Death of about 130 soldiers of Pakistan due to roll down at the Base Headquarters at Gyari had brought the country into focal point one time once more. Experts from both sides were enthusiastic when General Kayani, made the brief statement that Pakistan was ready for demilitarisation of Siachen. His proposal did non halt at the glacier entirely as he spoke about peaceable co-existence between the two states. He had given an chance for the political leaders on both sides to use and normalise dealingss. “ This can be seen as an chance to decide Siachen difference, de-escalate tenseness and better bilateral ties by taking concrete and believable actions ”[ 1 ].
3. There is huge bulk in India and Pakistan are trusting for improved ties. Euphoria created by the address of the general, has to be complemented with stairss on land else there wo n’t be any betterment. The premier ground for this is the immense deficiency of trust that exists between the two states. Since independency there have been incidents of backtracking and breach of trust by Pakistan at important minutes whenever the bilateral ties improved. Those cases are good known and it is non the purpose here to tell them, but to underscore the importance of constructing up trust if we are looking for enduring peace between the two neighbors. Though work forces in uniform have been strongly knocking demilitarization, it is deserving analyzing the counterview, whether the esthesis of demilitarization of Siachen generated by Pak Army Chief ‘s statement can take to long term peace between the two states.
4. The reciprocally agreed Ceasefire Line ( CFL ) between India and Pakistan in Kashmir was delineated on the map up to NJ 9842 in 1949. However, the drumhead description stated that the CFL moved from its last described physical location “ thence North to the glaciers ” . Post-1971 War, the military leaders from both sides delineated and authenticated the line of control ( LC ) . Positions held by the military personnels on both sides after including the determinations of 1972 were considered for stipulating the line. It started from the international boundary line and carried on up to indicate NJ 9842. The same disagreement was repeated in the understanding of 1972. On the map, the Line of Control ( LoC ) was marked merely till NJ9842 but the drumhead description mentioned the glaciers. It said that the LoC “ runs north-eastward towards Thang ( inclusive to India ) thence eastward fall ining the glacier ” .
5. Word picture of LC in the country beyond NJ 9842 were obscure and left to imagination in the understandings of 1949 and 1972. Both sides did non comprehend any differences in the glacier sector as they felt it was devoid of any strategic public-service corporation. India and Pakistan had different perceptual experiences about how LoC goes beyond NJ 9842. This disagreement came to the bow when the difference commenced in the mid 1980s. India perceived that it should run North along the Saltoro Ridge all the manner to the boundary line with China. This would set the glacier wholly on the Indian side of the LoC. Pakistan was of the sentiment that it should take a north-easterly class up to the Karakoram Pass. This would put the glacier on Pakistan ‘s side of the LoC. It is a affair of perceptual experience on the LoC that has resulted in the misinterpretation between the two states.
Do We Demilitarize?
6. A panel treatment on DD intelligence with Major General ( Retired ) Bakshi as a moderator recommended dimilitarisation of Siachen. This panel included retired senior ground forces officers and political leaders. If Siachen is demilitarized and governed by a pact will such a pact clasp? Yes it would and few other successful 1s are listed. Indus H2O pact is keeping on, exchange of atomic sites being done, ceasefire in Line of Control keeping on since 2003 and so as peace in Chumik Glacier. General Kamath says expression at the little image and so the bigger image to get at determinations. If we look at the bigger image here one ca n’t believe of anything else other than peace and thereby demilitarization of Siachen. In the long tally demilitarization of Siachen may be desirable by both the states.
Arguments Supporting Demilitarisation
7. Strategic Importance. A figure of wild statements have been aired by oppositions of demilitarisation about the evident importance of busying the glacier. Few claim that for the critical defense mechanism of Leh we need to busy Siachen Glacier else Pakistan may utilize it as a launch tablet. On the contrary, Siachen is barely suited to being a launch tablet for Pakistani violative into this sector. It would be a operational and logistical incubus to seek such an onslaught. Besides, the Pakistanis have many more suited topographic points from which to set about such an violative. Lieutenant General ML Chhibber former GOC-in-C Northern Command who orchestrated the business of Siachen Glacier says that Siachen does n’t hold any strategic importance, strategic importance being talked about is innovation. Well known Washington based South Asia analyst Stephen Cohen says “ Siachen is like a comb for two barefaced people who do n’t hold any usage of it. Both the ground forcess are contending to win a psychological conflict by proving each other ‘s will ” . He opines Siachen does n’t hold any strategic significance.
