Flexible Working in Hospitality Industry

The cordial reception sector includes all concerns that provide nutrient, drinks, and/or adjustment services. This includes: eating houses ; saloons, bars and nines ; hotels ; contract catering ; cordial reception services. The cordial reception industry in the UK has expanded in the past five old ages.

Harmonizing to the British Hospitality Association, the industry is made up of about 127,000 concerns and employs a work force of 1.6 million people.

There are about 22,000 hotels and invitee houses, plus around 16,000 bed and breakfasts,

in the UK.

Restaurants employ over 500,000 full-time and parttime staff.

Contract catering and cordial reception services account for 19 % of the sector

( all figures from Trends and Statistics, 2006, British Hospitality Association ) . ( is this the right citing format? I normally have a mention after every statistic. Besides I feel like you might desire to advert the major gross watercourses of the cordial reception industry in the debut )

Working in hotels normally means longer hours but promises a broad assortment of occupations and early duty. Many businesss within the sector may be appropriate for those seeking flexible on the job hours or who wish to work portion clip.

Brief Introduction to Ramada Jarvis Hotels

Jarvis Hotels Ltd owns and operates over 40 hotels throughout the UK and employs around 4000 people. John Jarvis, former Chairman and Chief Executive of Hilton International, founded Jarvis Hotels in 1990 when he purchased 41 hotels from Allied Lyons. At the clip it was the largest of all time direction buy-in. In 1996 the group was listed on the London Stock Exchange at a market capitalization of ?300 m.

In 2001 Ramada International Hotel & A ; Resorts announced that it had reached an understanding with Jarvis Hotels PLC that resulted in a franchise understanding embracing about 55 hotels and 6,100 suites.

In 2004 Jarvis went private to exert more control over the manner it ran its company. This measure was aided through investing vehicle Kayterm and backed by venture capital house Lioncourt,

Jarvis Hotels have an understanding with the Wyndham Hotel Group to utilize the Ramada name on their hotels. This has provided them with international representation within the market topographic point. Although the Company remains as Jarvis Hotels, the Ramada partnership is really of import to their concern and the manner they operate. All their hotels trade as Ramada Jarvis and they to the full embrace all enterprises introduced by Ramada Worldwide.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

In the hotel sector, merchandises provided have two dimensions:

touchable ( e.g. hotel suites, eating house repasts and saloon drinks ) and

intangible ( e.g. warm salutation, velocity, and mercantile establishment atmosphere ) .

In add-on to its service sector characteristics-i.e. intangibleness, perishableness, variableness, coincident production and ingestion, and inseparability-variability in demand is a characteristic of the sector which exerts considerable influence on its labor market features ( Guerrier and Lockwood 1989 ; Baum 1995 ) .

Unlike most other service concerns, the hotel sector operates a 24/7/12/365 system and this, in itself, impacts upon the handiness of labor, scheduling, wage, working conditions and employee public assistance. To set it in another manner, the world of cordial reception work is that much of it is required at basically antisocial times or at times when other people are at leisure. Such a 24/7/12/365 bringing theoretical account is highly variable and unpredictable.

One deduction of such extremely fluctuating demand for the hotel services is that employees often face demands on their personal clip in the involvements of their clients, which take them beyond contractual or, so, legal norms. In effect, direction of demand variableness of the cordial reception industry in general and hotel sector in peculiar has generated a great trade of theoretical and practical attempt and has been the focal point of considerable policy argument ( Geary, 1992 ; Atkinson, 1984, 1985 ; Williamson, 1985 ; Pollert, 1988 ; OECD, 1986 ; Pfeffer and Baron, 1988 ; Osterman, 1987 ; Handy, 1989 ; Marchington and Wilkinson, 2008 ; Golsch, 2003 ) .

One response, of directors in the hotel sector, to the challenge of demand fluctuation has been to seek greater flexibleness in the workplace. Due to the importance of fiting the demands of the worker with the demands of the concern, research workers have attempted to gestate the working relationship between the single worker and the house in assorted ways ( Peel and Boxall, 2005, p. 1676 ) .

Among the more popular models are Atkinson ‘s ( 1985 ) theoretical account of flexible house and Handy ‘s ( 1989 ) ‘shamrock administration ‘ . The flexible house theoretical account envisages that the house is flexible in footings of its adaptability to enlargement, contraction or alteration in the merchandise market. It progressively seeks and achieves greater flexibleness in the signifiers of functional, numerical and fiscal facets of its

work force ( Pollert, 1988 ; Proctor et al. , 1994 ) . In a similar vena, Handy ‘s theoretical account of the white clover

administration describes an administration in footings of three foliages of the white clover: the first foliage or group is core/permanent employees, the 2nd is contractors, and flexible/part-time/temporary workers constitute the 3rd foliage of the white clover.

