Management Philosophy Of Fashion And Leather Goods Line Marketing Essay

Have you of all time heard of “ Veblen Effect ” ? This theory was designed by Thorstein Veblen in the nineteenth century and named after him. It refers to abnormal ingestion forms that consumers expand their outgo on a specific good in malice of addition in the monetary value.[ 1 ]

In pattern, several companies are sharply endeavoring to reenforce this human nature in order to hike their gross revenues. One of the typical illustrations is the luxury goods industry. Even if those companies, which involved in this industry, have already been selling their merchandises at the unaffordable monetary value to the in-between category, they do non waver to raise the monetary value degree of their merchandises so as to intrigue more clients because a batch of their clients are disposed to demo off their wealth or self-respect through those highly expensive merchandises manufactured barely by those luxury trade names. This inclination is acquiring more diffused globally harmonizing to the rise of overall income degree in the development states.

As you have known, LVMH group is the taking Gallic pudding stone in this industry. This group has established through the amalgamation between Moet Hennessy and Louis Vuitton in 1987 and holds over 60 epicurean trade names in the luxury industry including manner and leather goods industry, the jewellery industry, the decorative industry, the selective retailing and high-end wine maker and spirits industry.[ 2 ]Amongst them, the manner and leather goods merchandise line which is represented by Louis Vuitton and Fendi is the most moneymaking sector for LVMH group[ 3 ]and public involvement in this field has been amplified.

Therefore, this survey would concentrate merely on LVMH ‘s manner and leather goods line. At first, the current international activities of this sector would be discussed and it will be followed by external scanning and international scheme recommendations.

LVMH Fashion and Leather Goods Line ‘s Current Performance

Organizational Structure

As of 2009, LVMH manner and leather goods line is adhering to the multi-brands scheme. 12 esteemed trade names consist of the manner and leather goods line of LVMH group. After Mr. Bernard Arnault, who plays as a Chief executive officer, established LVMH group in 1987, it has been endeavoring to widen its subsidiary trade names through M & A ; A of some esteemed trade names. It ab initio succeeded in geting Givenchy, well-known as a esteemed dress trade name in 1988 and its latest M & A ; A accomplishment was Fendi, one of the strongest Louis Vuitton rivals in 2004[ 4 ]. In add-on to this, LVMH has sustained a stopping point strategic partnership operation with Rossimoda, a Venice-based adult females ‘s cobbler, since 2000[ 5 ]. Rossimoda is actively join forcesing with multiple trade names of LVMH so as both to invent and to administer LVMH new places. The brief debut can be identified at the appendix. ( See Table. 1 )

Steady Prosperity in 2009

Harmonizing to the one-year study of the financial twelvemonth 2009, LVMH manner and leather goods line owns 1,164 shops over the universe. Those shops have generated gross of 6,302 million Euros and net income of 1,986 million Euros in 2009. These figures have shown that manner and leather goods posted both growing in gross of 5 % and addition in net income of 2 % . ( In 2008, gross and net income were 6,302 million Euros and 1,927 million Euros severally )[ 6 ]. Despite the latest planetary fiscal convulsion, Louis Vuitton turned in a singular public presentation for the twelvemonth, once more entering double-digit gross growing based on published figures. The trade name has made outstanding headroom in Asia and continues to profit from strong impulse in Europe. Fendi and Marc Jacobs besides confirmed their possible, demoing a good degree of resiliency to the economic lag in Europe and describing strong gross additions in Asia.[ 7 ]( Mention to Table. 2 )

Major Markets

LVMH manner and leather goods line is deriving the largest gross from Asia market and it represented 46 % of the aggregative gross in 2009. Among of them, Japan is the 1st largest market and generated 18 % of entire gross. It besides obtained 18 % of the entire grosss in US and come close 30 % of entire gross was realized in Europe continent.[ 8 ]

However, a noticeable alteration of market gross proposition can be found between the consequence of 2008 and the one of 2009. In 2008, US took up 19 % and Japan represented 20 % of gross gross of LVMH manner and leather goods line and it means that LVMH manner and leather goods line had generated the most gross in US and Japan like 2009. However, as it can be seen, the part of gross made from those 2 states somewhat declined. In other words, the market laterality of Japan and US has weakened during the financial twelvemonth 2009.[ 9 ]This can be confirmed at the & lt ; Exhibit 1 & gt ; enclosed as an appendix. ( See Exhibit 1 )