8. Fiscal Implications. India ‘s Siachen escapade invited the kargil mishap by Pakistan as a quid-pro-quo. The additions of Siachen has to be seen against the war which caused heavy loss of life and forced round the twelvemonth deployment of a brigade in Siachen. “ The cost of keeping an brigade group at Siachen has been estimated to run between Rs 3.0 to 3.5 crore per twenty-four hours – Rs 1,000 to 1,200 crore yearly ”[ 2 ]. Care costs are high because of the long logistic tail and the surface means of communicating terminals at the neb at Base Camp where the glacier ends and a figure of stations can be supplied merely by choppers / air beads with attendant losingss, as recoveries are by and large less than 50 per cent. The regular turnover of forces farther increases the disbursals as a unit can remain at the glacier for a period of six months merely. An economic expert may urge utilise this money in modernizing one small town per twenty-four hours.
9. China Threat. It is asserted that India ‘s presence on the glacier is critical to “ maintain a ticker ” on Gilgit and Baltistan. This is peculiarly of import given studies of increasing Chinese presence in these parts. Military experts are of the position that China may busy these highs vacated by India. On the contrary, China has non been an irresponsible neighbour so for and has non proved otherwise. Diplomatic initiatves with China will guarantee no such mishaps take topographic point. If China wants a transition through Siachen for theodolite of goods from Gwadar Port, India may besides look for the oil path from the Central Asiatic Republics ( CAR ) through China. India has been looking for a land path to pass through oil from CAR and has kept the options open of the land path thru China unfastened. India may stand to derive by leveraging with China as it looks for an option in CAR to middle E for import of oil and hydrocarbons. It would be a win-win state of affairs for both the states. Both need peace and stableness to travel on the way of economic growing and development. But India needs to be certain if the Pakistan ground forces, which has by and large maintained a militant stance towards India, truly has had a alteration of bosom.
10. Pakistan Threat. It is held that if India pulled back from the glacier, Pakistan would easy busy the vacated places. On the contrary, Pakistan ‘s ability to busy countries presently held by India is instead doubtful. Besides, India has the capableness to guarantee that a demilitarisation understanding is non violated. Economic state of affairs predominating in Pakistan does n’t let the freedom to venture into such escapade. India needs to be certain of the Pakistani ground forces which has maintained an anti India stance and has a alteration of bosom now. Furthermore, India needs to act like a stronger state like China who does n’t deploy regular military personnels in Aksai Chin. Regular ground forces military personnels are located 550 kilometres off from Aksai Chin. Why is India afraid of effects?
11. Ceasefire. Since 2003, ceasefire has been in trend and is keeping for the last nine old ages. Both the states have non violated the same. Ceasefire between both the ground forcess is predominating in the Chumik Glacier even earlier than that. Armed forces from both sides have non abrogated the ceasefire understanding so for. Hopefully this continues and may put the phase for troop backdown in the long tally.
12. Utility of Siachen. Siachen is a snow desert with utmost temperatures changing from -60 grades to 20 grades. Nothing grows here and the land is non suited for agribusiness. The country is prone to set down slides, avalanches, crannies and brassy inundations and is non suited for human existences. It still remains uninhabitated despite the recent developments in the forward countries in other parts of the state. The 80 Kilometer length of country occupied by glacier is of limited usage to adult male or animal.
13. Casualities. There is no denying the fact that the terrain on the glacier is highly inhospitable and coupled with the inclement conditions for most portion of the twelvemonth, has been responsible for more deceases on either side than due to the existent combat. “ Even at the extremum of contending in the 1990s maximal causalities occurred due to the height, terrain and the utmost conditions ”[ 3 ]. The decreased per centum of O in the air at highs above 10,000 pess and longer periods of isolation are a deathly combination and consequence in pneumonic hydrops, cryopathy and other serious complications. Deployment at such detached highs for drawn-out periods takes a heavy psychological toll. Young officers at the extremum of their fittingness were observed to be traveling wholly clean and losing memory. We may reason that these casualties are now managed moderately good, due to early emptying, betterments in medical scientific discipline and the constitution of frontward medical installations, they can ne’er be wholly eliminated. No commanding officer worth his salt would wish to hold non operational casualities. Though the Pakistanis are comparatively better off due to the lower highs on the western goads of the Saltoro on which their military personnels are keeping defensive places and their shorter lines of communicating to Dansam and Skardu, the conditions Supreme beings have been every bit unkind to parade on both the sides of the AGPL.
14. Siachen Peace Park. Boundary lines are meant to halt worlds, non rivers, birds and air. Creation of a peace park may non merely salvage the glacier part, it would defuse an armed base off, ease political tensenesss, ease further understanding between India & A ; Pak and consequence in economy of money and resources. A note signifier the journal of the Pakistani ground forces officer who died in the avalanche says “ We the willing are making the impossible for the thankless. We have done so much with so small for so long ” . A similar position is being obtained from our ain military personnels returning from Siachen. As one interacts with the offrs returning from the Siachen term of office one could hear this. “ I am ready to contend for my state but I do non desire my boy to be sitting on this high, forlorn Soltoro Ridge supporting Saichen. Why ca n’t we happen a solution to this wretched job ” . It is after the interaction with the military personnels in Siachen in 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has been clamouring the thought of Siachen Peace Park.
