Retailing is one of the pillars of Indian economic system which accounts for 35 % of Gross Domestic Products-GDP. 97 % of the Indian retail sector is found to be extremely disconnected and it is being run by the unorganised retail merchants like the traditional household tally shops, the “ Kiranas ” . Following to agriculture the retail sector is identified the largest beginning of employment in rural India. It is of two types viz. , Organised retailing that include the corporate-backed hypermarkets, retail ironss, in private owned big retail concerns and unorganized retailing, which refers to the traditional formats of low-priced retailing, the “ kirana ” shops- proprietor manned general shops, /beedi stores, convenience shops, manus cart and paving sellers, etc. The organized retail nevertheless is at a really nascent phase though efforts are being made to increase its proportion to 9-10 % .Hence there is a immense chance for prospective new participants 1.
Beginning: Ernst & A ; Young, The Great Indian Retail Story, 2006.
As per the statistics the retail sector in India has a possible worth of 394 billion US Dollars and is turning at the rate of 30 % yearly. An Indian Council For Research On International Economic Relations – ICRIER survey has found that retailing ( $ 180 billion ) contributes to 10 per cent of GDP and employs 7 per cent ( 21 million ) of the work force. Harmonizing to AT Kearney, India is given the top ranking as the following foreign investing finish, as Chinese market has become extremely concentrated. India is the 4th largest economic system as respects GDP ( in footings of Purchase Power Parity – Palatopharyngoplasty footings ) and is expected to rank 3rd by thie current twelvemonth terminal merely behind US and China. Over the past few old ages, the retail gross revenues in India are vibrating around 33-35 % of GDP as compared to around 20 % in the US. The following table indicate a comparing of India ‘s retail trade with US and China.
Comparison tabular array of India ‘s retail trade with US and China.
Beginning: Economist, Let gradualism steer FDI in retail, 2006.
The retail sector has witnessed a rapid growing in the last decennary. The cardinal drivers are the globalization of market are
quickly altering consumer profile,
their demographics, and
addition in the figure of international trade names available in the India had greater the economic implications..
increasing urbanisation, recognition handiness
betterment in the substructure
increasing investings in engineering
existent estate edifice
a universe category shopping environment for the consumers
efficient bringing of goods and
value-added services to the consumer doing a higher part to the GDP. From the macro point of position the International retail merchants see India as the last retailing frontier left as the China ‘s retail sector is going saturated. The conservative policies of Indian Government holding limitations on the FDI are making ripplings among the international participants like Wal-Mart, Tesco and many other retail giants fighting to come in Indian markets.
The altering Indian consumer
There is a paradigm displacement in the consumer purchasing behaviour of the Indian consumer. There is a greater focal point on entreaty value – looking and experiencing good as trend-conscious, from a degree of monetary value considerations to designs and quality. However, it is to be noted that still Indian consumer is a paradox, and the price reduction shopper trueness takes a backseat as compared to monetary value price reductions. The promenade passion has bought in a whole new strain of modern retail formats across the state catering to every demand of the value-seeking Indian consumer. An mean Indian would see a promenade as a perfect weekend pickup with household offering them amusement, leisure, nutrient, shopping – all under one roof
Indian Retail Formats – Changing Scenario – Indian Industry
The format of the retail is much dependant on the sensed demographics of the mark group. A retail merchant can take a format based on the sort of shop design, the vicinity, the merchandises and services mix, and the pricing mix that should be ideal to the considered mark demographics. The different types of retail formats being experimented by the Indian Retail Industries are mom-and-pop or kirana shops, section shops, , price reduction shops, convenience shops, forte shops, , hypermarkets, supermarkets, promenades, class slayers, e-tailers and peddling machines.
Due to the comparative low compensation offered by the traditional agribusiness and fabrication sector a big volume of people are turning to this Retail services sector for employment. The unorganised retail sector is pegged at 6 per centum growing while the organized retail market is turning at 35 per centum yearly that gives an index of the growing potency of the Indian Retail industries.
The Indian Retail Market
Indian Retail market is characterized by high complexnesss in footings of a broad geographic spread and diversified consumer penchants by part that demands for localisation within the geographic zones and India has highest figure of mercantile establishments per individual
Major Indian Retailers
Since big Indian participants like Reliance, Ambani ‘s, K Raheja ‘s, Bharti AirTel, ITC are puting in this sector taking to outgrowth of large retail merchants who can work on big economic systems of graduated table that made dismissing an recognized practice.Proper substructure is a pre-requisite in retailing.
Indian dress retail merchants are increasing their trade name presence the developed abroad markets. While most have identified a spread in states in West Asia and Africa, some big leagues are besides looking at the US and Europe
Entry of Multi National Corporations -MNCs
The universe ‘s largest retail merchant Wal-Mart Stores Inc and Sunil Mittal ‘s Bharti Enterprises have entered into a joint venture to sell food markets, consumer contraptions and fruits and veggies to retail merchants and little concerns.
