Benito Mussolini one time said “ O con noi o contro di noi ” translated in English to “ You ‘re either with us or against us ” . His statement reverberated through the decennaries, and remained relevant in the foreign policy of the states entangled in the Cold War. Shortly after deriving independency in 1947, India was amidst a brewing Cold War between capitalist economy and socialism, the U.S and the Soviet Union. India being a new state, implemented a figure of foreign policies to increase its image on the universe phase. This essay will look into the extent to which the foreign policies implemented by India deteriorated societal and political dealingss with the U.S during the Cold War. Initially this essay will analyse the negative effects of India ‘s “ Nonalignment motion ” on the relationship between the two states. Furthermore, the Indo-Soviet Treaty of 1971 implemented by Indira Gandhi, led to political complications between the presidents and farther deteriorated conditions between the states. Finally India ‘s “ Peaceful Nuclear Explosion ” of 1974 did non aid in bettering dealingss with America but alternatively allowed for societal tensenesss to lift between the states. The foreign policies implemented by India during the Cold War allowed political and societal tensenesss to increase between India and the U.S.
This essay will look into foreign policies adopted by India, every bit good as some foreign policies adopted by America. The positions of the presidents will be evaluated in relation to the foreign policies and their effects. This essay will advert other important states to the relationship between India and the U.S, but will non discourse their foreign policies. This essay will merely advert events prior to 1947 for historical background, but will non analyse the relationship between India and America prior to it. Events after the twelvemonth 1979 will non be analyzed every bit good.
A assortment of beginnings and historiographers with different positions and backgrounds were used to help this probe. One of the beginnings is The Eagle and the Peacock: U.S. Foreign Policy toward India since Independence, by Srinivas M. Chary. The other beginning is THE TRANSFORMATION OF U.S.-INDIA RELATIONS: An Explanation for the Rapprochement and Prospects for the Future by Sumit Ganguly and Paul Kapur.
India ‘s relationship with the United States on a expansive graduated table can be seen as a strategic necessity for both states, ab initio following all the manner back to the late eighteenth century. In 1794, the Jay ‘s Treaty ( of 1794 ) was signed between America and England ; this pact authorized trade between America and India.[ 1 ]The American Mahratta Mission was set up in 1815, missional militants provided aid by set uping schools and supplying nutrient to the destitute countries. “ The figure of missionaries in India rose from 139 in 1885 to 2478 in 1922. ”[ 2 ]During the late nineteenth century to mid twentieth century the bond between the two states improved, in Stephen P Hay ‘s words “ The Hagiographas of Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman and of the Sanskritists Hopkins, Lanman and Whitney helped transfuse in 19th century Americans a regard for India ‘s cultural heritage. ”[ 3 ]In 1893, Swami Vivek Anands words “ My brothers and sisters of America ” earned him regard and hand clapping from the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago.[ 4 ]In WWII Britain allowed Americans to utilize India as a base of operations against Japan after the onslaught on Pearl Harbour. India received many American merchandises during wartime through America ‘s Lend-Lease plan, India besides provided goods to America “ in pursuit of its reciprocal-aid plan. ”[ 5 ]During the 1946 Food Famine in India Americans formed the India Famine Emergency Committee ( IFEC ) with Pearl S. Buck as president “ in order to accomplish credence of the rule of equity in alleviation cargos to Europe and Asia and to guarantee the allotment of needful supplies to India by the United States. ”[ 6 ]
Initially the relationship between America and India continued to boom even after India ‘s independency on August 15th 1947. Harry S. Truman, the President of America at that clip, sent a wire to India which stated, “ I seriously hope that our friendly relationship will in future, as in the yesteryear, continue to be expressed in stopping point and fruitful cooperation in international projects and in amity in our dealingss one with the other. ”[ 7 ]In response to the wire, The Prime Minister of India responded by stating, “ May I besides say that all of us in India know really good, although it might non be so known in public, what great involvement President Roosevelt had in our state ‘s freedom and how he exercised his great influence to that terminal. ”[ 8 ]This strong relationship was ephemeral, as the Cold War brought differences in the states ‘ policies that caused them to float apart. After deriving independency on August 15th 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru became the first premier curate of India and viewed a hereafter for India as one of universe powers. To prosecute his dream he believed that India should follow a non-alignment policy. A non-alignment policy keeps a state from holding a political or military confederation with any major ace power, this subsequently came to be known as the Non-aligned motion in 1961 which grouped states which had adopted the non-alignment policy. On December 4th 1947 Nehru declared, “ We have proclaimed during this past twelvemonth that we will non attach ourselves to any peculiar group. That has nil to make with neutrality or anything else or passiveness. If there is a large war, there is no peculiar ground why we should leap into it. However, it is a small hard presents in universe wars to be impersonal. . . . We are non traveling to fall in a war if we can assist it and we are traveling to fall in the side which is to our involvement when the pick comes to it. ”[ 9 ]Jawaharlal Nehru was a outstanding advocator of this motion. American ‘s were disappointed by this determination of India, as they felt they were a comparatively new and weak state, they besides feared that they can be influenced by the Communist states around them.[ 10 ]India ‘s neighbors were China and the Soviet Union, who were both followings of communism, the U.S feared that the distance between India and the other two states was much closer than India and the U.S, which would do India to look at the Soviets or the Chinese for political or economical aid.
