Though most entrepreneurial start-ups and little concerns ab initio derive their strength from R & A ; D installations and the resulting inventions or alone concern thoughts, with their laminitiss possessing some if non a sound technical/ technological background, ensuing in merchandise orientated ventures. It is frequently noticed that market orientated ventures are more successful, owing to them being able to place and capitalise on the right manner of entry into a market, while doing possible purchasers aware of their offering ‘s superior value and by utilizing these prospective clients ‘ feedback, to maneuver their R & A ; D to fit their new merchandise offering, to the specific demands of their mark section. Hence, it is merely obvious that venture capitalists rate the overall significance of marketing direction 6.7 on a graduated table of 7.0 viz. higher as compared to all other concern maps ( Gruber, 2002 ) . This impression has been in being for a piece particularly in capitalist economic systems like the U.S. , Europe, Canada and Australia. A cogent evidence of this can be observed in the followers, which was a portion of the readying of a 1997 Inc. 500 list of the fastest-growing private companies ( U.S. ) , where in the CEOs of these companies were asked to sum up their greatest strengths and failings ( as shown in Table I-1 ) . What has to be noted here is that, Gross saless and Selling were observed to be their biggest strength as compared to other strategic assets. On farther questioning the really same venture capitalists, it was concluded that venture failure rates could be reduced by about 60 % on using pre-venture selling analysis.
Table I-1. 1997 Inc. 500: Greatest strength and failing
Numbers of CEOs Who Cite the Following as a:
Gross saless and Selling Schemes
Pull offing Peoples
Entrepreneurial selling is besides geared, to guarantee that maximal benefit is derived from each penny invested in selling, particularly for an SME or a start-up. It has been observed that unlike large concerns, enterprisers have really limited resources to use towards marketing and can non ever rely on intuition or test and mistake with respect to their selling runs or ads. Positioning, aiming and cleavage have been identified as the nucleus constructs of a selling program and that the cardinal challenges that arise with respect to the same, are different for the different stakeholders involved viz. the clients ( who may or may non be the terminal consumers ) , the venture capitalists ( investors ) , employees or possible employees i.e. in recruiting, strategic spouses, mediators ( distribution channel or supply concatenation members ) and so on. Hence it is required that different selling schemes are adopted, developed and implemented towards the assorted groups as their demands from the SME or start-up are different i.e. one selling program wo n’t be sufficient. A successful cost-efficient seller has a hard undertaking, of pull offing how his SME or start-up will be perceived by the different stakeholders, with respect to its corporate ( trade name ) image/reputation, merchandise offering/service and equity ( Archambeau, Lodish, and Morgan, 2007 ) .
Some of the cardinal countries of emphasis/focus with respect to selling for SMEs and start-ups are: –
Limited activity/operations, expertise/resources and impacts.
Estimating and pull offing the hazard involved in intuitive / reactive selling.
Developing and supporting niches ( largely left out by big companies ) .
Use of alternate low cost selling patterns such as relationship selling, guerilla selling and creative activity of “ word of oral cavity ” .
Successfully complementing these advanced patterns with traditional selling
constructs such as the 4-7 P ‘s and the selling mix.
Creation of a competitory advantage through distinction and designation of
Decision doing procedure with respect to the name of the company and its merchandises,
pricing, recruiting ( forces with selling cognition or apprehension ) , ways of raising capital for marketing methods.
Distribution channels and the impact or effects of alterations in engineering Egs.
Online/Internet Gross saless or cyberspace selling and how to leverage the cyberspace.
Establishing or organizing ( particularly for a start-up ) a market orientation ( client,
rival or inter-functional ) or cultural orientation conducive to the creative activity of superior value and public presentation for the client and concern severally ( Narver and Slater, 1990 ) .
Building credibleness and trust with stakeholders.
( Gruber, 2002 )
2. The Entrepreneurial Marketing Concept: Link Between
Selling In SMEs and Entrepreneurship
It was widely assumed even in academe until 1990 that SME ‘s needed nil more than a simplified version of the sophisticated ( and successful ) selling patterns followed in big companies. But now it has become more evident that, selling adopted in SMEs are basically different and more successful in these SMEs than in the largest of houses. This may partially be explained as, selling execution is more of import than planning and scheme, for its success. Many writers see entrepreneurial selling as being synonymous to little concern selling. But in world there exists a difference, which is linked to entrepreneurial behavior. In simple words, many houses may get down little and remain that manner owing to the manager/owner non being motivated towards growing, his life style and its eventful personal ends or needs that arise in footings of money etc. , which on being fulfilled, ends the range for growing of the house, thereby ensuing in it keeping its degree of operation. Such houses are besides known as lifestyle houses. On the reverse, some houses do turn and their motive for growing is reflected in all their programs and actions. Similarly, entrepreneurial houses grow and expand. Furthermore formalized modus operandis may be required to be introduced, on turning to a larger size, though they may still be entrepreneurial in nature and may pattern entrepreneurial selling. The same differentiation can be made with respect to SME selling as compared to entrepreneurial selling i.e. the former is associated to selling in SMEs, non sing their entrepreneurial position, while the latter is linked to enlargement and entrepreneurial behavior ( Hills and Hultman, 2006 ) .