Carrefour, the universe ‘s 2nd largest retail merchant, is be aftering to impart its proficient services, knowhow and its streamer to an Indian company for direct-to-consumer retail.
The universe ‘s 5th largest retail merchant by gross revenues, Costco Wholesale Corp ( Costco ) known for its warehouse nine theoretical account is waiting for the right chance.
Tesco Plc. , plans to put up store in India intend to assist Indian pudding stone Tata group to turn its hypermarket concern.
Foreign Direct Investment -FDI in retail:
Global retail merchants have already been sourcing from India ; the gap up of the retail sector to the FDI has been fraught with political challenges. It is felt that the presence of planetary retail merchants will heighten exports from India as they would besides beginning Indian goods for their international mercantile establishments in a large manner taking to a singular addition in Indian exports.
Segment analysis and the altering scenario of Indian Retail Formats
The construction of Indian retail is developing quickly with shopping promenades going progressively common in the big metropoliss with an estimated approximate 150 new shopping promenades during twelvemonth 2008. The traditional formats like grocers, tobacconist stores, and peddlers, continue to co-exist along with the modern retailing formats. Modern retailing has helped the companies to increase the ingestion of their merchandises for illustration: Basmati Rice. and it can be seen that the local market would travel through a metabolisms of a sea alteration and the local shops would shortly go out-of-date or restricted to last minute unplanned purchasing.
The cleavage by categorization of goods may be classified as
Food & A ; Grocery
Gems and jewelry
Food and food market retail: As per McKinsey study, it is found that the portion of an Indian family spends 48 % of income on nutrient and drinks which the highest in the world.. The estimated nutrient retail concern in India through unorganised retail sector is Rs. 40,000 crore. The aggregative grosss of big nutrient participants is presently 5 % of the entire Indian retail market, and about 15 to 20 % of the entire urban nutrient ingestion. Most nutrient is sold in the local `wet ‘ market, sellers, roadside push cart Sellerss or bantam kirana shops.
The ready-mades and western outfits are turning to make a concern turnover of Rs.500 crores. In the recent old ages it has seen that this sector align itself to the planetary tendencies with retailing companies like Shoppers ‘ halt and Crossroads come ining the disturbance to lure the in-between category and it is estimated that this section would turn to Rs. 300 crore in the following three old ages.
Gems and Jewellery retail:
The treasures and jewelry market is the cardinal emerging country, accounting for a high proportion of retail spends. India is the largest consumer of gold in the universe with an estimated one-year ingestion of 1000 metric tons, sing existent imports andA recycled gold. The market for jewelry is estimated as Rs. 65,000 crores about.
The drug company retailing is transforming itself non a pure drama pharma retail merchant but more in the wellness and beauty attention concern and the estimated concern spending in this retail sector is about Rs. 30,000 crore, with 15 % of the 51 lakh retail shops in India being chemists.
The size of the Indian music industry, is estimated at Rs.1100 crore of which about 36 per centum is consumed by the pirated market and organized music retailing constitutes about 14 per centum, tantamount to Rs.150 crore.
The organized retail book industry histories for 7 % ( at Rs.210 crore ) . Out of the entire estimated Rs. 3,000 crore. This section is seen to be emerging with text and course of study books accounting to about 50 % of the entire gross revenues. The endowing wont in India is catching on fast with books basking a important portion, therefore anticipating this sector to turn by 15 % yearly.
Consumer durable goodss retail:
The consumer durables consisting of Television sets, audio systems, VCD participants rinsing machines, microwave ovens, air conditioners ( A/Cs ) can be stratified into consumer electronics that histories for an estimated 4.5 Billion USD out of which with organized retailing contributes to 5 %
From the above figure it is inferred that organized retail incursion ( ORP ) in pes wear is the highest with 22 % followed by vesture. In food market section merely 1 % contribute to the organised sector even though nutrient and food market constitute a major portion of 76 % retail spend by the consumer and it is estimated that this section would turn five times taking the portion of the organized market to 30 per centum in the resulting old ages.
Industry analysis of the Indian retail sector:
Modern retailing has entered India in signifier of sprawling promenades and immense composites offering shopping, amusement, leisure to the consumer as the retail merchants experiment with a assortment of formats, from price reduction shops to supermarkets to hypermarkets to forte ironss. However, kiranas still continue to hit over modern formats chiefly due to the convenience factor.
Beginning: IT Retailing: Are You In The Loop? July 16, 2006.
