Disease Characterized By The Loss Of Bone Density Health Essay

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by the loss of bone denseness ( BD ) . It by and large develops in people over the age of 50, and affects adult females at higher rates than work forces. Each twelvemonth, about nine million breaks worldwide can be linked to osteoporosis ; more than half of these occur in Europe and the United States ( EFFO & A ; NOF, 1997 ) . Many research workers have pointed out that dietetic wonts contribute significantly to the development of this disease.

This research hypothesizes that because nutrition is correlated with osteoporosis, nutrition will be linked to diversified and conflictual attitudes towards osteoporosis. The proposed research aims to measure the nutritionary attitudes of different cultural groups within the United Kingdom ( UK ) – attitudes that are influenced by economic and educational factors – and the impact of these on the incidence of osteoporosis among the assorted groups. The survey will try to show that attitudes toward nutrition vary harmonizing to cultural individuality and that a relationship exists between these attitudes and a group ‘s incidence of osteoporosis. In an attempt to turn out this hypothesis, associated research will imply a study of 105 pupils from the University of Birmingham, all British citizens, through the disposal of an on-line questionnaire. The sample will consist persons from multiple cultural backgrounds, whose self-identification topographic points them among the most thickly settled groups in the UK. The ethnicity of pupils will be used as a agency to place campaigners with potentially changing cultural backgrounds, and hence, diets or nutritionary attitudes.

The aim of this research is to heighten the field of scientific anthropology by supplying information that will help in the development of multifaceted, culturally appropriate wellness consciousness and bar plans ; this research may besides assist to beef up bing plans in the UK and elsewhere.

II. Introduction

1.1 Background

Osteoporosis is a status that is brought approximately by a lessening over clip in bone denseness and strength, predisposing an person to cram break ( Doyle & A ; Carol, 1995, p.15 ) . As the organic structure ages, Ca and phosphate within castanetss may be resorbed back into 1 ‘s organic structure, ensuing in more lame bone tissue. This loss of bone denseness can be caused by a myriad of factors including hapless diet, history of break, old age, low organic structure weight, smoke, intoxicant ingestion, usage of some medicines, and inordinate weight loss. Osteoporosis can do serious complications such as hip, rib, carpus or vertebral breaks, and it is besides considered to be a dangerous disease,

Osteoporosis affects over 75 million persons in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Harmonizing to the World Health Organization ( WHO ) , osteoporosis causes more than 8.9 million breaks worldwide, half of which occur in America and Europe ( WHO, 2007, p.1-12 ) . In the United Kingdom, 3 million are afflicted with the disease, impacting one in two adult females and one in five work forces. Harmonizing to the WHO, most people diagnosed with this status are adult females. Worldwide, the ratio of adult females to work forces is reported to be 4 to 1 ( Edwards, 2007, p.24 ; WHO, 2003, pp.2-10 ) . Bearing in head that osteoporosis is an age-related disease, these instances are chiefly recorded in older, postmenopausal ages ( i.e. , over 50 old ages of age ) ( Matsumoto, 1995, p. 41 ) . As the universe ‘s populations continue to populate to more advanced ages, osteoporosis has increased in prevalence, taking many research and pharmaceutical establishments to develop merchandises for the bar of this status.

Prevention is critical because there is no remedy for osteoporosis ; lifestyle picks will hold an consequence on the development of the disease. Choices affecting nutrition will play a significant portion in whether an single develops the disease. Lack of equal foods ( particularly vitamin D and Ca ) , ingestion of caffeine and/or intoxicant, and smoke, can speed up this status, particularly in the aged.

Calcium is a critical constituent to castanetss, and it needs to be replenished to keep bone wellness. Vitamin D is “ indispensable for the optimal Ca soaking up ” ( Henneman & A ; Boeckner, 2004, p. 2 ) . Persons obtain Ca and vitamin D through assorted agencies. Cold seawater fish is one of the chief dietetic beginnings of vitamin D. Salmon, herring, oysters, tuna, and halibut are illustrations of fish incorporating high degrees of vitamin D. Milk that has been fortified is another of the chief beginnings of this of import vitamin, as are yogurt and cheddar cheese ( National Academy of Sciences, 1997 ) . For many people, nutritionary addendums are primary beginnings for obtaining necessary degrees of Ca and vitamin D. It is besides true that certain nutrients can interfere with the soaking up of Ca, peculiarly fibre that is non of course happening in nutrients. In other instances, nutrient can coerce the organic structure to egest Ca ; java, Na, and protein are a few illustrations. Those who consume more than 400 milligram of java per twenty-four hours can be put on the lining extra Ca loss, as can those whose diets contain particularly high degrees of protein or Na ( Boeckner. , p. 3-4 ) .

For the intents of this research, nutritionary links to osteoporosis are peculiarly outstanding ; the research worker will try to place whether cultural influences on nutrition affect the incidence of osteoporosis among certain groups. The undermentioned subdivision will research the consequence of cultural influences on diet.