Key Success Factors of LVMH Fashion and Leather Goods Line

Management Philosophy of LVMH Fashion and Leather Goods Line

Yves Carcelle, CEO of LVMH manner and leather goods line, mentioned “ three ageless value ” of LVMH manner and leather goods line at a conference when he visited Korea in 2007. Those values are ‘original know-how ‘ , ‘craftsmanship ‘ and ‘icons ‘ .[ 10 ]

First, in order to prolong its ‘original know-how ‘ and the finest quality, LVMH manner and leather goods line has ne’er depended on outsourcing refering fabrication and procurance even if there are opportunities for LVMH manner and leather goods line either to cut down its cost or to take advantage of geographical virtues. Second, ‘craftsmanship ‘ agencies offering every client every flawless merchandise through hand-made fabrication of adept craftsman. To keep this rule, LVMH manner and leather goods line is concentrating on thin production of little units. Last, ‘icons ‘ can be stated as a kind of distinction. LVMH manner and leather goods are endeavoring to delegate important forms and colour so as to retain its individuality.[ 11 ]

Direct Operation

In general, most transnational companies are likely to accommodate franchising as a chief method when they enter into a new market. Likewise, Gucci group, one of the strong rivals of LVMH manner and leather goods line is taking both franchising and direct investing in footings of international enlargement. However, Oliver Pectu, who is a luxury market analyst of CPP-Luxury.com, has criticized that this confusing policy is non a successful scheme for any luxury trade name to spread out its market efficaciously and in world, Gucci group is demoing the slow advancement in enlargement into emerging markets such as Eastern Europe and China.[ 12 ]

On the contrary, LVMH manner and leather goods line is runing its international shops by themselves without any franchising understanding. The grounds that it is non allowed for franchisee to pull off a shop of LVMH manner and leather good line trade names are related to its direction doctrine. Even though, this scheme requires high direction cost and might hold a failing in footings of puting up localized specific programs, this action enables LVMH manner and leather goods line to pull off quality control and clannishness of its trade names straight. Besides, this action can besides give loyal clients more satisfaction since LVMH manner and leather goods line is able to reenforce a consistent trade name image.[ 13 ]

M & A ; A and Horizontal integrating

Geting luxury trade names with strong trade name power is a chief scheme that LVMH manner and leather goods line holds as a competitory advantage as it has worked for it twelvemonth after twelvemonth. There is an anecdote sing this scheme. During his concern trip to America to happen out new concerns, Arnault, President of LVMH Group, met a cab driver and found that he knew about Christian Dior even though he did n’t cognize many low-cost trade names. From this facet, he concluded that assuring concern is what merely many people know. He besides thought that people know brand-name merchandises because those merchandises are valuable since those have histories and traditions. He consequently judged that amalgamation and acquisitions could convey more synergism than set up new concerns.[ 14 ]

Consequently, he merged and acquired sharply more than 60 trade names by get downing taking over Christian Dior which suffered from company ‘s fiscal jobs at that clip. There were n’t troubles in pressing in front with M & A ; A undertaking since most of high-end trade name was being operated by household concern or managed without any clear programs[ 15 ]. The former Gallic president, Francois Mitterrand criticized Mr. Arnault as ‘a heartless enterpriser ‘ due to his aggressive M & A ; A scheme.[ 16 ]

This scheme can be explained as horizontal integrating. It is a scheme used by a concern or corporation that seeks to sell a type of merchandise in legion markets. Horizontal integrating occurs when a house is being taken over by, or merged with, another house which is in the same industry and in the same phase of production as the incorporate house.[ 17 ]

Then, what could be the motives for horizontal integrating? It is by and large said that economic sciences of graduated table, economic sciences of range and decrease cost can be expected from horizontal integrating. It means that company will be able to sell more merchandises in different parts of the universe and portion resources. However, existent motive for LVMH might be to increase market power. Even though it is much more expansive to get another trade name than puting up new trade name, the benefit can be much greater when you buy bing trade name which already has its ain individuality and tradition.

Decentralization and Multi-brand Strategy[ 18 ]

Equally good as the skyline integrating, LVMH manner and leather goods line is besides seeking to maximise the virtuousnesss of decentralised organisation and multi-brand scheme. Through those schemes, LVMH manner and leather goods line can exert the some virtues as follows.