The organized retail sector comprises of a big figure of retail merchants, and retailing does non intend merely carrying and selling but so it is all about efficient supply concatenation direction that includes developing seller relationship, caring client service, timely promotional run for an effectual and efficient merchandising.The modern retail formats marks development of good structured, effectual and efficient supply concatenation right from farms to kitchens, which will ensue promote purchase on decrease of channel beds and hence in immense nest eggs for the husbandmans and contribute to the national economic system. It besides increases the Numberss in revenue enhancement bracket and hence ensures efficient financial grosss. Along with the modern retail formats, the non-store retailing channels are besides witnessing action with HLL enterprises to utilize non-store retailing channels – Sangam Direct, adds a new dimension of direct to place service in retailing format. The Network selling is another emerging country in retailing, turning rather fast and has a few big participants as on now. Convenience Shop is another format targeted to utilize the platform of Gas Stationss which are map round the clock. The other signifier of convenience shops in different countries of operation is ATMs, nutrient tribunals and pharmaceuticss which gain importance in this fast path universe.
In the old ages to come it is expected that hypermarket format will derive importance as the most preferable format for international retail merchants who would wish to do an entry to our state. As the study says near about half a million population are served through 50 hyper markets, operated by few big retail merchants, four to five in Numberss across 67 metropoliss. This market sector is expected to hold a possible to absorb more hypermarkets in the resulting decennary.
Amalgamation and acquisition in Retail sector
In the first half of 2006, India witnessed a record figure of Merger and Acquisition trades deserving USD 25.6 billion. A ample quantum of trades have been signed in the Indian retail sector since past few months in order to get a larger market portion in the turning domestic market and to vie the prospective planetary participants. The tabular array below shows some recent trades that have taken topographic point in the Indian retail sector:
Acquired/ JV Company/ Target
Nature of Business
( US $ million )
Retail ( Footwear )
Indus – League Clothing
Deccan Chronicle Retentions
Leisure retail concatenation ( books, music, toys )
Books, music, accoutrements
TGI Friday ‘s ( a subordinate of Carlson Restaurant World-wide )
Restaurant ( Food retail )
Indus League vesture
( Future group company )
Etam group, France
Lingerie and adult females ‘s wear retailing
( JV )
Beginning: Price waterhouse Coppers, Asia-Pacific M & A ; A bulletin, Mid twelvemonth 2006.
The Indian retail sector gives a enormous economic chance on a big graduated table both for domestic and planetary market. This sector play a cardinal function in bring forthing big occupation chances and convey a scope goods to the consumers at sensible and low-cost monetary values. Ernst & A ; Young ‘s study of `The Great Indian Retail Story ‘ indicates that this sector is expected to make 2 million occupations by this twelvemonth.
Reasons for Foreign retail houses to take India
Even traditional `brick and howitzer ‘ companies like Tata ‘s have entered the retail concern. The grounds for the foreign house to take India as their possible retail market is
demographic alterations like lifting disposable incomes
quickly spread outing in-between category,
altering transmutation in the Indian ingestion form and penchants
the altering mind of trade name witting Indian
India has the youngest productive population in the universe, between the age group of 20-34 old ages.
regional retail merchants in the globalisation race.
IT and latest development:
IT played a polar function in radically altering the purchasing behaviour across the Earth by the usage of engineering and IT has been used by retail merchants runing from Amazon.com to eBay, To reason, the organized retail merchants are in a difficult pressed demand for a individual endeavor with a broad IT platform to pull off operations, which will go progressively complex one time the market expands.
Significant impact on retail merchants and branded goods – making new chances and menaces:
Harmonizing to Assocham, the overall an overall addition of 36 per cent in Organized retail sector market which would turn by with the registered estimated for a treble growing to Rs 15,000 crore twelvemonth ended 2008. The entire retail market size is besides expected to increase to Rs 14, 79,000 crore from the bing degree of Rs 5, 88,000 crore.
The Issues and Challenges in Indian Retail Market
India presents a big market chance because of the increasing buying power of consumers. Equally the associated important challenges are that over 90 % of trade is conducted through independent local shops that include: Geographically spread population, little ticket sizes, complex distribution web, small usage of IT systems, restrictions of mass media and the alone being of imitative goods. However the major challenges could be listed as
Severe deficit of gifted professionals
Indian retail section participants are under enormous force per unit area to do their supply ironss
efficient degrees of quality and service bringing
addition of costs of Supply concatenation by 15 % .
Lack of equal infrastructure- roads, electricity, cold ironss and ports
retail ironss have to fall back to multiple seller system for their demands,
raising costs and monetary values.
the system is presently polluted with differential revenue enhancement rates for assorted provinces that increased costs for in set uping an effectual distribution web
Rigorous labour Torahs steering the work hours
minimal rewards to be paid that limits flexibleness of operations and
employment of parttime employees.