Determinants of nutrient pick and attitudes toward nutrition

Culture

Culture has been shown to more strongly impact nutrient pick than ethnicity ( Cullen, 2002 ) . Culture refers to the shared values, premises, and perceptual experiences of a peculiar group, which are based on a common history and linguistic communication ( Dindyal, S. & A ; S. , 2004. ) Those belonging to a peculiar cultural group will self-identify as such, and their behaviours and beliefs will, to an extent, be determined by rank in the group. That being the instance, the manner one views nutrient and diet will fall under the umbrella of affairs affected by cultural association, though the strength of the relationship will change from individual to individual. In add-on, the position that one takes on aging and disease can be affected by civilization and societal influences. These attitudes will, in bend, affect the “ definition, class, and intervention of assorted chronic conditions and life passages that are common in old age ” ( Ory, M. , 1995 ) .

The relationships that persons have with nutrient can besides play a function in the development of osteoporosis. For illustration, people enduring from anorexia, an eating upset affecting phobic disorder of weight addition, can see hormonal alterations that lead to lessenings in bone denseness. In add-on, anorectics are at hazard of malnutrition and Ca lack – two other factors lending to cram loss, particularly in adult females ( National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 2009 ) . Previous research has shown that eating upsets are tied to cultural influences. Until late, eating upsets were believed to be confined to Western societies, where cultural ideals sing beauty and narrow margin are permeant. However, research workers have begun to place these upsets in non-Western civilizations ( Simpson, 2002 ) . These findings suggest that different types of cultural influences may be at work and that for some people, cultural norms and values shape their dietetic wonts and attitudes toward nutrient in a negative manner.

This is but one illustration of the possible impact of civilization on attitudes toward nutrition. In order instances, cultural mores can impact an person ‘s nutrient picks by restricting or avoiding wholly certain nutrient points. Vegetarianism is more common among certain cultural groups than others. In India, for illustration, a recent study found that more than tierce of the population pattern vegetarianism ; within certain sub-populations, such as the Brahmins, the figure is 55 per centum ( Yadav & A ; Kumar, 2006 ) . In the instance of India, this peculiar response to diet can be attributed to religion and/or caste. In other parts of the universe, nevertheless, vegetarianism is practiced for wholly different grounds. Developed states continue to be chiefly omnivorous, but at that place has been turning concern in the West with respect to animal rights ; as a consequence, there has been an rush in non-meat diets and cruelty-free ingestion governments. Estimates availed by the European Vegetarian Union ( 2007 ) acknowledge that approximately 9 per centum of the UK ‘s population identifies as vegetarian. This is repeated in Germany, by 9 per centum ; 4-7 per centum in the United States ; and 4 per centum in Canada. However, in New Zealand, vegetarians make up a little minority ( 1-2 per centum ) of the province ‘s 4.5 million persons ( Bidwell, 2002 ) .

Surely, there are other ways in which civilization affects nutrient pick and attitudes about what constitutes alimentary eating. Britain provides an particularly rich scene in which to analyze such influences. The UK boasts a long history of in-migration, and it has seen increased cultural variegation in recent old ages ; in fact, the term “ super-diversity ” has been used to depict the composing of the state ‘s population ( Kershen, A. , 2005 ) .A Much of this variegation occurred following the terminal of World War II, when the population swelled due to the reaching of immigrants from former British settlements in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. This cultural enlargement impacted the nutritionary landscape of the state and with it the presence and incidence of diseases, including osteoporosis.A A In clip, the traditional basic diet of UK citizens, dwelling chiefly of meat, fish and dairy, was seen as non particularly healthy or diverse. It was seen to miss a balanced proportion of vitamins, minerals, and other foods found in veggies and fruits.

Intelligibly, many of those populating in the UK have remained committed to a diet of this sort, and those who have emigrated may hold adopted some of these traditional dietary wonts. However, many British remain devoted to other culturally appropriate diets and may see a greater or lesser hazard of developing osteoporosis as a consequence. There is still much to larn about this relationship. The proposed research will analyze the extent to which university pupils adhere to culturally determined diets that are in some manner tied to their cultural backgrounds.

Socioeconomic position ( SES )

SES typically refers to a combined measuring of one ‘s economic and societal place relation to others, by analyzing one ‘s business, income, and degree of instruction. These factors combine in multiple ways to determine the attitudes that one possesses with respect to diet, and they have a bearing on the specific nutrient picks that an single makes. Those with smaller incomes may see merchandises like milk, cheese, and meat, to be luxury points, with the consequence that they are merely eaten on juncture, or non at all ( Dindyal, 2004 ) . Similarly, one ‘s degree of instruction can act upon one ‘s apprehension of nutrition, and therefore, the nutrient picks that one makes. To exemplify, one recent survey, conducted at the University of North Carolina, found that those with higher degrees of instruction tend to take healthier diets ( Popkin, et al. , 2003 ) . Keeping these points in head, SES may hold a bearing on an person ‘s dietetic picks, which will correlate with one ‘s hazard of osteoporosis.