The appropriation of Kashmir took topographic point in 1947 by Pakistan. Kashmir so relied on India to acquire rid of the Pakistani plunderers from Kashmir on the status that Kashmir becomes Indian Territory. After successfully driving off most of the Pakistani raiders the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru took this issue to the United Nations ( U.N. ) on January 1st 1948. At the U.N. the United States were unwilling to declare Pakistan the attacker despite its onslaught on a impersonal state, which was now a portion of India, the determination of the United States was extremely criticized in India.[ 11 ]America understood the significance of Pakistan to its strategic programs of seting military bases around the Communist states. Pakistan permitted Washington to hold a military base in Pakistan to listen in on the Soviets, Pakistanis in return received considerable economic and military aid from the Americans[ 12 ]. Geographically, Pakistan was closer to the Communist states of China and the Soviet Union than America itself, holding military bases in Pakistan would cut down the menace of Communism taking over South Asia. The Americans trusted Pakistan instead than India due to Pakistan back uping America ‘s containment policy. Pakistan participated in plans such as the Central Treaty Organization ( CENTO ) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization ( SEATO ) , both these organisations were anti-communist military confederations. Hence it became interested in assisting Pakistan in the personal businesss of Kashmir during the direct dialogues between India and Pakistan ( 1953-1956 ) .[ 13 ]Besides during the dialogues, the U.S granted Pakistan military assistance.[ 14 ]This stopped the dialogues for a piece, and made it clear that U.S was non looking for a solution to the Kashmir issue which favoured India. Alternatively America proposed a plebiscite to be taken which was opposed by India. During the Kashmir issue, the Soviet Union supported India and vetoed the determination for the plebiscite on June 22nd 1962.[ 15 ]The U.S now felt that the Indian policy of non-alignment was non being upheld, and India was tilting toward the Russians, they were threatened by the displacement in sides. The U.S imperativeness criticized the Indian ‘s for the deadlock over the Kashmir issue printing an column in The New York Tribune entitled “ India Hides behind Russia ‘s Veto ” , which put the full incrimination on India for procrastinating the determination to be made on the hereafter of Kashmir.[ 16 ]The battle for Kashmir was non over yet, in 1965 a war was fought between India and Pakistan over the issue of Kashmir, this was besides called the Second Kashmir war, the first occurrence in 1947. During this war, Pakistan was armed by American arms. Pakistan liberally used arms including Sabre Jets and Panton Tanks which were provided by America.[ 17 ]Though Pakistan initiated the war of 1965, the U.S once more ne’er admitted to Pakistan being the attacker, and on the other manus it blamed both India and Pakistan of arm abuse.[ 18 ]Although finally the war was lost by Pakistan, intuitions increased amongst Indian citizens over the supply of American arms to Pakistan. M. Srinivas Chary, a professor at the New School University for Social Research in New York City, who has attained a Ph.D from Kansas State University, states that the war of 1965 reduced the hopes of an betterment between Indo-American relationships.[ 19 ]
India ‘s affinity of the Soviet Union was non merely due to strategic grounds, but every bit good as subjective penchants. Russia ‘s economic success impressed India ‘s Prime Minister who had socialist inclinations, he besides resented America ‘s free-market capitalist economy.[ 20 ]Nehru believed that the key to deriving economic success was by extinguishing the difference between the rich and the hapless by socialist methods, and that capitalist economy does non accomplish that end[ 21 ]. India ‘s relationship with the Soviet Union strengthened when they sided with the Soviets over controversial issues such as the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and Afghanistan in 1979, India denied that “ Eastern Bloc ‘s military capablenesss endangered Western Europe. ”[ 22 ]Therefore India ‘s “ non-aligned ” frustrated the Americans and became a nuisance as they criticized the Indian authorities for siding with the Soviets in important ways. India ‘s co-operation with the Soviets was perceived by Americans as an effort to sabotage their power.[ 23 ]India ‘s support of America ‘s arch challenger, Soviet Union, and America ‘s support of India ‘s arch-rival, Pakistan increased societal tensenesss between the states and instilled fright in the citizens against each other. The non-alignment policy of India initiated a cat and mouse game between the two states throughout the bulk of the Cold War.
