipid-lowering medicines are the prudent pick. For patients that would wish to keep good wellness and have minimal or moderate hazard factors the Mediterranean diet is the prudent pick.


The Mediterranean diet should be promoted among nursing to patients as the benefits are in conformity with keeping bosom wellness throughout a life-time. Lipid-lowering medicines are more of an intercession for people holding already bing cardiac issues that need to be addressed instantly so farther complications do non happen.

Literature Review

Scope and Significance of Problem

Heart wellness is in the head of the heads of health care suppliers today. A healthy bosom is indispensable in keeping good wellness and forestalling farther wellness complications in the hereafter. The bosom is “ a multifunctional organ and its wellness is indispensable to normal vascular physiology and its disfunction is a critical factor in the development of vascular disease ( Huether & A ; McCance, 2004, P. 597 ) . ” Heart disease is touching a broader and broader age scope in today ‘s population as fleshiness and fast nutrient have become more prevailing in today ‘s society. An interesting fact is that “ bosom disease histories for about 696,000 deceases yearly in the United States ( LeMone & A ; Burke, 2008, P. 958 ) . ” The conducive factors to worsen in bosom wellness include “ smoke, unnatural degrees of cholesterol/triglycerides, high blood force per unit area, fleshiness, sedentary life style, redness, age, household history ( Roberts, 2012, P. 10 ) . ” A figure of the mentioned contributing factors are modifiable and the patient has control over them with the exclusion of age and household history.

Healthcare suppliers tend to order really freely statin medicines to patients but with the population holding the hazard factors being younger research is necessary to research other avenues that could hold an equal or more effectual result than lipid-lowering medicines. At the present clip “ lipid-lowering medicines are the first-line of intervention for elevated LDL, although their side effects are minimum they may do increased serum liver enzyme degrees and myopathy ( LeMone & A ; Burke, 2008, P. 966 ) . ” The other option that is traveling to be looked at in this paper is the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet has been researched and it has been found that in Middle Eastern states there is “ low incidence of coronary bosom diseaseaˆ¦partly ascribed to dietetic wonts ( Estruch et al. , 2006, P. 1 ) . ” Heart disease is a affair of life and decease although decease may non be instant the quality life is declined with the patterned advance of bosom disease. An illustration of how bosom disease can go complicated is a patient with a diagnosing of high cholesterin may besides hold a diagnosing of high blood pressure which carries the hazard of shot if uncontrolled. Health publicity is the key to bar and nursing the instrument to transport out the undertaking.

Significance to Nursing

Heart wellness Begins and is maintained with bar and instruction of a healthy life style at an early age. Nursing and learning travel hand-in-hand when it comes to bosom disease. Nurses have to be knowing about bosom disease and be able to educate patients in respects to bar and intervention. The instruction of bosom disease has to get down at an earlier age because the earlier good wonts are learned the better. Clients need to be taught the benefits of exercising, healthy feeding, non smoking as this will heighten non merely their overall wellness but their bosom wellness. Medication is appropriate in certain state of affairss but non in every state of affairs particularly if the patient is immature and can modify lifestyle and do alterations such as integrating a different diet like the Mediterranean diet. In other state of affairss patients may hold had multiple bosom onslaughts or shots and in this instance patients may necessitate to integrate a lipid-lowering medicine and a alteration in diet. The nurse serves as the instrument to educate the patient on medicines such as lipid-lowering medicines, the Mediterranean diet and aid the patient in happening their balance of what is appropriate given the state of affairs, past medical history, and household history. Patients, presents, need to be educated and given options because medicine is non ever the first pick for many patients so nursing must function as the instruction platform for patients in order to keep bosom wellness.

Personal Connection to the job

Heart disease is impacting people at a younger age in our society today. Heart disease can non be ignored and has to be addressed because “ although bosom disease is chiefly thought of as a disease impacting older grownups, it is the 3rd taking slayer of grownups ages 25-44 and 2nd taking cause of decease in grownups ages 45-64 ( LeMone & A ; Burke, 2008, P. 958 ) . ” This subject is of great involvement in practising as a cardiac telemetry nurse for 2-years. Patients come in and out of the infirmary with bosom disease complications that could perchance hold been prevented had instruction taken topographic point at some point in clip. The inmates with high cholesterin are at times argumentative in desiring to alter the diet prescribed from a cardiac diet to a regular diet and if no alteration occurs the patient will inquire household or friends to convey in nutrient from the exterior that is high in fat and clearly non of great benefit for bosom wellness. There is no warrant that with instruction a patient will adhere to recommendations made by nursing but the tool for alteration is provided. The Mediterranean diet has been studied greatly and has shown great benefits to bosom wellness in long term and short term surveies and therefore instruction of this diet to patients can give great benefit. Patients that are hesitating to take medicines at least have the option to follow a healthy life style when it comes to eating. Patients that have had anterior myocardial infarctions, overly high cholesterin, or anterior shots would profit from lipid-lowering medicines from a research position and this has to be related to the patient in hopes for a positive wellness result. Education backed up with research enables the cardiac nurse to educate the patient with the most current information and have an impact in the hereafter determinations made sing bosom wellness.