1.2 Problem Statement

Osteoporosis is a widespread and permeant upset with a high incidence rate. The prevalence of osteoporosis has steadily augmented over the last few decennaries. The altering demographics and population constructions of Europe and the United States have seen an addition in the per centum of aged populations ; this tendency will doubtless worsen the impact of osteoporosis. Consequently, there is a demand for the preparation of clear steps that will assist prevent the expected rise in its prevalence rate and for developing targeted plans towards all cultural groups in British society.

1.3 Hypothesiss

It is asserted that one ‘s attitudes toward nutrition will change harmonizing to one ‘s self-identified civilization and that it is possible, hence, to place common attitudes among a specific population toward nutrition. Consequently, if there are differences in attitudes toward nutrition among different groups so such differences will needfully impact the prevalence of nutritionally related instances of osteoporosis in the UK. Furthermore, the proposed research will try to exemplify that a relationship exists between culturally determined nutritionary attitudes and the incidence of osteoporosis within a peculiar civilization.

1.4 Aims

The primary aim of this research is to place the attitudes toward nutrition of different civilizations, and how these attitudes may impact the incidence of osteoporosis among different groups. In add-on the research will seek to carry through the undermentioned aims:

I. To find the attitudes sing proper nutrition of mark groups.

two. To determine the effects of attitudes towards nutrition on the prevalence of osteoporosis in peculiar cultural groups.

1.5 Significance of the survey

Increasingly, research workers have argued that a natural relationship exists between epidemiology and anthopology, and that an incorporate attack should be employed in affairs of public wellness ( Diacomo, 1999 ) . While this impression has gained in popularity in recent old ages, Trostel ‘s scrutiny of the beginnings of the incorporate attack reveals that it poses a figure of challenges ; specifically, how “ to accomplish complementarity between an in-depth microanalysis of disease causality through detailed single histories and a macroanalysis of health-related societal and cultural determiners at graduated table ” ( Masse , 2005 ) . The findings of this research may impart weight to the statement about the benefits of such a partnership, as it may besides assist to clear up affairs sing complementarity and the survey of osteoporosis. Ultimately, the findings of this research could be used as support for the execution ( or beef uping ) of culturally appropriate disease bar plans. Programs of this sort may assist battle the high incidence of osteoporosis by assisting persons to understand how they can pull off their wellness, while still adhering to culturally and/or sacredly appropriate diets. Last, the findings may lend to the portfolio of cognition of this disease, assisting to forestall its oncoming and patterned advance.

The findings will besides lend to scientific Anthropology as research in this field focuses progressively “ on the description of cross-cultural and population fluctuation ” ( Crews, 1993 ) . The research worker besides hopes that his decisions will stand for a part at the junction of medical anthropology and aging turn outing that “ ageing procedures are influenced by and influence altering cultural, socioeconomic and population construction ” ( Ory, 1995 )

III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Specific research inquiries will foremost be formulated, and a research program will be devised in an attempt to reply these inquiries. Appropriate methodological analysis will be employed to analyze nutritionary wonts and osteoporosis ; it will needfully affect geographic expedition of the attitudes of a multiethnic British pupil population and will seek to explicate their pertinence. The methodological analysis will include a study on what cultural populations were selected and why, every bit good as how the consequences will be sampled. This subdivision will besides explicate how informations will be collected and analyzed. Finally, decisions will be drawn as to the cogency and dependability of the survey ‘s findings.

The survey will concentrate on a study of 105 participants and each participant will finish an online questionnaire. By analysing pupils ‘ attitudes, the research worker will try to determine those cognitive resources that are at work in assorted cultural groups. In bend, ANOVA proving will be employed to explicate any conditional differences that may be. META analysis may besides be used to compare the findings of bing research with the demonstrated attitudes of the cultural groups present in the current survey.

3.1 Scope of research.

The research will be limited to the United Kingdom. It will be farther limited to include lone undergraduate and graduate pupils analyzing at the University of Birmingham. Time and fiscal restraints necessitate this narrow focal point. The literature cited in the research paper will be relevant to the United Kingdom, and the thesis of this research, though literature from other states may be included for exemplifying intents. The research specifically targets the University of Birmingham since the university constitutes a cultural hub in which a broad assortment of cultural populations are available for analysis.

3.2 Restrictions of research

3.2.1 Narrow focal point

As a stipulation for generalising research findings, and in order to steer people who will prosecute in decision-making following the expected findings, the restrictions of the proposed research must be noted. One major restriction of the research is that it will concentrate on a individual UK university ‘s pupil population. While it is possible that generalisations about the larger population of the UK can be made utilizing this information, the pertinence to populations in other parts of the universe will probably be limited, since jobs environing osteoporosis vary from society to society. The findings will besides be limited to the relationship between nutrition and osteoporosis, such that other osteoporosis causalities ( as genetic sciences ) will non be analyzed. The mention stuffs used in the research will besides be limited to the range of the paper, and merely the most valid academic diaries and books will be selected for inclusion.