The labored relationship between America and India declined even further due to India ‘s “ Peaceful Nuclear Explosion ” in 1974. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India in 1966, work began on the atomic plan.[ 24 ]On 7 September 1972, Indira Gandhi authorized the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre ( BARC ) to fabricate a atomic device and fix it for a trial.[ 25 ]Finally on May 18th of 1947, Indira Gandhi gave a green signal and India conducted an belowground “ peaceable atomic detonation ” in Rajasthan desert, on the side codenamed “ Smiling Buddha ” ( Pokhran-I ) .[ 26 ]This was India ‘s first atomic foreign policy and was received with immediate disapproval by the American authorities particularly since it provided India with heavy H2O.[ 27 ]The Soviet Union on the other manus kept quiet on the affair.
The Nuclear trial by India was non at wholly viewed as peaceable by the Americans. They were worried of India going a menace, as it was the first state out of the chief 5 U.N states to carry on a Nuclear Explosion. In revenge to the trial performed by India, she stopped providing enriched Uranium for the Tarapore Plant, as provided under the bilateral understanding of 1963. In 1975 America lifted a 10 twelvemonth old weaponries trade stoppage against the sale of deadly arms to South Asia.[ 28 ]This increased intuition and uncertainty in the heads of the Indians, as they believed America might get down providing arms to India ‘s pledged Nemesis, Pakistan. Due to this policy by the Americans, the Indians had cancelled the scheduled meeting of its External Affairs Minister to the U.S.[ 29 ]A opportunity of bettering the relationship between America and India was lost due to India ‘s atomic policy.
Following India ‘s “ peaceable atomic detonation ” America decided to do South Asia a portion of its “ Non-proliferation ” attempts, a non proliferation pact is a pact which prevents the spread of Nuclear arms and promotes the usage of peaceable atomic energy. It did this by making statute law such as the 1978 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, the Pressler Amendment, and the Symington Amendment ; these were created in order to forestall India from acquiring Nuclear Weapons.[ 30 ]In India, the people extremely criticized this policy of the Americans. It was viewed as hypocritical and prejudiced. It was so profoundly resented that even 20 old ages after in 1998, the foreign curate of India, Jaswant Singh, marked the 1978 Nuclear Proliferation pact “ atomic apartheid. ”[ 31 ]
Argument 3: ( WILL Be MY SECOND ARGUMENT FOR FINAL DRAFT )
The Indo-Soviet pact of “ Peace, Friendship and Co-operation implemented by Indira Gandhi in 1971 allowed political tensenesss to make a upper limit between America and India. The Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei A. Gromyko, flew to New Delhi on August 8th 1971 to run into India ‘s curate for External Affairs, Swam Singh. Together the following twenty-four hours they signed a 20 twelvemonth treaty of “ Peace, Friendship and Co-operation. ”[ 32 ]This pact brought India and Russia closer than of all time, and pushed India and America further than of all time, the two states promised to help each other in the event of a sensed military menace.[ 33 ]The treaty was strong plenty in discouraging any state to declare war on either Russia or India. This was the biggest divergence from India ‘s non-alignment policies of 1947. M Srinivas Chary believes that this pact ended India ‘s non-alignment motion wholly. Americans criticized the Indian Government and felt threatened by the Indians being friendly with the Soviets. The Nixon authorities felt that this policy endangered the subcontinent of a hereafter warzone.[ 34 ]To the Indian authorities the U.S appeared to be closely linked with China and Pakistan, while for the American authorities, India was clearly linked with the Soviet Union.[ 35 ]Indira Gandhi, the premier curate of India at that clip confirmed that the non-alignment policy was still integral.[ 36 ]In November 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi traveled to Washington to seek the U.S. authorities ‘s aid to run into the demands of the refugees who had come to India from East Pakistan. She tried to convert the president that India was seeking in every possible manner non to go involved in a war with Pakistan, a state with its ground forces poised for aggression. At the same clip the load of caring for 9.6 million refugees was more than India could bear. Nixon gave her a cold response. Harmonizing to Kissinger the conversations between Nixon and Indira Gandhi turned into “ a authoritative duologue of the deaf. ”[ 37 ]The two leaders failed to hear each other “ non because they did non understand each other but because they understood each other excessively good. ”[ 38 ]After the unsuccessful meeting with Indira Gandhi, President Richard Nixon stated “ We truly slobbered over the old enchantress ” his national security