First of all, LVMH manner and leather goods line can diminish operational hazard since it can derive the same consequence as portfolio consequence through the multi-brand scheme. Besides, LVMH manner and leather goods line can advance merchandises by leveraging the synergism of two or more trade names through co-branding scheme.

In footings of decentalisation, daughter-brands under LVMH manner and leather goods line are able to prolong its strong trade name image and heritage of each trade name and be guaranteed their determination doing liberty. In add-on to this, LVMH manner and leather goods line respects interior decorators ‘ freedom and independency since LVMH manner and leather goods line is sing interior decorators ‘ creativeness and fast trend-setting with uninterrupted invention as the nucleus fight of manner industry[ 19 ]. This attitude can excite interior decorators ‘ originative thoughts and pull greater efficiency and productiveness.

Finally, LVMH manner and leather goods line can implement someway localised selling activities by using its geographical advantage. As it can be identified at the Table 1 in the appendix, LVMH manner and leather goods line is comprised of a assortment of nationalities such France, Italy, Spain and Japan. Therefore, it could easy take some relevant steps responding to the client behaviours and cultural difference.

International Marketing Mix

The most of import intent of selling activities conducted by LVMH group is to supply clients with both the sole esteemed image and priceless values through its merchandises. In order to stress on this intent and best satisfy its clients, LVMH manner and leather goods line is taking advantage of a batch of high-end selling environments.

Manner Shows, “ Haute Couture and Pret-a-Porter ”

Haute Couture is a Gallic term intending “ High dress-making ” or “ High-end single customizing ” literally[ 20 ]. On contrary, Pret-a-Porter can be translated into “ Off-the-rack ” in English[ 21 ]. As watched by mass media, In Paris, Milan, New York, London and Tokyo, which are regarded as manner capitals of the universe, there are seasonal manner shows twice a twelvemonth for Spring/Summer and Fall/Winter every twelvemonth.

Among the manner trade names of LVMH, Givenchy is the lone trade name which is operation a Haute Couture line and joins the Paris manner hebdomad every twelvemonth with Ricardo Tisci, the cardinal interior decorator of Givenchy[ 22 ]. In instance of Pret-a-Porter, about all low-level trade names are managing this line, even including Givenchy[ 23 ]. French-based companies including Louis Vuitton, Kenzo and Celine[ 24 ]are steadily fall ining in Paris while Italian-based 1s like Fendi and Emilio Pucci and American trade names such as Marc Jacobs and Donna Karan are take parting in the events held in Milan and New York severally.[ 25 ]

Celebrity Endorsement and StarMarketing

‘Star Marketing ‘ is the major method for most companies which can afford to project stars in order to sell goods recently since famous persons including some celebrated entertainers and star participants holds the utmost strong selling power to public.

Similarly, LVMH manner and leather goods line is transporting out assorted famous person indorsement runs excessively. At these yearss, LVMH group is concentrating on projecting international top theoretical accounts in order to publicize its newly-released merchandises. For case, Lara Stone, named as the no.1 theoretical account in the universe in 2009 is playing as a chief theoretical account for Louis Vuitton[ 26 ]and Fendi and Loewe, the other star trade names of LVMH group made an ad-campaign contract with Anja Rubik and Daria Werbowi, the other well-known top theoretical accounts severally.[ 27 ]

Flagship shops[ 28 ]

Flagship shops, or merely flagships, are chief shops from retail merchants designed to function a mainstream of clients. LVMH manner and leather goods line longs for supplying aesthetically scarce merchandises. Therefore, it sometimes requires a meaningful topographic point which can work as both a market topographic point and an exhibition hall for clients. Flagship shops can transport out both features and it bit by bit adds new flagship shops over the universe and chiefly built flagship shops in Hong Kong, Tokyo, Milan, London, Paris and New York, good known for the manner metropoliss. At these yearss, LVMH manner and leather goods line is concentrating on establishing new flagship shops in the mainland of China. Louis Vuitton opened its another flagship shop in Shenzhen on July 2009[ 29 ]and Fendi built its new flagship shop in Shanghai on December 2009.[ 30 ]

The Threats for LVMH group

Serious Financial Crisis over West Europe Continent

Recently, the acronym PIGS can be easy heard in newspapers. PIGS came from the initial letters of 4 European states Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain. As briefly discussed above, Europe continent histories for about 30 % of the whole gross revenues of LVMH manner and leather goods line, even though the gross revenues growing rate is really stable.[ 31 ]As Italia and Spain have a strong buying power of epicurean trade names, the anticipating gross revenues of LVMH group mostly would be affected by this crisis prevalent in Italy and Spain. Besides, the direction of some trade names headquartered in Italy and Spain such as Fendi, Emilio Pucci ( Italy ) and Loewe ( Spain ) is extremely likely to face serious adversity in the close hereafter.