3.2.2 Sample Size

An extra restriction is the sample size itself ; the figure of participants is expected to be 105. The findings from this sample will be assumed to stand for the findings of the entire population maintaining in head that decisions about the larger population of the UK can merely be drawn if the sample is so representative. It is true that a larger sample may give more accurate consequences and consequence in a lower border of mistake. However, if a sample is obtained, the research worker should be able to do generalisations about the larger populations – that is the primary strength of utilizing representative sampling. But if the sample size is excessively little compared to the entire population of the University and the UK in general, this will take to a larger border of mistake ( Creswell, 2000 ) . It can hence be said that the research may be limited in truth and cogency. The restrictions that arise from informations aggregation methods and the methodological analysis will be discussed in the methodological analysis subdivision of the paper.

3.2.3 Time allotted

Given the limited sum of clip the research worker has to carry on research, it is expected that the research will non be as thorough, nor the information as conclusive, as might otherwise be possible.

3.3 Study design

This is a survey designed as a post-test merely randomized quantitative correlativity. Correlation surveies will be designed to assist determine whether a relationship exists between two or more specified and quantifiable variables. The extent of the relationship between the variables will so be expressed as a correlativity coefficient.

3.4 Rationale and suitableness of the selected design

The selected survey design will be used for the undermentioned grounds:

I. Correlation surveies enable the research worker to turn to the issues at manus utilizing both Numberss ( quantitative signifiers ) and narrations ( qualitative signifiers ) . Therefore, a thorough apprehension of the research job is attained ( Borkan, 2004 ) .

two. The antecedently stated methods will let the research worker to map the relationships between the undermentioned variables, cultural association ( cultural group ) and socioeconomic position ( SES ) , defined below.

a. Cultural group ( cultural association ) : a self-defined entity whose shared values and imposts have a bearing on one ‘s behaviours and attitudes.

b. Socioeconomic position ( SES ) : refers to one ‘s economic and societal place relation to others ; typically a combined measuring based on instruction, income, and business. For the intents of this research, merely instruction and economic background of a participant ‘s household are considered relevant.

3.5 Sampling

The trying method will be used to choose participants analyzing at the undergraduate and alumnus degrees. The concluding sample will include a sum of 105 males and females, of different cultural beginnings. In order to obtain such a sample, blessing of the university ‘s disposal will be sought to entree its database incorporating information on cultural group composing within the pupil population. Harmonizing to their handiness in the university ‘s database, the pupil sample will be limited to the following cultural groups: White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Chinese.

These have been chosen after analyzing the 2001 nose count informations from the Office for National Statistics Census in which cultural group composing of the UK was listed as follows: White 92.1 per centum ; Indian, 1.8 per centum ; Pakistani, 1.3 per centum ; Mixed, 1.2 per centum ; Black Caribbean, 1.0 per centum ; Black African, 0.8 per centum ; Bangladeshi, 0.5 per centum ; Other Asian, 0.4 per centum ; Chinese, 0.4 per centum ; Other, 0.4 per centum ; and Other Black, 0.2 per centum ( Office for National Statistics, 2001 ) . Because these 7 groups are among the most thickly settled in the larger UK population, they are seen as most relevant to the current survey.

Extra choice standards are as follows:

I. The participants must be aged 18 old ages and over.

two. Participants must be willing to take part and this willingness must be demonstrated through expressed or implied consent.

three. Participants must be British citizens

The sample will be acquired by graded random trying. As antecedently mentioned, there will be 7 strata correlating to 7 of the UK ‘s most thickly settled cultural groups. Once a list of possible campaigners has been obtained from the university database, the research worker will find whether the campaigners comply with the choice standards, so roll up an initial sample of 490 pupils – 70 pupils per cultural class. Because the coveted size of the concluding sample is 105, the research worker will pull, at random, 15 pupils from each of the 7 classs.

In order to guarantee random choice, the research worker will utilize Excel to bring forth a series of random Numberss. The names for each cultural group will be pasted into a column in a spreadsheet, and the map =RAND ( ) will be used to infix a random figure ( between 0 and 1 ) in the cells. Then, the research worker will screen both columns – the list of names and the random figure – by the random Numberss ( Trochim, W. 2006 ) . This will rearrange the list in random order from the lowest to the highest random figure.

When the procedure of choice is complete, the research will advise all campaigners of their preselection. If any possible campaigners refuse engagement, the research worker will return to the database to choose the appropriate figure of campaigners from the matching cultural group, until the sum of 105 is obtained.