Dex and McCulloch ( 1995: 5-6 ) explore the assorted signifiers of flexibleness and forms of working hidden under the umbrella term ‘flexible ‘ work. They differentiate between the following 12 descriptive signifiers:

aˆ? Self-employment

aˆ? Part-time work

aˆ? Temporary work

aˆ? Fixed-term contract work

aˆ? Zero-hours contract employment

aˆ? Seasonal work

aˆ? Annual hours, displacement work, flexitime, overtime, or compressed on the job hebdomads

aˆ? Working at place

aˆ? Teleworking

aˆ? Term-time merely working

aˆ? Sunday working

aˆ? Job sharing

In measuring the demand for flexible work options and the handiness of such work, it is of import to recognize these different signifiers of flexible working and to appreciate that some signifiers are motivated much more by an employer ‘s pursuit for greater efficiency than any response to employee demands.

A reappraisal of the literature on labour flexibleness in the cordial reception industry in general and hotel sector in peculiar reveals that much of the research on the subject has been concerned with the widespread ‘adoption ‘ of flexibleness schemes. For illustration, assorted flexibleness agreements, fluctuation in working hours or in Numberss employed, bettering employee deployment across undertakings, pick of work location, or even alteration of employer, have been often acknowledged to understate the labor costs, to accomplish greater efficiency, to fit between labour inputs and work end products ( Reilly 1998, p. 16 ) , and specifically, to pull off demand fluctuations ( Guerrier and Lockwood, 1989, p. 411 ) . The easiness of entree to workforce had besides led to greater usage of flexible workers on an “ as needed ” or “ just-in-time ” footing in the cordial reception industry ( Walsh, 1991, p. 113 ) .

There has been much treatment of direction ‘s attempts to achieve flexibleness as a agency to achieve competitory success ( e.g. DTI, 1995 ) . It is discussed as a ‘leading border ‘ pattern and is hence seen to be advantageous to employers ( Geary, 1992, p. 252 ) .

Besides, despite the big figure of surveies that have investigated the theory and pattern of labour flexibleness in the service industry and suggested that flexibleness schemes are pulling considerable managerial involvement, a lack in ascertained informations exists. In Geary ‘s ( 1992, p. 252 ) words, “ those people ‘s working lives these patterns are designed to impact ” -i.e. flexible workers themselves. There has been a comparative deficiency of research on the deductions of flexibleness and its associated patterns for the flexible workers, or on the flexible workers ‘ perceptual experiences of,

and experiences with, flexible working.

The defects in old research root from two beginnings: the research methods employed, and the inclination to analyze flexible working from the point of position of those directors who had a policy-making duty in the administration.

Refering the former, there has been an sole trust on studies as the chief beginning of information on labor flexibleness and its associated patterns or relationships with, among others, national civilization, outsourcing, downsizing or deregulating of the labor market ( e.g. Buultjens and Howard, 2001 ; Voudouris, 2004 ; Black, 1999 ; Littler and Innes, 2003 ; Harrison and Kelley, 1993 ) . The survey-based ( quantitative ) methods, nevertheless, appear to be ill suited to roll up informations which would let decisions about the existent acceptance of flexibleness and its deductions for flexible workers.

In the instance of the latter beginning, the bulk of old study research reflects the positions expressed by direction ; positions seen as reflecting the existent pattern of flexible working patterns ( e.g. Benson et al. , 2000 ) . In other words, the respondents of the old studies were high degree HR. This raises the inquiry whether their responses are descriptive of the flexible working agreements as adept or every bit intended to be practiced ( Bretz et al. , 1992, p. 336 ) . One account for this vagueness is that flexibleness patterns are seen as an effort by directors to drive down the costs and/or as a agency of seting their work force to altering market conditions ( Gramm and Schell, 2001 ; Gonzalez-Diaz et al. , 2000 ; Voudouris, 2004 ) . In effect, the available research merely reflects the positions and positions of these directors.

To summarize, this reappraisal of the literature has attempted to uncover that survey of the nature and extent of labour flexibleness is of import because we soon have a limited apprehension of precisely what flexible working agencies to the flexible workers ; how it is perceived by the flexible workers ; and how or whether it is linked to the development of flexible workers.

Given these unreciprocated inquiries and the possible importance of labour flexibleness in today ‘s concern administrations, farther research is required to analyze non merely the similarities and differences between directions ‘ and flexible workers ‘ positions towards flexibleness agreements, but besides to research the wider deductions of any contradictions that might be embedded in their perceptual experiences.