Restate PICO inquiry

In patients 18 and older are statins more effectual versus Mediterranean diets in keeping bosom wellness.

Description of your hunt history

A computerized research was conducted on-line holding entree through the Maryville University web site. The databases utilized to carry on the hunt were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Academic Search Elite, and Academic Search Premiere. The keywords to execute the computerized hunt were Mediterranean diet, cholesterin, cardiovascular disease, bosom disease, and lipid-lowering medicines. The searched yielded much information and much of the information was non relevant to the subject and hence non used. In add-on to the hunt with keywords the mention list of the articles found was used as a tool to farther research other primary surveies that showed relevancy to the PICO inquiry being researched. The articles were all in the English linguistic communication and were primary surveies that were conducted by research workers. The articles chosen to further dissect the PICO inquiry were from 2001 to 2011.

Literature Review

The surveies reviewed depicted many subjects which are worthy of reappraisal. The first subject is that of lipid-lowering medicines versus Mediterranean diet in take downing cholesterin. Lipid-lowering medicines are prescribed rather freely by heart specialists. Surveies have proven that lipid-lowering medicines are utile in take downing cholesterin and in that take downing the hazard for more serious cardiac complications. In the survey by ( Jenkins et al. , 2005, p. 385 ) it shows that participants had “ 29.1 % decrease in LDL cholesterin achieved by diet which was less than the 34.5 % achieved in the same participants with a 20 milligram dosage of Mevacor. ” This statistic goes to turn out that lipid-lowering medicines are more effectual if cholesterol degree demands to come down from a critical scope. The power of this lipid take downing medicine does non in any sense bring down the benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Surveies have been conducted that show the Mediterranean diet outputs great benefit to bosom wellness. Patients with high cholesterin, high blood force per unit area, diabetes are at hazard for developing farther complication such as bosom onslaughts and shots and these patients are sometimes placed on a lipid-lowering medicine and a Mediterranean diet for optimum consequences. Both lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet have the consequence of take downing cholesterin, nevertheless, lipid-lowering medicines are more powerful and lower the cholesterin degree more quickly. Mediterranean diet lowers cholesterin but is more moderate in making so. The Mediterranean has no side effects in contrast with the lipid-lowering medicines which have side effects such as elevated liver enzymes and patients can see musculus achings.

The 2nd subject is the usage of lipid-lowering medicines and/or Mediterranean diet after cardiac events.

Cardiologists are really likely to order lipid-lowering medicines to patients after a myocardial event. In the survey of Use of the lipid-lowering medicines in patients after acute myocardial infarction, the usage of lipid-lowering medicines after myocardial infarction is reviewed and it shows that patients “ followed by heart specialists were more than twice as likely to have drug therapy ( Jackeviscius, Anderson, Leiter, & A ; Tu, 2001, P. 187 ) . ” Lipid-lowering medicines have protective benefits after acute myocardial infarctions and heart specialists recognize that benefit. In one of the surveies ( Iwakdura et al. , 2006, p 534 ) it was found that “ chronic pre- interventions with lipid-lowering medicines could continue the microvascular unity after acute myocardial infarction independent of lipid lowering, taking to better functional recovery. ” Surveies besides were researched on Mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction. One of the surveies showed the Mediterranean diet has a positive impact in minimising subsequent events ; nevertheless in this survey blood work was non conducted. In a different survey patients were followed for two old ages to see if adhering to Mediterranean diet was of benefit in forestalling farther complications and the findings showed “ ingestion of an Indo-Mediterranean diet rich in a-linoleic acid was associated with a important decrease in non-fatal MI, sudden cardiac decease, and entire cardiac end points ( Singh et al. , 2002, P. 1459 ) . ” The overall sense when reexamining all the surveies was that both lipid-lowering medicines and the Mediterranean diet are effectual in forestalling farther events from happening ; nevertheless, lipid-lowering medicine usage is extremely recommended as it has more than cholesterin take downing benefits such as continuing microvascular unity. The Mediterranean diet can non be underestimated as surveies showed the impact it has on “ diminishing systolic and diastolic blood force per unit area, blood glucose degrees, and cholesterin ( Estruch et al. , 2006, P. 6 ) . ” After a myocardial infarction holding a stable blood force per unit area, controlled glucose degree, and the entire cholesterin within normal all aid the patient in non holding a 2nd event. The Mediterranean diet promotes great benefit in assisting prevent subsequent cardiovascular events from happening, nevertheless, statins give a greater benefit. The best result is obtained when lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet are both combined and the patient adheres to the both.