For opening new mercantile establishments by the same company, multiple clearances are required that attention deficit disorder to the costs and clip and inhibits enlargement.
The retail sector does non hold ‘industry ‘ position
Troubles faced by retail merchants to raise finance from Bankss to fund their enlargement programs.
Government limitations bounds on the FDI are taking to an absence of limited exposure to outdo patterns
to happen a good location and size of a existent estate
organized nature of minutess has been identified due to Lack of clear ownership rubrics and high cast responsibility.
To go a promising and booming industry, retailing demands to face and over come the undermentioned hurdles/challenges
In foreign retail investing automatic blessing is non allowed because of
The Cumbersome Local Torahs and Regulations restrict the existent estate purchases while revenue enhancement, favours little retail concerns.
Absence of incorporate supply concatenation and IT direction.
Lack of trained labour force.
Poor skill level for retailing direction.
Poor survey options and Retailing Courses
The Intrinsic complexnesss like Fluctuating monetary value alterations, merchandise obsolescence and low borders.
Specialized retail schools are being considered to get the better of the challenges faced by modern retailing.
Retail Industries serve as the best channels that act as a span between the manufacturers of goods and services and the terminal users. It serves both as a conduit of out range of goods and services and a provender back channel from the clients to the makers which help the merchandise and procedure invention. It serves as a beginning for the terminal users to have the goods and services in distinct quanta at the door measure or near by topographic points. The distinct volume / quanta are perceived as the demands of the retail mercantile establishment. It is besides a beginning of demographic information that helps the maker to be after his production and selling.
The Indian economic system is sharply turning economic system and there is a paradigm displacement in the consumer purchasing behaviour of the Indian consumer as trend-conscious, from a degree of monetary value considerations to appeal fitness designs and quality witting. However, it is to be noted that still Indian consumer is a paradox, and the price reduction shopper additions more trueness than monetary value price reductions. Hence is sector will hold a mix of the tradition and modern formats based on the demographics and the Indian Retail format could be good a mix as given below.
Mom-And-Pop or Kirana Stores: is a retail mercantile establishment that are family-run concerns with really selective and few in Numberss and the square pess country of the shop much depends on the shop holder.
Forte Shops: A forte shop is that it gives attending to a peculiar class like selling Canis familiaris nutrient and provides high degree of service to the clients. A favored shop is one that specializes as a forte shop like “ Reebok ” where they happen merely Reebok.
However, branded shops besides come under this format. For illustration if a client visits a Reebok or Gap store so Department Stores is that shop that a carries assortment of classs of stock list and it has a wide mixture at mean monetary value. It offers a considerable client service. Example: Food World in Bangalore.
Discount Stores: offers mixture of ware at cut-rate and low-cost monetary values but the service may be unequal.
Convenience Stores provide limited sum of ware, more than the mean monetary value and with a speedy check-out procedure. Normally it is ideal for exigency purchases.
Hypermarkets considers assortment and volumes of sole ware at a really low borders and relatively it has less runing cost than other retail formats-Example: the Metroa„? shop in Bangalore.
Supermarkets is a self service theoretical account with a focal point on food market and limited merchandises of non nutrient points. They may follow a Hi-Lo scheme for pricing. The supermarkets usually has a infinite of between 20,000-40,000 square pess. Example: SPARa„? supermarket.
Promenades will hold a scope of retail stores at a individual mercantile establishment. They usually endow with merchandises, nutrient and amusement under one roof. Example: Sigma promenade and Garuda promenade in Bangalore.
At E-tailers client can shop and order through cyberspace and the ware are delivered at the client ‘s doorstep Example: Amazon and EBay.
Peddling Machines is an machine-controlled equipment wherein clients can get the merchandises by the bead of a coin or a nominal considered for a monetary value. For illustration: Soft drinks peddling at Bangalore Airport.
List of resources:
1. . Michael Levy, Barton A Weitz, Retailing Management, Pub. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Edition 7, ISBN Number: 0073381047 2. Ernst & A ; Young, The Great Indian Retail Story, 2006. 3.. FICCI – ICICI Property Services Study. 4.. Let gradualism steer FDI in retail, Economist, 2006. 5. AT Kearney, GRDI 2006. 6. CII, Logistics and Freight News, March 2006. 7.. KPMG analysis, Consumer markets in India – the following large thing, September 2005. 9. India ‘s altering family, Deutche Bank, November 2004. 8.. CII, Manufacturing Bulletin, June 2006. 9.. Northbridge Journal, Industry Outlook – Retail, 2006. 10. Price Water Coppers, Asia-Pacific M & A ; A bulletin, Mid twelvemonth 2006. 11.www.alexa.com. 12. www.itcportal.com.