3.6 Ethical Considerations

The research worker will seek blessing from the University to carry on the proposed research. The survey will be conducted in rigorous conformity with the University ‘s ethical judicial admissions refering research undertakings. In order to protect the individuality of the participants, all participants will be given alone designation Numberss in topographic point of their names. In add-on, and for privateness protection, each participant will be required to subscribe a confidentiality understanding. Certificates of confidentiality will be obtained and these will assist to keep the namelessness of gathered information. Finally, in progress of official permission being sought, all participants will be given a elaborate briefing about the purposes and aims of the survey, and be made cognizant of their rights to end engagement at any clip.

3.7 Data aggregation

Data for this survey will be collected utilizing completed on-line questionnaires. The result steps will be assessed utilizing dietetic wonts with a validated 120 line points Food Frequency Questionnaire ( FFQ ) , a research instrument used to measure the sort of diet consumed by people. The research worker will besides bring forth a study whose inquiries aim to set up participants ‘ economic backgrounds, cultural individuality, and household migration history.

The FFQ will be self-administered electronic signifier and will necessitate participants to describe the frequence of ingestion and part size over the predating three months. Each of the 120 line points will be defined by a series of nutrients or drinks. There will be extra inquiries on nutrient buying and readying methods to enable the research worker to farther refine alimentary computations ( Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 2010, Internet ) .

Because the proposed research intends to set up cultural attitudes associating to nutrition, a auxiliary study is necessary. This study will besides be self-administered, in an electronic format. It will seek to find the economic background of respondents, and how they identify culturally. These two factors have been shown to act upon diet picks ; the research worker will be peculiarly interested in finding the strength of civilization on nutrient choice/attitudes toward nutrition.

The research worker ‘s undertaking will be to form for the bringing and aggregation of the FFQ and auxiliary study. Because this research requires University pupils to take portion in two questionnaires, electronic mails will be sent to the participants two hebdomads before the questionnaires will be administered. At this clip, the research worker will by electronic mail prepare participants to finish the questionnaire by explicating the nature of the study, and how it should be completed. At the same clip, the research worker will officially bespeak campaigners ‘ permission to take part in the research. If campaigners elect to take part, they will be required to subscribe an understanding corroborating their purpose ( see Appendix B ) . At which clip all verifications of engagement have been obtained by the research worker, questionnaires will be disbursed ; the respondents will be allotted a period of four yearss in which to finish the combined study.

3.7.1 Secondary informations

Secondary informations is classified as informations that has been gathered at a old clip by person other than the research worker, for a entirely different intent. For intents of the proposed survey, the research worker will garner informations from books ; indices ; diaries ; research studies ; periodicals ; conference documents and abstracts ; internal records of wellness organisations ; one-year studies ; newspapers and magazines. The research worker will besides entree on-line databases ; CD-ROMs ; Internet ; pictures and broadcasts to roll up secondary information for this study.

3.8 Validation of Study Method

Appropriate steps, including triangulation, will be used to formalize the dependability of the obtained information. To extinguish prejudices, drawn-out questionnaires and excess inquiries will be avoided and merely concise and pertinent inquiries incorporated. The order of inquiries to be administered will be randomized, to extinguish the scholar prejudice. Wherever the retest method is used, the bounded callback process will be applied in order to extinguish instances of telescope prejudice. Other steps will be put in topographic point to stop antipathy and positive skew.

3.9 Data Processing and Analysis

3.9.1 Datas Processing

Data processing refers to the consecutive stairss taken in order to guarantee that the collected information is maintained in a useable signifier. The stairss will include: 1 ) confirmation of truth ; 2 ) entry into the computing machine ; 3 ) transmutation of informations, and ; 4 ) creative activity of a database. The Microsoft Access package plan will be used to come in collected informations prior to its analysis. Standard record-keeping processs will use, in an attempt to continue original informations. The double-entry process will be employed to guarantee truth of informations ; utilizing this method, all the collected information will be keyed in a 2nd clip and all the 2nd entries later checked against the first entries.

Data transmutation will be carried out in order to guarantee that the obtained information is conformable to analysis and will be done chiefly through cryptography of the information. Data transmutation, besides called informations transition, refers to the change of informations from its original signifier into a format that better supports its analysis ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . A different construction from the one used in informations entry will be implemented, and the codebook developed in line with good research patterns ( Trochim & A ; Donnelly, 2006 ) . The codebook will name all of the variables, their definitions, and their formats ; the intents of the codebook is to depict the informations and detail how it can be retrieved, how the information was obtained, the day of the month of aggregation and the topics of the research. Finally, the codebook will besides be used to bespeak the variable location in the database and will dwell of appropriate notes.

3.9.2 Data Analysis

META Analysis

During this procedure, the research worker will inspect, clean, transform, and model the collected informations, while highlisting utile informations. It besides involves suggesting decisions, and confirming the research worker ‘s determinations. The proposed qualitative analysis for this survey will integrate qualitative informations analysis ( as a agency to analyze text ) , questionnaire transcripts, and ethnographic observations. The research worker will garner findings from antecedently published research in order to execute a META analysis. META analysis is the combination of informations from many surveies to get a individual estimation. The research worker will carry through the META analysis by uniting statistics from secondary beginnings discussed above with statistics obtained through personal experimentation. The purpose is to merely place a common step of ‘effect size, ‘ for which a leaden mean might be the end product of a meta-analysis.

