Factors Leading to the European Exploration and Conquest


Identify and Discuss Factors Leading to the Age of European Exploration and Conquest

In the early 15Thursdaycentury, Europe engaged in a series of universe geographic expeditions, which opened a new period in planetary history. Termed as the Age of Exploration or Age of Discovery a period crossing from 15Thursdayto early 17Thursdaycentury saw European States scrambling for new districts. The European enlargement spread to topographic points such as the Far East, Americas, and Africa. It is an epoch synonymous with great figures like Ferdinand Magellan. Whose expedition crossing between the twelvemonth 1519 and 1522 became the first to revolve the Earth and ocean trip across the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean ( Grant, 2009 ) . This epoch of European find developed alongside the ill-famed Renaissance.

The above two epochs in Western, history played a great function in the transitional period between the early modernize and the in-between Ages epoch. Rivalry between mushrooming European lands such as the Portuguese and Gallic, or the Spanish and English, prompted the promotion and development of abroad geographic expedition. Assorted factors motivated this epoch of geographic expedition ( George, 2008 ) . The key was religion motive, influence of these imperiums, power, net income, the size, and natural stuffs for industries. The impacts of find were non merely limited to abroad conquerings but besides inside the geographical precincts of Europe continent. The political, cultural, and economic impacts of Europe’s early phases of world-wide geographic expedition influenced the long-run development of European and society and so planetary development.

Empire and Political Factors

In 8Thursdaycentury, Islamic conquering of France, Spain, and parts of North Africa successfully impeded European geographic expeditions to the Far East for the resulting centuries. However, this did non discourage the earlier adventurers such as Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama who sought for new topographic points and districts taking to the East ( Grant, 2009 ) . At the clip, ocean expeditions were rather unreliable in the beginning of the Discovery epoch. Navigation techniques were archaic ; they had undependable maps, and navigated through fickle conditions forms. Furthermore, adventurers faced hostile autochthonal communities, exhaustion of cardinal stocks, and insurgency on the deep-sea.

The Portuguese and Spanish were among the preliminary provinces from Europe to get down the abroad expeditions. Historians attributed this to legion factors, which placed the Iberian at the vanguard of planetary find. The first entailed its tactical geographic placement, which granted easy entree when embarking southerly to Africa ( George, 2008 ) . Its location allowed for easier handiness of America when embarking westward. However, the most of import factor for Portugal and Spain prima capacity into abroad geographic expedition was application and acquisition of antediluvian Arabic expertness and cognition in geographics, math, and uranology.

The premier political participants during the European geographic expedition epoch were Portugal, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and England. Among them, there were those interested chiefly in set uping imperiums on the precincts of planetary commercialism and trade. Consequently, these states instituted planetary trading Stationss and the indispensable constituents for successful economic substructure ( Grant, 2009 ) . While other European world powers, peculiarly England and Spain, chose to overmaster and colonise any part they discovered. Evidence for these occurred in the South and North America where the above two colonisers established extended societal, political, and spiritual webs.

Economic Factors

Prior to 15Thursdaycentury, European states enjoyed amicable trade dealingss with Far East parts such as China and India. It led to debut of epicurean goods such as spices, cotton, and silk into the European market. New technological inventions, both in ship building, and nautical pilotage allowed Europeans to do deeper ocean trips and discover parts of the Earth antecedently unknown. Consecutive, European adventurers had the capacity to follow luxury ware, which consumers demanded in insatiate sums ( George, 2008 ) . This led to Europe trust on Eastern market for the supply of these cherished merchandises. In different ways, high demand for rum, sugar, and cotton merchandises stimulated the development of imperiums and their ultimate engagement in slave trade. Spain ended in America in the chase of American Ag.

Religious Factors

The cardinal philosophies of Catholicism decreed and justified Christianity as the universal religion and faith for humanity. Prosecuting in campaigns across the Earth during the European Discovery period exposed Europeans to new civilizations, merchandises, and undiscovered topographic points. This besides echoed the avid disposition of mediaeval Christianity and augured the devouring missional work that constituted this epoch ( Butt, 2006 ) . For case, Pope played a momentous and formalizing portion in these journeys by promoting and approving planetary geographic expedition. Frequently, this involved approbation of slave pickings in Africa and autochthonal communities.

Missionaries constituted the early ocean trips by Spain meant to present autochthonal and natives’ dwellers into Christianity. Typically, Europeans viewed the autochthonal community civilization as barbarian pagans justifying pressing salvation. In order to educate the autochthonal people, Europeans believed that merely through acceptance of Christianity. Besides, civilisation and spread of Islamic civilization had far-reaching impact globally ( Butt, 2006 ) . Therefore, Europeans wanted to extinguish Islamic faith from the universe. This was the cardinal ground for Gallic imperium in set abouting its expeditions.

In amount, it is rather possible to analyse and reason that European Exploration and colonisation during the 15th and 16th centuries was for the undermentioned grounds. It occurred in chase and acquisition of acknowledgment through geographic expedition. The other common factor entailed the demand to distribute Christianity through missional plants. The urgency for natural stuffs, colony lands, and basic resources emanating from population force per unit area fueled European states into geographic expedition expeditions. Finally, the urgency and desire for economic power and wealth led to European engaging in the geographic expedition. However, the above factors were non common to all European states since Spain explored America for the intent of Ag. While, Lusitanian explored in hunt of inexpensive labour in signifier of slave labour by enslaving Africans. Gallic imperium comprised of explorative, economic, and spiritual factors. The Dutch and English imperiums undertook these ocean trips for economic intents.


Butt, J. J. ( 2006 ) .The Greenwood lexicon of universe history. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

George, L. ( 2008 ) .What do you cognize about the age of geographic expedition?. New York: Powerkids Press.

Grant, K. P. ( 2009 ) .Exploration in the Age of Empire, 1750-1953: ( Revised Edition ). New York: Infobase Pub.