3. The Main Marketing Methods adopted by Entrepreneurs and the
Rationale behind this pick
Before we discuss the chief selling methods, we should briefly discourse the implicit in dimensions of entrepreneurial selling which are:
Proactive Orientation: Selling variables are used to both adapt to and make alterations so as to redefine the external environment which is observed to be an chance skyline in an effort to diminish the house ‘s dependence and exposure to eventualities.
Customer Intensity: Beyond conventional customer-centric focal point, entrepreneurial selling accents splanchnic relationships, client equity and an emotional facet to the house ‘s selling attempts ( Sheth, Sisodia and Sharma, 2000 ) .
Opportunity Driven: The acknowledgment and chase of concern chance i.e. unnoticed market places with sustainable net income potency.
Hazard Management: The seller tries to cipher and extenuate or portion hazard through efficient direction of resources where in, flexibleness is provided for either retreating from bing or perpetrating to new undertakings and by proposing, strategic solutions to cut down the hazard and the impact of uncertainnesss involved at that place in. This is in contrast to the conventional attack, where the seller tries to minimise hazard, through increasing the gross revenues volumes by using assorted publicity techniques, while concentrating on bing markets.
Value – Creation: To turn up untapped beginnings of client value and make alone combinations of resources to bring forth value
Invention Focussed: Entrepreneurial Selling map plays an built-in portion in sustainable invention i.e. from placing chances, to supplying proficient support and augmenting the houses ‘ resource base, in order to ease invention and merchandise development.
Resource Leveraging: Making more with less i.e. the ability of placing a resource that is non being used optimally, measuring how it can be used in an unconventional manner, converting those who control the resource to allow the seller usage it, all of which involves a great trade of innovation/creativity, accomplishment, insight and experience.
( Morris, Schindehutte, and Laforge, 2002 )
We will now discourse with the aid of an illustration each some of the chief selling methods from the following Table 1, which are more normally adopted by enterprisers viz. : –
Buzz or Word of Mouth Marketing
Meanwhile we will besides seek to measure the advantages and disadvantages of the same.
( Morris, Schindehutte, and Laforge, 2002 )
Guerrilla Selling as one of the chief methods of entrepreneurial selling can be defined as unconventional selling runs and/or schemes which should hold a important promotional consequence and is a fraction of the budget, the traditional selling runs would pass for the same end ( Baltes and Leibing,2008 ) . This term refers to non-traditional, low cost selling affecting invention, imaginativeness and creativeness every bit good as effectual communicating, apprehension of the mark market, flexibleness, networking, leveraging resources and a immense investing of clip and energy, the two elements that a start-up or an enterpriser has in copiousness, when compared to other resources like those of finance, labour etc. By creatively and carefully implementing these guerilla selling schemes, SMEs can acquire the attending of their consumers and make consciousness about their offerings. This is done by distinguishing their selling messages from the other 1000s of houses who use traditional advertisement, which most consumers today choose to tune-out of. With the addition in awareness amongst consumers and the alteration in their behavior and ingestion forms we notice that, they are more likely to disregard a bulk of the conventional selling messages, being able to acknowledge the commercial purpose behind them. It is besides observed that, they depend more on friendly advice or word-of-mouth as it is perceived to be more dependable as they get sentiments from people they know ( Arndt,1967 ) who are more trusty. Contrary to what its name suggests, Guerrilla Marketing is nil like warfare and is alternatively a merriment activity that encompasses all sorts of promotional schemes, which use unconventional methods and intensive viva-voce runs to force merchandises. These frequently recruit existent consumers, who get involved in some sort of street show or similar activity in order to carry others to buy their merchandises ( Solomon, 2006 ) .
A perfect illustration of guerilla selling in an SME is seen in the “ instance survey of the Astonishing Success of Oil Company ” ( Atik and Sahin, n.d. ) . Here in, a airy enterpriser, Nuri Erdem founded Oil Company in 1989, which was a little store in Karsiyaka Carsisi, a territory of Izmir state in Turkey, selling merely one type of denims. For Mr. Erdem it all started with one type of denim, one theoretical account, one coloring material merely in different sizes. He generated word-of-mouth for his ain interior decorator denims by puting merely one piece of each size on the shelves and convinced clients to seek them, while taking them on to believe that these were rare/ alone denims from Italy ( owing to the fact that Italian merchandises were deriving a batch of popularity at this clip in Turkey ) . If a client liked the denims and decided to purchase one, he ‘d advise the client that the denims belonged to a limited edition, of which he had merely one piece and that if they left a sedimentation with him, he would order more pieces of the same for them. He deliberately held back the 850 denims he had in stock so every bit to make a bombilation about these pants that seemed so rare and alone. He learnt that clients ordered certain sizes more than they did others, accordingly was able to rectify his operational error and farther organized the production of 1600 pieces in order to cover all the clients ‘ orders. He besides hired fine-looking college pupils, to organize unreal waiting lines in forepart of his shop and to speak about Oil Company ‘s merchandises to their friends and looker-ons. Students were make fulling up the shops during peak commercial hours, making a imposter crowded atmosphere, keeping bags with his trade name and logo on them but filled with their ain material, which gave the feeling to other shoppers that his store was so making a batch of gross revenues and selling something of superior value which was in great demand.