This concern is turning to go existent. Harmonizing the new released by CPP-Luxury.com, Unfortunately, the current international crisis has given negative effects to Via Tornabouni street in Florence, an Italian landmark for luxury retail like Madison Avenue in New York, As of August 31, 2009, Versace, Trussardi and Brooks Brothers closed their shops on this street and there are few trade names such as Gucci and Prada, which have managed to keep their gross revenues degrees at their shops in Florence.[ 32 ]

The Change of Nipponese Customers

Japan, the largest market of LVMH manner and leather goods line in footings of gross portions in 2009, is besides fighting serious fiscal convulsion presents and there are concerns over the durable stagnancy of Nipponese economic system like 90 ‘s.

In conformity with the interview with Mr Francesco Formiconi, COO of GIORGIO ARMANI SpA in Japan, the major alterations brought approximately in the Nipponese luxury consumer profile due to the crisis. Nipponese consumers tend to maintain off from the luxury trade names due to dishonor, guilt and fright of haughtiness and he gave the illustration of Takashimaya, Tokyo ‘s largest luxury section shop and the luxury territory of Ginza, indicating out to several illustrations of Nipponese luxury consumers who prefer to purchase discreetly luxury branded merchandises such as Armani, while purchasing their apparels at H & A ; M and ABERCROMBIE, bothA brandsA demoing dramatic salesA additions inA Japan.[ 33 ]Furthermore, Louis Vuitton gave up the program for a new flagship shop in Ginza, Tokyo, was expected to finish this twelvemonth, on December 2008 due to the latest terrible slack in luxury trade name market.[ 34 ]

Therefore, LVMH manner and leather goods line should pay more attending and put up new enlargement programs both to relieve the dependance on the Nipponese market and to diversify major markets to undertake the economic downswings of the current chief markets.

Distribution of Counterfeit Merchandises

Since the early 1990s, harmonizing to Interpol, trade in forgeries has grown at eight times the velocity of legitimate trade. 20 old ages ago, commercial losingss around the universe by forging were estimated at US 5 billion dollars while, they late were expected to amount to approximately US $ 500 bn.[ 35 ]

Counterfeit merchandises dilute the market portion and harm the trade name unity of LVMH manner and leather goods line. The mills and merchandisers in Asia are going more sophisticated in forging, enabling them to perforate and sell many of their merchandises all over the universe. This cause fearsome jobs since LVMH generates about 46 % of its net income in Asia including Japan[ 36 ].

To more specify, many of the forgeries in the market are created in China. In 2007, 22 % of all shams seized by EU imposts belong to vesture and come close 80 % of it made in China, whilst in the US, during the first half of 2997, fake apparel deserving ?10 million was collected and most of it – over 70 % – came from China.[ 37 ]In 2006, about 12 % of luxury merchandises were sold in China and it was third luxury trade name market following US and Japan. Furthermore, it is expected that the part of Chinese market would make for 29 % by 2015.[ 38 ]

What about in Korea? Harmonizing to the study conducted by Trensmonitor in 2010, around 38 % of Korean used to purchase imitative merchandises over the last twelvemonth. Furthermore, approximately half respondents said that they thought that Louis Vuitton had the biggest measure of forgery merchandises.[ 39 ]In fact, it might be true. In the first half of the 2009, more than 65 % of all forgery merchandises uncovered by Korean Intellectual Property Office were shams of LVMH ‘s merchandises. Following this, Chanel was placed on the 2nd rank.[ 40 ]From this point of view, LVMH can non be free from forgery job in Asia as it is.

Opportunities for LVMH group

The global rise of Men ‘s Interest in Fashion

The more international exchange has generated, the more acknowledgment of esteemed trade names is permeant between immature coevalss in the development states.