Chapter 3

Evaluation of organizational policy

Reviewing the current flexible working petitions policy that Ramada Jarvis hotels have in topographic point ( transcript attached for mention ) , I would wish to foreground the undermentioned countries:

Ramada Jarvis has a written policy for flexible working, which may include portion clip working ; staggered hours ; place working ; flexitime ; occupation sharing ; teleworking and term clip working. – It is, nevertheless, ill-defined if this policy is applicable to all employees of the administration.

The eligibility standard seems to be aimed chiefly at employees with parenting/caring duties with a proviso saying that employees non run intoing this standard may besides be considered.

However, there seems to be no farther elucidation explicating under what status or state of affairs is an employee able to exert these rights.

The figure of procedural stairss involved in reexamining an application can take over three months. – This alone may deter several employees to even see doing an application due to the clip devouring procedure. The policy fails to turn to single instances necessitating pressing attending.

An recognized application will intend a lasting alteration to the employee ‘s footings and conditions of employment. – The current policy does non take into history impermanent steps to suit short term demands. Personal state of affairss may alter due to unanticipated fortunes and doing a lasting alteration to an employee ‘s contract indirectly restricts their right to exert flexible working in the hereafter.

The employee may, if they so wish, be able to convey a work co-worker to the meeting. – Although representation is recognised in the policy there is no recognition of a brotherhood member to be present in the meeting, should the employee wish to exert this right.

Reasons for refusal of an application| – With 8 grounds for refusal to allow the petition for flexible working, directors gain greater control in the dialogue procedure. Any petition can be easy dismissed on the evidences of incommodiousness to the concern, although this may non genuinely be the instance.

Chapter 4

Discussion / Analysis

Policies have the best opportunity of success if the people utilizing them, employees and line directors, are to the full involved in their design. Lack of audience can ensue in policies which do non fit persons ‘ demands or can non be used because of operational restraints.

In my position, this has been the instance with Ramada Jarvis flexible working petition policy. As a big administration, the policy has been developed centrally by HR specializers with input from higher degree concern directors merely. As a consequence the current policy fails to take into account several issues an employee may confront, as has been discussed in chapter 3.

As is apparent from the Ramada Jarvis policy, employers perceive the chief disadvantage of flexible working policies to be the cost and break of covering with the employee being absent from the workplace, particularly if they have specialist accomplishments ( DTI 2000 ; Forth et Al. 1997 ) .

Cost cutting leads to understaffing and resource restraints besides cut down flexibleness. In such state of affairss directors can happen implementing company work-life policy highly hard ( Yeandle et al. 2002 ; Bond et Al. 2002 ; Kodz et Al. 2002 ) .

This can hold a negative impact on staff members within the administration.

Within Britain ‘s workplaces, satisfaction with working hours has declined well over the last 10 old ages, particularly among work forces. In 1992, 36 % of male senior managers/professionals and 34 % of male semi and unskilled manual workers were satisfied or wholly satisfied with their working hours. By 2000 this had dropped to 16 % and 14 % severally ( Taylor 2002 ) . Hogarth et Al. ( 2000 ) found high degrees of demand for flexible on the job patterns.

When asked about their on the job clip penchants:






Administrations have been slow to react to this demand. Degrees of work-life balance proviso are low and the type of flexibleness available is frequently non in melody with employee demands. The most popular agreements among employees, flexitime and compressed working hebdomad, entail greater control over on the job hours but most employers merely offered decreased hours: 80 % of employers offer parttime working but merely 19 % have flexitime and less than 5 % a compressed working hebdomad ( Hogarth et al. 2000 ) .

Chapter 5


There is grounds that assisting employees more efficaciously pull off their work and non-work clip is good for concern but these ‘win-win ‘ solutions are non achieved by offering untypical hours which suit the demands of the concern. Similarly, allowing petitions for flexible on the job patterns without decently planing the new occupation is improbable to accomplish the best result for the person or the concern.

As has been discussed in chapter 4, policies are non effectual unless employees and line directors are to the full involved in their design. Ramada Jarvis hence, need to reexamine their bing flexible working policy in audience with line directors and employee representatives non merely to turn to the countries highlighted in chapter 3, but besides to do the policy more crystalline and easy adaptable to all employees across the administration.

Chapter 6


Most administrations offer a formal policy available to all staff, while others operate a more informal apparatus, turn toing each instance separately.

However, the impact on operations is still a cardinal factor for companies that feel unable to suit flexible on the job patterns.

If flexible working is to be a success in the cordial reception industry, employers foremost need to follow a flexible attitude themselves, although the slogan of “ Let ‘s seek it, and if it does n’t work, seek something else ” needs to be carefully considered.

Above all, an employer needs to pass on a positive message to its work force. After all, A it stands to harvest the benefits many times over.