15. The thought of peace Parkss is nil new. First trans-boundary peace park was established between US and Canada 70 old ages ago. There are 169 such peace Parkss all over the universe affecting 113 states. Peace enterprises and cooperation will non prejudice the places in Kashmir, but may cut down the devolution of the country farther.
Originating the Procedure.
16. In the early 1890ss, defense mechanism Minister Sharad Pawar while turn toing the military personnels in Siachen mentioned that the “ Government has created so many installations for the soldiers, is supplying extra allowance and soldiers must be happy in remaining at the glacier. Soldiers retorted stating that he may maintain the money and remain in Siachen and they would prefer to go forth Siachen. That was in 1994 when fiscal status of the state hapless. Most of the officers and ground forces jawans in India and Pakistan would non challenge this purpose for demilitarisation, after all, they bear the brunt of military operations on Siachen. Similarly Pakistani General opening up the argument for demilitarisation of a sensitive country is a immense positive development, Whatever may be the domestic irresistible impulses, it is pertinent to observe that it is the ground forces and non the civilian disposal that has ever called the shootings in that state.
17. In the article “ Settle Siachen difference now ” AG Noorani asks for immediate demilitarisation. His thought for peace is welcome nevertheless it is better to be cautious and be deliberate in put to deathing the procedure. Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal besides “ favours early demilitarisation and has recommended a measure by measure procedure of demilitarisation ”[ 4 ]. In a recent negotiations in Bangkok organised by a Canadian University and experts, both sides have agreed to jointly enter and interchange the present military places as the first measure in the demilitarisation. The apprehension was far short of Indian demand for limit of places. India should accept it as a via media to get down the procedure.
18. Stairss to cut down military personnels have been initiated by both the authoritiess since long. Demilitarisation enterprises had reached its zenith during the government of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. It was a virtually done trade in 1992, nevertheless someway got derailed. Diplomats have even worked out the measure by measure procedure of troop decrease taking to demilitarization. Siachen solution should non be done in isolation, but to be seen as portion of the overall bundle as this besides forms portion of J & A ; K. Demilitarisation of Siachen be carried out in a deliberate mode and the understanding signed by the two states must be a lawfully binding international understanding. Former COAS General VP Malik recommends demilitarization of Siachen and suggests a three measure procedure as under: –
( a ) Word picture. The bing places held by both sides should be punctually delineated clearly on land.
( B ) Authentication. Troop places have to be authenticated on land. Authenticated places of military personnels have to be included in the proposed understandings on Siachen and non every bit annexure as it was done for J & A ; K. This would govern out the contingency of mishap by either side.
( degree Celsius ) Detachment. Move of military personnels, guns and warlike shops to antecedently agreed places after withdrawing from AGPL. Redeployment in the in agreement new places may be verified by both the states. Military activities should non be carried out in the Demilitarized Zone. Joint monitoring cell may be created to physically supervise activities sporadically.
19. India should inquire for inclusion of a punitory clause, should any side decide to go against the demilitarization understanding the other may reserve the right to take actions as deemed tantrum. This may besides include violative actions. Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal recommends keeping a feasible modesty force structured to take any violative action.
These militias would besides assist in instance some developments take topographic point in the LAC sector.
Cooperation Ideal Option
20. Major General Bhalla says “ western states have understood the futility of fall backing to war to decide minor thorns in bilateral ties ” . Even CAR states consider South Asia as war zone between India and Pakistan. It is high clip the two South Asian powers realise the importance of peace and development and reconcile. In the long tally it is peace and cooperation that will assist both the states and lead to prosperity. Political and military leaders from both the states should fall in custodies to get at a feasible solution and non go forth it to secretaries. “ Brigadier Rajeev Williams who commanded a brigade in Drass says that India and Pakistan need to look beyond Siachen and Kargil ”[ 5 ].
21. Long ago Demosthenes said “ in of import minutess window of chances are fugitive, one time missed they ca n’t be recovered ” . General Kayani ‘s statement on Siachen has decidedly given a window of chance and it must be optimally utilized to decide Siachen and other thorns in the bilateral dealingss. Demilitarisation of the Siachen Glacier will open up as a assurance edifice step of huge significance. For India, it is a low-risk option to prove Pakistan ‘s long-run purposes for peace. The clip for peaceable coexistence between India and Pakistan has come eventually. It is high clip the national leaders initiate the procedure of consensus amongst people to decide the of import bilateral issue.