The 3rd subject is the Mediterranean diet and statin impact on inflammatory markers. Vascular redness has a negative consequence on bosom wellness. In the surveies reviewed the Mediterranean diet showed to hold an impact on redness in that “ attachment to the Mediterranean diet was independently associated with decrease in vascular inflammatory and curdling markers related to cardiovascular disease ( Chrysohoou, Panagiotakos, Pitsavos, Das, & A ; Stefanadis, 2004, P. 156 ) . ” Inflammation of the vascular system does hold a negative result when it comes to vascular wellness overall, nevertheless, in this survey the focal point is the bosom. Statin surveies show “ lipid-lowering medicines have favourable effects on thrombocyte adhesion, thrombosis, endothelial map, plaque stableness, and redness ( Iwakura et al. , 2006, P. 534 ) . ” Again, both intercessions of the Mediterranean diet and lipid-lowering medicine have an consequence on diminishing vascular redness in patients. Lipid-lowering medicines are more effectual in diminishing vascular redness based on research ; nevertheless, the Mediterranean diet has proven benefits in this country besides. A long-run survey on lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet and inflammatory shapers has non been conducted. The finding that lipid-lowering medicines are more effectual is concluded after reexamining multiple surveies on lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet and its consequence on cardiovascular wellness. A combination of lipid-lowering medicine and Mediterranean diet is most effectual for patients holding high hazard factors or old history of myocardial infarction.

The evidenced used in this literature reappraisal is from primary surveies. The inquiry being research was in patient ‘s 18 and older are statins more effectual versus Mediterranean diet in keeping bosom wellness. The method used to come to an reply to the inquiry was a computerized hunt of surveies that were peer reviewed signifier databases of Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Academic Search Elite, and Academic Search Premiere for the searching. The surveies conducted on that affair were relevant in content to replying the inquiry being researched. The stuff reviewed addressed the subjects of lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet in relation to take downing cholesterin, lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction, and lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet in take downing vascular redness. The subjects stemming Forth from the reappraisal of the surveies were relevant in finding which was better in keeping bosom wellness if lipid-lowering medicines or the Mediterranean diet. The surveies were good organized with control and experimental groups. In some surveies questionnaires needed to be filled out and participants were aided in this procedure to minimise mistake if deficiency of apprehension was present. Random assignment was concealed to participants in some of the surveies using statin medicines. A few of the lipid-lowering medicine surveies were dual unsighted surveies. The surveies reviewed were 10 primary surveies and every survey had a different length of clip in which it was conducted but all surveies had follow-up appraisal within the clip frame the survey was conducted. Three of the surveies reexamining the Mediterranean diet and the effects on cardiovascular wellness were 2-years in length. Subjects in the surveies had to run into a certain standards to be able to take part in the surveies and so participants were indiscriminately assigned to either control or experimental groups. The control groups were appropriate in all surveies. The instruments to mensurate informations were valid and included day-to-day consumption journals, blood trials, blood force per unit area readings with machines or done manually, everyday wellness appraisals, everyday EKG, and graduated table weighing on base up graduated tables. The topics in each survey had to run into inclusion standards and hence groups were similar on demographics and baseline clinical variables. The surveies reviewed varied in size from a few hundred in some to a few 1000 in others. The intercession and interventions provided were precise even in the dietetic surveies in which participants were provided the nutrient points and nutrient journals were kept and subsequently analyzed by dietitians. The clinical results in the surveies were mensurable. The patients had follow-up blood work, blood force per unit areas cheques at different clip intervals, participants weighed on base up graduated tables, electrocardiograms conducted at annual clip intervals in one survey, and everyday appraisals done by health care suppliers. The surveies researched for this literature reappraisal did non transport any great hazards for participants and the benefits provided were everyday followup in footings of blood work and wellness appraisals in some surveies every bit good as the proviso of nutrient points to follow a Mediterranean diet.