adviser Henry Kissinger responded stating “ The Indians are assholes anywayaˆ¦they are get downing a war at that place. ” Nixon responded stating, “ While she was a bitch, we got what we wanted excessively. She will non be able to travel place and state that the United States did n’t give her a warm response and therefore in desperation she ‘s got to travel to war. ”[ 39 ]Nixon ‘s usage of inappropriate linguistic communication toward a premier curate portrays the sum of hatred and political tenseness between the two states. Alternatively of work outing a looming war in South Asia, Nixon sanctioning of a $ 40 million bundle of arms to Islamabad, merely allowed for political tensenesss to lift between the two presidents. Indira Gandhi ‘s supplication for aid was unheard of, and Nixons ‘ determination to assist arm Pakistan was seen as a direct abuse to the Indian authorities.[ 40 ]Nixon was ready to prosecute in a war with India indirectly, the political and societal tensenesss reached a maximal by the terminal of 1971. Henry Kissinger remarked that Nixon and Indira Gandhi were non destined to be congenial, he stated “ Her premise of about familial moral high quality and her Moody silence brought out all of Nixon ‘s latest insecurities. Her bearing toward Nixon combined a contempt for a symbol of capitalist economy rather stylish in developing states with a intimation that the objectionable things she heard about the President from her rational friends could non all be untrue. Nixon ‘s remarks after meetings with her were non ever printable. ” Senator Kennedy criticized Nixon and Kissinger for their actions toward India he states “ We have made her [ India ] the whipping boy of our defeats and failures and frequently the bankruptcy of our policy toward Pakistan. ”[ 41 ]Despite the unfavorable judgment Nixon continued with his pro-Pakistani policy. Nixon was unwilling to break the relationship with India due to his paranoia of communism taking over South Asia. As the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 Drew closer, the tensenesss increased between the two states.
While the Soviets were on India ‘s side of the war, Pakistan had America. The dramatic and extremely controversial despatch of the nuclear-powered bearer U.S.S. Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal farther damaged the U.S. relationship with India[ 42 ]. The proclaimed intent of this move was to guarantee the safe emptying of Americans in East Pakistan. But the existent intent was to signal U.S. concern about the continued unity of Pakistan. Kissinger, in his White House Years, stated that the motive was to give accent to “ our warnings against an onslaught on West Pakistan ” and to hold forces in topographic point in instance the Soviet Union pressured China. ” The undertaking force did non come in the Bay of Bengal until mid-December.[ 43 ]By this clip Americans who insisted on go forthing East Pakistan had been evacuated, and the war there was pulling to an terminal. The undertaking force ne’er came near to the shores of East Bengal ( Historiography-counter statement ) . The Enterprise episode led to violent presentations against Nixon in India. It marked the low point of Indo-American dealingss and the cicatrixs created ne’er left the Indian head. For the first clip many Indians saw the United States as a major menace to the security of India because the despatch of Enterprise might intensify a local war into a much larger and more serious inferno. Nixon ‘s policies during the struggle had small consequence on the result, although they did lend to make a good trade of resentment and dismay in India, the United States, and elsewhere. It exacerbated the labored U.S. dealingss with India, the Soviet Union, and even Pakistan, for the latter had expected far more from the undertaking force than a impermanent show of force in the Bay of Bengal. In the words of Christopher Van Hollen, deputy helper secretary for Near Eastern and South Asiatic personal businesss in 1971: “ There is no indicant that the Enterprise deployment had any immediate political or military impact of events in South Asia. . . although it may hold inauspicious long-run reverberations in footings of United States involvements. ”[ 44 ]
India ‘s foreign policies from1947 through 1979 deteriorated Indo-American dealingss by increasing political and societal tensenesss. Jawaharlal Nehru ‘s socialist political orientation and non-alignment motion initiated the declivitous way for the dealingss between the two states. The Indo-Soviet pact of “ Peace, Friendship and Co-operation ” in 1971 led to political tensenesss between the Indira Gandhi and Richard Nixon. India ‘s Peaceful Nuclear Explosion caused farther complications as it increased societal tensenesss every bit good as political tensenesss between the two states. My enemies enemy is my friend is a quotation mark by Sun Tzu is a construct which is clearly reflected throughout India ‘s relationship with America during the Cold War.