From a statistical position, META analysis is a straightforward application of multifactorial methods. It involves verifying that topics are from the same population by analysis of discrepancy, with intervention or hazard factor, survey, and interaction between them in the theoretical account, if the result step will be uninterrupted. The research worker will besides utilize Multiple Regression ; the research worker will prove the intervention times study interaction in the usual manner. If the interaction will be important, it will be an indicant that that the intervention consequence was non the same in all surveies, and in that instance the research worker will non unite the surveies. Interaction is really of import.

t-Test

Statistical analysis will be performed in order to find if there is correlativity between the defined variables – cultural association and socioeconomic position ( SES ) – and osteoporosis. A two-sample T-test will be employed and a assurance interval of 95 per centum, identified as P & lt ; 0.05, will be considered important ( Trochim & A ; Donnelly, 2006 ) . The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) package will be used in the quantitative analysis.

Premise:

1. The sample population was chosen indiscriminately.

2. The tonss of the two variables are correlated ( dependent ) .

3. The sample distribution of the difference between the agencies is normal.

Decision regulations:

The research worker will prove 10 ( or 20 if matched ) topics. Alpha of.05 will be used with a two-tailed T-test and 9 grades of freedom ( DF =N-1=9 ) . A t-table will be used to find the critical values.

Calculation: The informations will be described by calculating the agencies for each condition/group. Thereafter, difference tonss and their squares will be computed as they will be needed for analysis.

Inferential trials will be used within the group trials and the expression that will be used is as follows:

Note:

XD -the norm

sD -standard divergence of differences used in the equation

I?0 – the changeless

( NA -A 1 ) – the grade of freedom used

Decision:

A determination will be made by comparing t-critical and t-obtained values. Depending on the consequences of this comparing, the research worker will so reject the void hypothesis ( HO ) and assert the alternate hypothesis ( H1 ) , or, instead, fail to reject the void hypothesis. Decisions will be made at a 95 per centum assurance degree.

3.10 Data Presentation

As a agency to stand for research findings in a coherent mode, saloon graphs, pie charts, and tabular arraies will be developed. Statistical charts and sum-ups will besides be made.

IV. Decision

This research will measure both the nutritionary ingestion of mark groups and the effects of nutrition on osteoporosis in mark groups within the British population. The findings obtained from the proposed research will heighten the portfolio of cognition of this disease. This will, in bend, assist forestall its oncoming and patterned advance, peculiarly if the survey ‘s findings are used to develop and beef up disease consciousness and bar plans. In add-on, the survey will supply people with more information on the nexus between cultural beliefs and traditions, nutrition, and the care of healthy castanetss.

Annotated Bibliography

Bidwell, P. ed. , 2002. Populating a good life: To be a vegetarian in New Zealand, Wellington: New Zealand Vegetarian Society.

Explains the contradictions between faith and tradition and nutrition in cultural groups. For case, it examines attitudes of assorted cultural groups in New Zealand toward animal-based nutrients.

Borkan, J.M. , Zarcadoolas, C. , Pleasant, A, Goldman, R. , Thomas, M. , Scott, H.D. , 2004. The position from the trenches: primary attention practicians ‘ positions of household medical specialty, internal medical specialty and Pediatrics. Med Health RI, 87, pp. 347-349.

A work affecting the application of societal context to community and primary-care-based surveies. Their survey chiefly describes multi-method qualitative research within populations of different quality, including the aged, low-income groups, and adult females of menopausal age.

Creswell W. , 2000. Research design: qualitative, quantitative and assorted attacks. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Sage Publications 272.

Explains how to be after a research survey. A mention on the basicss of research readying. It covers both research methods and design.

Crews, D.E. , 1993. Biological Anthropology and Human Aging: some current waies in aging research. Annual Review of Antrhopology, Vol.22:395-423, October 1993. hypertext transfer protocol: //arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.an.22.100193.002143 [ Accessed August 10, 2010 ] .

A comprehensive survey which demonstrates how socio-cultural factors determine aging fluctuations separately and on a group degree.

Cullen, K.W. , Baranowski, T. , Owens, E. , de Moor, C. , Rittenberry, L. , Olvera, N. , Resnicow, K. Ethnic differences in societal correlatives of diet. Oxford Journals [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //her.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/17/1/7 [ Accessed August 6, 2010 ] .

Determines that civilization, instead than ethnicity, is the major factor when it comes to knowledge and consciousness of diseases, their effects and interventions. Demonstrates how the cultural variable has small impact on parent general behaviour and cognition about diet.

Diacomo, S. , 1999. Can at that place be a “ cultural epidemiology ” ? Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13 ( 4 ) , pp. 436-457. Available through JSTOR [ Accessed August 11, 2010 ] .