There are surely spreads in grounds within the surveies reviewed. The grounds all points to the benefits of statin medicines in bosom wellness, nevertheless, the side effects are non addressed. Patients hesitate to take medicines due to side effects and so farther surveies need to be conducted on the side effects of lipid-lowering medicines in different populations both in short term footing and in the long term footing. The Mediterranean diet is really effectual in advancing bosom wellness to patients. Surveies need to be conducted about different methods to integrate the Mediterranean diet into the fast paced civilization of today. This state is a runing pot of civilizations and so different methods need to be explored as to which is the best instruction method in order for patients to be able to retain the instructions and integrate the Mediterranean diet into mundane life. Six of the surveies were besides conducted outside of the United States in Mediterranean states and so it has a colored turn as the people in Mediterranean states are accustomed to eating this type of diet. This literature reappraisal was a synthesis of surveies researched and though a comprehensive overview can be drawn after reading and analysing all the surveies more long-run surveies need to be conducted with lipid-lowering medicines and the Mediterranean diet side by side to see an accurate image of the benefits.

Lipid-lowering medicines and Mediterranean diet and the benefits, conveying the constructs to the pattern degree is the end of this literature reappraisal. Lipid-lowering medicines prove in research to hold great benefit and this supports as to why heart specialists prescribe lipid-lowering medicines often to patient particularly high hazard patients that have already experienced myocardial infarctions or have overly elevated entire cholesterin degrees. Nurses at the registered nurse degree demand to be able to educate patient as to the benefits that statins output and encourage patients to take lipid-lowering medicine medicines if patients fall into a high hazard class. This literature reappraisal brings cognition on the importance of lipid-lowering medicine usage to patients holding high hazard factors and this is brought to application at the bedside in the signifier of learning. In infirmaries the cardiac diet is conspicuously used which entails a low fat, low salt diet which of class has benefits in the decreased fat and Na content, nevertheless, the Mediterranean diet has proven to hold huge benefit in bosom wellness. There surely needs to be a alteration from the cardiac diet being promoted in to a Mediterranean manner diet which is supported by research to be good in multiple facets in forestalling cardiovascular disease. The barriers to altering so the Mediterranean diet is more used prevarications in the fact that patients have this outlook that low fat and low salt output bosom wellness and this outlook needs to be changed. The Mediterranean diet demands to be presented as an appealing option and backed up with much research turn outing the benefit. Change is possible if health care installations are willing to do the investing on learning patients. In conformity with this literature reappraisal patients at low hazard would profit from a Mediterranean diet and patients at high hazard would profit from statin medicine and Mediterranean diet.

This literature reappraisal conducted to reply the inquiry if lipid-lowering medicines or Mediterranean diet is more effectual in keeping bosom wellness yielded many penetrations into both statin usage and Mediterranean dietetic alterations. The surveies reviewed were primary surveies conducted really methodically and the consequences from the surveies were dependable and utile in replying the inquiry being researched. The subjects that were reviewed as a consequence of this literature reappraisal were lipid-lowering medicines versus Mediterranean diet in take downing cholesterin, statins versus Mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction, and statins versus Mediterranean diet in take downing vascular redness. The literature reappraisal revealed lipid-lowering medicines as being more effectual when covering with high hazard patients such as in station myocardial infarction patients and patients with overly high degrees of entire cholesterin. In patients that are non high hazard but have minimal to chair hazard the Mediterranean diet is sufficient and outputs first-class long term benefits to bosom wellness. In pattern lipid-lowering medicines are widely prescribed by heart specialists at the present clip as surveies have proven them to be effectual in take downing cholesterin degrees and forestalling farther complications from originating ; nevertheless, more surveies need to be conducted on the long term side effects of lipid-lowering medicines. The Mediterranean diet is non at the present clip widely incorporated into the instruction of cardiac patients as the low fat and low salt diet is most widely used in health care installations. In conformity with evidenced based pattern at that place needs to be a alteration and the Mediterranean diet demands to be taught to patients in order to advance cardiac wellness. This literature reappraisal provides a glance of how lipid-lowering medicines and the Mediterranean diet can advance bosom wellness to patients but future surveies on the side effects of lipid-lowering medicines and how to learn the Mediterranean diet to patients demands to be conducted.