Harmonizing to Flur Roberts, luxury-goods director at market-research house Euromonitor International in Asia, the retail market for luxury work forces ‘s wear could be one of the most promising markets in the universe. For case, Euromonitor is calculating that ingestion of work forces ‘s luxury merchandises in South Korea will turn by up to 48 per centums between 2009 and 2013 and even in mature luxury markets such as the United States and the United Kingdom, gross revenues of work forces ‘s interior decorator vesture have enhanced at twice the rate of the adult females ‘s sector for past five old ages.[ 41 ]

Paul Cadman, Ferragamo ‘s Asia- Pacific CEO, stressed out that the faster gait of growing of the trade name ‘s work forces ‘s merchandises was particularly noticeable in developing markets, such as India[ 42 ]and China and India became the 4th state to keep an all-men manner hebdomad after London, New York and Paris in 2009.[ 43 ]

Hence, LVMH manner and leather goods line is besides actively concentrating on Men ‘s luxury merchandises in order to take enterprise when that market acquire activated. Recently, Louis Vuitton launched work forces ‘s dress and Givenchy is spread outing its market with the esteemed work forces ‘s manner.[ 44 ]

The Overall Growth of Buying Power in Developing States

As mentioned above, Asiatic states consist of considerable portion of the gross construction of LVMH manner and leather goods line. It means that in sense of gross, the of import markets for LVMH manner and leather goods line are Japan stand foring 18 % and other Asiatic states like China, South Korea, and Hong Kong busying 28 % of the gross.[ 45 ]

At these yearss, LVMH manner and leather goods line is concentrating on non merely Japan but besides China. In China, there are 35 official shops with more than 900 authorised retails mercantile establishments and it is using up to 4,800 people. Chinese enlargement will be more dynamic in that Chinese market is developing at the rapid gait and the buying power of Chinese people is turning and going more of import for the LVMH manner and leather goods line.[ 46 ]In add-on to this, a recent survey of Bain and Co.A revealed that out of 300 gaps of luxury shops in 2009, Bain said, 15 per centum will be in China, 25 per centum in other Asiatic states, 30 per centum in the Middle East, 15 per centum in Eastern Europe and 15 per centum in the US. China and Korea remain the top Asiatic markets to pull luxury trade names, yet smaller markets such as Mongolia and Kazakhstan are pulling more involvement from luxury trade names. Last month, Louis Vuitton opened their first shops in the Mongolian capital of Ulan Bator.[ 47 ]

Strategic Suggestions for LVMH Group ( Conclusion )

Diversify chief markets

As watched above paragraphs, West Europe and Japan are go throughing through terrible economic turbulency at these yearss. Owing to that, the overall gross of LVMH manner and leather goods line can hold been shrunk for long clip as it has earned about 50 % of the full gross revenues since 2000s ‘ .

To get by with this disputing international circumstance, LVMH manner and leather goods line should concentrate its capablenesss on diversifying chief markets into developing states by building new flagship shops in those parts or doing a gross revenues strategic confederation with local elephantine retail merchants. In Fact, it is transporting out some appropriate steps to heighten its market laterality in some Eastern Europe states like Hungary and Romania, Mid-East and South East Asia.

Strengthening Men ‘s lines into Asiatic Market

As discussed in the former paragraph, the potency of Men ‘s dress is really promising. In world, LVMH group thirstily pours its capablenesss into Men ‘s Apparel. Currently, three French trade names and 2 American Brands of LVMH manner and leather goods line have their ain work forces ‘s dress line. Those trade names are Louis Vuitton, Givenchy and Kenzo in France and Marc Jacobs and Donna Karan in New York. In add-on to this, seeing that Thomas Pink is chiefly bring forthing work forces ‘s finest shirts and cervix ties, this trade name can besides be sorted as the marketer of Men ‘s dress.

However, it is harder for Asiatic clients than those who are populating in Europe and US to see those work forces ‘s merchandises since LVMH manner and leather goods line seldom opened its shop excepting Japan. Furthermore, because all of merchandise has been made on the footing of the statistical informations on Western criterion organic structure form except for Haute Couture apparels, the size can non suit the Asian male clients. This factor makes Asiatic clients feel less favourable for purchasing apparels even though they have great involvement in luxury trade names.