Article analyzing the confederation of epidemiology and anthropology ; purports that the confederation has remained limited in research and suggets possibilities for future research, utilizing malignant neoplastic disease epidemiology as an illustration.

Dindyal, Shiva & A ; Sanjay, 2004. How personal factors, including civilization and ethnicity, affect the picks and choice of nutrient we make. The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine, 1 ( 2 ) . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_third_world_ medicine/volume_1_number_2_64/article_printable/how_personal_factors_including_culture_and_ethnicity_affect_the_choices_and_selection_of_food_we_make.html [ Accessed August 9, 2010 ] .

Describes the factors act uponing nutrient ingestion ; accounts include financial/occupational, cultural and cultural, distance from nutrient markets and assortment of nutrients available, age, and others.

Doyle, E.M. , Carol, E.S. , 1995. Food safety. University of Michigan: Marcel Dekker.

Documents the importance of nutrient safety and provides nutritionary recommendations for all age groups.

Edwards, W. , Babbit, A.B. , Scott, L. , Wright, L. , 2007. Pharmacological options for Osteoporosis [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.apctoday.com/pdf/supplements/ osteoporosis.pdf [ Accessed December 3, 2009 ] .

Provides an account of physiology, anatomy and pharmacological medicine. It describes

the appropriate interventions of such conditions.

EFFO and NOF, 1997. Who are campaigners for bar and intervention for osteoporosis? Osteoporos International 7 ( 1 ) . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.iofbonehealth. org/facts-and-tatistics.html # factsheet-category-22 [ Accessed November 29, 2009 ] .

Gives background information on The European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Bone Disease ( EFFO ) , which subsequently became the International Osteoporosis Foundation ( IOF ) and The National Osteoporosis Foundation ( NOF ) . EFFO is a planetary NGO covering with the bar and intervention of osteoporosis ; NOF seeks to inform American populace about importance of bone wellness, bar of osteoporosis, and bone breaks.

European Vegetarian Union, 2007. How many vegetables? [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.euroveg.eu/lang/en/info/howmany.php [ Accessed August 7, 2010 ] .

A digest of beginnings documenting vegetarian rates in states around the universe.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Food Frequency Questionnaires [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fhcrc.org/science/shared_resources/ nutrition/ffq/ [ Accessed 07.08.2010 ] .

A brief description of the Food Frequency Questionnaire.

Henneman, A. , Boeckner, L. , 2004. Nutrition and Osteoporosis. University of Nebraska. [ on-line ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php? info_center =4 & A ; tax_level=2 & A ; tax_subject=278 & A ; topic_id=1385 [ Accessed August 9, 2010 ] .

Kershen, A. , 2005.A Strangers, foreigners and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields 1670-2000.London: Routledge.

Proposes a multi-group, multilevel model to measure the switching racial and geographical construction of segregation in metropolitan countries. It is found that overall diminutions in segregation are due about wholly to the eroding of White/non-White bifurcation within big metropoliss.

Masse , R. , 2005. Book Review, Epidemiology and Culture. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163 ( 1 ) , pp. 97-98. Available through JSTOR [ Accessed August 11, 2010 ] .

Summarizes the findings of James A. Trostel ‘s survey on the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology in analyzing effects of civilization on disease.

Matsumoto, D. , 1995. Cultural differences in attitudes, values, and beliefs about osteoporosis in first and 2nd coevals Japanese-American adult females. [ on-line ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.davidmatsumoto.com/publications.php [ Accessed August 1, 2010 ] .

Demonstrates how in two groups of the same ethnicity ( Nipponese adult females ) civilization is the variable which conducts cognition and behaviour about osteoporosis. Second coevals, acculturated Nipponese adult females ( born in the USA ) knew and had more positive replies about the disease than the 1st coevals of Nipponese adult females ( born and raised in Japan ) . Both groups had a similar age and instruction degree, but adult females with a Nipponese background had different and more traditional responses about osteoporosis than adult females with an American civilization, being both groups ethnically Nipponese.

National Academy of Sciences, 1997. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/calcium.asp [ Accessed November 21, 2009 ] .

A dietetic fact sheet on Ca ; includes utile information about dietetic beginnings of Ca, and the optimum sum of Ca consumption based on age.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 2009. What people with anorexia nervosa need to cognize about osteoporosis. National Institute of Health [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/ Conditions_Behaviors/anorexia_nervosa.asp [ Accessed August 8, 2010 ] .

Outlines the bone wellness jobs that anorectics, and their hazard development of osteoporosis.

Office for National Statistics, 2001. Ethnicity: population size. DirecGov. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp? id=273 [ Accessed August 3, 2010 ] .

Contains statistical information of cultural groups in the UK, ensuing from Census Ethnic Group Questions put away in 1991 and 2001. Respondents were required to sort which cultural group they considered themselves as belonging to.