Hence we are able to see the assorted advantages Mr. Erdem derived from using a guerilla selling scheme as opposed to conventional ads to advance his new brace of interior decorator denims viz. :
Word Of Mouth Generation
Backed by equal research works expeditiously and delivers consequences
But these advantages were coupled with a figure of disadvantages as good which were: –
Increased Hazard: – If any of his clients found out about the truth, his guerilla maneuver could hold besides generated negative word of oral cavity there in ensuing in arrant failure.
Unethical: – It can be argued that though it works, guerilla tactics like the 1s employed by Mr. Erdem can be both deceptive and unjust and can confront serious legalities as he could ‘ve been accused of counterfeit and fraud.
Required a great trade of energy, dedication, forbearance, planning and attending to detail as even the smallest error could ensue in failure.
Time Consuming: It is observed that he did non gain net incomes instantly and alternatively guerilla selling is more suitable for the long-term i.e. if a concern is looking for a quick-fix guerilla selling would non do the demand.
( Atik and Sahin, n.d. )
( Morris, Schindehutte, and Laforge, 2002 )
The aims of relationship selling is to place and set up, keep, enhance and when necessary, terminate relationships with clients and other stakeholders, at a net income so that the aims of all parties involved are met ; and this is done by common exchange and fulfillment of promises ( Gronroos, 1994 ) . Henrik Calonius farther accents that the duties of selling is non merely in giving such promises, which help construct relationships, but besides in maintaining them, which facilitates the development of these relationships and in them being maintained or enhanced. Carry throughing these promises consequences in client satisfaction, keeping of client base, increased client perceived value and long-run profitableness.
Relationship selling is of particular importance to entrepreneurial ventures and is better explained through the illustration of SuperJam where in the laminitis was a Scots adolescent named Fraser Doherty, who used his grandma ‘s secret formulas to do jam and now supplies to all major UK supermarkets including ASDA, TESCO, Waitrose, MORRISONS etc. The entrepreneurial thought was born on Fraser recognizing the market for a wholly healthy and sugar-free jam that contained super fruits ( as most jams that claimed to be so merely contained 20-40 % of existent fruits ) . But in order to make and retain a strong client base, being a well new born start-up SME Fraser employed some really important relationship selling techniques, which involved direct personal interaction with his clients ( who are in most instances end consumers every bit good ) in large supermarkets while trying etc. This helped derive positive and critical consumer feedback. He besides organized tea parties for the aged as a signifier of charity and was actively involved in pull offing these events which created both positive word of oral cavity and increased the good will of his trade name i.e SuperJam ( Youtube,2009 ) . Here in by first assuring consumers of a healthy option to sugary unhealthy jams, he was able to develop a niche in a jam market ( where in tendencies suggested worsening gross revenues ) , and on presenting such merchandises achieved a really profitable return on investing ensuing to his multi-million lb enlargement in size and growing. He besides has a web log where he invariably communicates with his fans, followings and consumers of his trade name and a Facebook page where in, consumers can portion their experiences, thereby easing feedback and the development of new merchandises or spirits depending on the demand, gustatory sensations and penchants of the consumers of SuperJam. He besides interacts with consumers and fans on Twitter and on a regular basis uploads pictures on Youtube himself, which are largely produced by him with an purpose of distributing consciousness and keeping contact with his followings ( Youtube,2010 ) .
The advantages observed of relationship selling were: –
Increased client trueness
Increased Long-run net incomes
Improved consciousness of and interaction
Higher degrees of client satisfaction
Addition in Goodwill, Brand Equity and Reputation
While the disadvantages observed were that it:
Requires significant capital investing with no warrant of returns.
May necessitate investing in new engineerings, in this instance the creative activity of legion pictures on youtube, keeping a web site and in specific the web log, enabling clients to straight reach the owner/founder via electronic mail which is labour intensive and is more likely to be carried out by a proficient squad.
Needed Significant alterations to the company ‘s and employees ‘ civilization particularly for implementing the relationship selling scheme, which involved catering to the aged as in this instance, when compared to other companies that produce jams. Its codification of behavior, operation, selling and client service is likely the first of its sort and reflects the civilization of both the company and its laminitis, which besides required puting a batch of attempt and clip.
( superjam,2009 )
Word of Mouth/Buzz Marketing
In both of the above illustrations word of oral cavity has been generated. WOM can be best defined as unwritten individual to individual communicating. In the first illustration with Oil Company, we saw a more modern-day signifier of WOM coevals, which was through bring forthing wonder and exhilaration. We besides made a note of how word of oral cavity could turn out to be negative and the hazards involved in seeking to pull strings it. In the 2nd illustration, we perceived a more modern signifier of WOM coevals through media ( BBC intelligence ) every bit good as through societal networking particularly on popular web sites like Youtube, Facebook, Twitter etc.