To sum up, LVMH manner and leather goods should pay more attending both Asiatic enlargement of Men ‘s line and custom-making overall size of its dresss into the Asiatic criterion even though it requires operational cost in order to pull more clients and draw out more gross revenues potency. Furthermore, it can be recommended for LVMH manner and leather goods line to take partnership with some celebrated Asiatic interior decorators so as to run into the gustatory sensations of Asiatic clients.

Undertaking Counterfeit Merchandises

In order to stultify the rampant counterfeiting industry, the primary measure for LVMH manner and leather goods line is to pass on with Asiatic authorities ( particularly PRC authorities ) , and to seek legal aid of local usage authorization to unclutter away the distributions of the counterfeiting merchandises. In fact, it is expected non to be effectual as WTO has late asked China to enforce Torahs to supervise the status, but no singular and effectual consequence is drawn.

However, the trade names have enjoyed a few triumphs. In December 2005, a Beijing tribunal ordered the Xiushui Haosen Clothing Market, operator of the silk market, a popular shopping marquee in that metropolis, to pay LVMH, Burberry, Chanel, Gucci, and Prada $ 14,000 in amendss for selling bogus merchandises.[ 48 ]Equally good as this, a Chinese tribunal handed out prison sentences in 2006 and heavy mulcts to 2 work forces who were found guilty of exporting illegal transcripts of aromas that are patented by LVMH.[ 49 ]

This motion is unusual in China and many industry experts believe that it could be a mark that, after old ages of lobbying by the luxury goods industry, the China governments are get downing to take actions towards clamping down on the pattern.

Apart from buttonholing, there is another manner to carry Asiatic authorities. LVMH manner and leather goods line can stress on an escape of revenue enhancement income caused by forgery merchandises. Harmonizing to Frontier Economics, Europe ‘s economic consultancy, Tax escape due to shams came to 85 US billion dollars a twelvemonth in G20. The American Chamber of Commerce insists that if US authorities spends 1 dollar to forestall distribution of duplicated points on the market, US can roll up 5 dollars of revenue enhancement more.[ 50 ]

Another manner to protect its net income is utilizing new EU regulations sing on-line gross revenues. Under updated EU antimonopoly regulations, it is prohibited to sell high-end merchandises through cyberspace gross revenues with the exclusion of sanctioned Sellerss.[ 51 ]It means that luxury trade name proprietors will be able to protect their image and belongings since a batch of forgery merchandises is being sold via cyberspace. It is estimated that on-line gross revenues by and large make up 20 to 30 % of the planetary forgery market.[ 52 ]So, if LVMH manner and leather goods line can do Asiatic authorities legislate this sort of jurisprudence above, it can salvage immense loss from forgery.

LVMH manner and leather goods line should besides take farther steps refering distribution channels in order for forgery makers to cut down the propinquity for the natural stuffs of it. In add-on to, sole retail shops, it is of import for LVMH to restrict the usage of sellers and providers. Otherwise, LVMH manner and leather goods line could incorporate the distribution channels vertically by geting the providers companies straight. This should be able to cut down the handiness of its natural stuffs in the market significantly.

Increased trade name publicity and merchandise advertisement would besides be indispensable to make the demand for the existent trade goods. This can be assisted by personalization of the merchandises and guarantee proviso to do clear differentiations between existent and copied merchandises. Then people would be much aware of the significance in purchasing the true trade name to the forgeries.

Investing in Diffusing Model

Today ‘s economic slack has been coercing luxury trade names to see cutting down their selling monetary value.[ 53 ]As an option of take downing monetary value, some luxury trade names can establish less expensive production lines.

The typical illustration of adding a diffusing line is Armani Exchange, spreading Armani line. Both trade names accomplished immense success in low-end luxury market. Those trade names are referred to as ‘Masstige trade name ‘ – a compound came from ‘Mass ‘ and ‘Prestige ‘ – which means the monetary value is more low-cost than the luxury trade name but the quality and design are more first-class than other normal trade names. Masstige trade name is the effectual scheme both to supply the merchandises with similar quality at a less expensive monetary value and to widen its concern scope into low-level of luxury market.