Ory, M.G. , 1995. Aging, wellness, and civilization: the part of medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series 9 ( 2 ) , pp. 281-283. Available through JSTOR [ Accessed July 2, 2010 ] .

Illustrates a figure of research techniques and topics indispensable to grok wellness and aging. Expose how until late small focal point was put on analyzing aging and issues connected to the aging procedure.

Popkin, B. , Zizza, C. , Siega-Riz, A.M. , 2003. Who is taking the alteration? U.S. dietetic quality comparing between 1965 and 1996. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25 ( 1 ) . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ajpm-online.net [ Accessed August 9, 2010 ] .

A Study analyzing 30-year tendency in dietetic consumption in the U.S. ; sought to find the impact of socioeconomic factors such as instruction and income on alteration. While findings demonstrated an overall betterment in diet quality, college attending played a function in bring forthing healthier diets among those studied.

Simpson, K.J. , 2002. Anorexia nervosa and civilization. Journal of Pyschiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 9 ( 1 ) , pp. 65-71. Abstrat provided by PubMed.gov [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11896858 [ Access August 9, 2010 ] .

This article clarifies some of the cultural influences on the development of anorexia and examines long-standing premises about the monopoly of Western civilization on the disease. It finds that its outgrowth in non-Western civilizations is non straight related to the infiltration of Western civilization ; suggests this position of civilization ‘s impact on anorexia is biased.

Trochim, W. , 2006. Simple Random Sampling. Research Knowledge Base [ cyberspace ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampprob.php [ Accessed August 3, 2010 ] .

The article describes how to by and large carry on chance trying. It covers how to carry on simple random sampling among other processs.

Trochim, W. , Donnelly, J.P. , 2006. The Research Methods Knowledge Base: Atomic Dog, 3rd erectile dysfunction. Cornell University.

An updated version of cognition on research methods. The writers explain the quantitative and qualitative methods applied in research. The book can be used in a assortment of subjects, and exponds on practical and proficient issues involved in trying, measuring, design and analysis.

World Health Organization, 2003. Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis, World Health Organization [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //search.who.int/search? q=prevention+and+ management+of+osteoporosis+2003 & A ; btnG=Search & A ; ie=utf8 & A ; site=default_collection & A ; lr=lang_en & A ; client=WHO & A ; proxystylesheet=WHO & A ; output=xml_no_dtd & A ; oe=UTF-8 & A ; Search=Search & A ; sitesearch= & A ; sort=date: Calciferol: Liter: d1 & A ; entqr=3 & A ; ud=1 [ Accessed July 28, 2010 ] .

Describes ways to forestall and pull off osteoporosis.

World Health Organization, 2007. WHO Scientific Group on the Assessment of Osteoporosis at Primary Health Care Level. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nof.org/professionals/WHO _Osteoporosis_Summary.pdf [ Accessed December 15, 2009 ] .

A 2007 World Health Organization publication. The study reveals the dangers of osteoporosis worldwide with statistical indicants bespeaking the jobs caused by the disease in contrast with other complaints. The effects of osteoporosis are besides examined with suggestions for farther research.

Yadav, Y. , Kumar, S. , 2006. The nutrient wonts of a state. The Hindu [ online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hinduonnet.com/2006/08/14/stories/2006081403771200.htm [ Accessed August 9, 2010 ] .

Findingss of a countrywide study affecting dietetic wonts, published in the The Hindu newspaper. Includes information on prevalence of vegetarianism by sex, faith and caste. Besides includes informations on ingestion of intoxicant and baccy.

Zikmund W.G. , 2003. Business Research methods, 7th erectile dysfunction. Thomson Business Information.

Provides a description of the study methods by and large used in research design. Besides illustrates how to manage informations obtained in research through analysis.

Appendix A

Proposed Research Timeline

The survey will be carried out over a period of 3 months. Initial activities will concentrate on analysing relevent secondary beginnings ( hebdomad one ) . The staying activities associated with the undertaking will be carried out over the subsequent 11 hebdomads, as shown in the tabular array below.

Table 1: Summary of the Research Strategy

Activity

Time period

Reappraisal of literature

Week 1

Seeking blessing

Week 2

Design of study instruments

Week 2

Recruitment of survey participants

Week 3

Administration of questionnaires

Week 4

Confirmation of responses

Week 5-6

Data analysis ( entry, database creative activity, statistical analysis )

Week 7-9

Report composing

Week 10-12

Appendix B

Informed Consent Form

The aim of this survey is to look into the relationship between cultural influences on diet and nutritionary attitudes, and the incidence of osteoporosis. All informations collected will be treated with confidentiality. Your undertaking as a participant consists of make fulling out two questionnaires.

Please publish your name and mark in ONE of the subdivisions below:

I agree to take portion in this survey.

Name _____________________

Signature ___________________

Date _____________

I do non hold to take portion in this survey.

Name _____________________

Signature ___________________

Date _____________

If you have any questions, delight reach the research worker on inside informations: … … … … .