There is another illustration of luxury trade name ‘s come ining into a diffusion line excessively. A internationally well-known diffusion athletics wear trade name, Puma belongs to PPR group, a keeping company of Gucci group now. It acquired Puma in 2007 and it can continue to feature wears and equipment market.[ 54 ]

Actually, LVMH is runing Marc by Marc Jacobs manner, a sort of similar spreading label but it can besides back up either to establish new spreading low-end line or geting relevant a retail merchant. When it comes to accommodate a diffusing line, LVMH manner and leather goods line express concerns on its highest trade name image and a price-setting right. However, it could minimise those concerns by using ‘no-brand scheme ‘ or taking advantage of its multi-brand scheme.

M & A ; A of Italian trade names

M & A ; A is the nucleus scheme for all of luxury trade name conglomerates every bit good as LVMH manner and leather goods line to govern the universe luxury market as mentioned above and there are tonss of rivals which are enduring from serious trouble in their operation including some Italian esteemed trade names like Salvatore Ferragamo and Prada.[ 55 ]However, it can non purchase all of them because it does non hold adequate hard currency to take over and purchase other trade names in order to reenforce its market power. Furthermore, authoritiess and other industries might supply some kinds of limitations to LVMH manner and leather goods line in order to avoid a monopolistic control of the luxury trade names.

However, one of these mark trade names might be the Italian trade name Salvatore Ferragamo as it stands as a synonymous for luxury merchandises and specially it targets work forces as a consumer ; intensifying our ends to widen into the turning male consumers demand ; but its presently enduring from low gross revenues in the market and direction now predicts runing net incomes will be down 10 % to 15 % this twelvemonth, to about $ 1.5 billion, and some analysts think even that is excessively optimistic. ”[ 56 ]Therefore, it will be good for both companies to unify.

Louis Vuitton

Fendi

Marc Jacobs

DKNY

Givenchy

Loewe

Kenzo

Celine

Berluti

Thomas Pink

Stefanobi

Emilio Pucci

Foundation

Year

1854

1925

1986

1989

1954

1988

1970

1945

1895

1984

1991

1947

Headquarter

( Nationality )

Paris, France

Rome, Italy

New York, US

New York, US

Paris, France

Barcelona, Spain

Paris, France

Paris, France

Paris, France

London, UK

Ferrara, Italy

Firenze, Italy

Joinng Year

1987

2004

1997

2001

1988

1996

1993

1996

1993

1999

1996

2000

# of Market states

64

36

23

12

27

36

35

26

-*

12

10

50

Main Locations

Tokyo,

Paris,

Hong Kong

Rome,

Japan,

Bahrein

New York

New York, London, China

Paris,

Mid-east

Spain

France

Japan

France,

New York

US, Europe

UK, USA

Roma, Tokyo

Firenze, Milano

Merchandise lines

Short pantss

Leather goods

Off-the-rack

Places

Watchs

Jewelry Accessories Sunglassess

off-the-rack

( m/w ) ,

Accessories

Aroma

Bag

Eye ware

Timepieces

Places

Scarfs

Off-the-rack

( m/w ) ,

Small Marc

Aroma

Eyewear

Diffusion line:

Marc by Marc Jacobs

Off-the-rack

( m/w ) ,

Accessories

Places

Haute couture,

( m/w )

Off-the-rack

( m/w ) ,

Places,

Leather goods Accessories

Womans Bag

Off-the-rack

( tungsten ) ,

Accessories

Aromas

Off-the-rack

( m/w ) ,

Kid dress

Aromas

Skin cares

Off-the-rack

( tungsten ) ,

Eyewear

Hand bags

Work force ‘s places

Leather goods

Off-the-rack

( m/w ) ,

Accessories

Tailoring

Places

Off-the-rack Accessories

Eyewear

Aroma

Key Designer

Marc Jacobs

Karl Lagerfeld

Marc Jacobs

Duffy

Donna Karan

Ricardo Tisci

Stuart Vevers

Antonio Marras

Phoebe philo

Peter Dundas

Appendix

The current organisation of LVMH Fashion and Leather Goods Line

Highlight of LVMH Fashion and Leather Goods Line ‘s Global Operation

2006

2007

2008

2009

Number of shops

954

989

1,090

1,164

Gross Gross

5,222

5,628

6,010

6,302

Operation Net income

1,633

1,829

1,927

1,986

Investings

319

246

311

262

( Unit of measurement: Million Euro )

Gross saless Revenue Share from 2008 to 2009

2008

2009