Developmental Milestones

Developmental Milestones What is child development? Child development refers to how a child becomes able to do more complex things as they get older. Development is different than growth. Growth only refers to the child getting bigger in size * Gross motor:  using large groups of muscles to sit, stand, walk, run, etc. , keeping balance, and changing positions. * Fine motor:  using hands to be able to eat, draw, dress, play, write, and do many other things. * Language:  speaking, using body language and gestures, communicating, and understanding what others say. Cognitive:  Thinking skills:  including learning, understanding, problem-solving, reasoning, and remembering. * Social:  Interacting with others, having relationships with family, friends, and teachers, cooperating, and responding to the feelings of others. What are developmental milestones? Developmental milestones are a set of functional skills or age-specific tasks that most children can do at a certain age range. Zero to Three offers these milestones for how children develop and the role that parents play at different stages. The emphasis here is more on social and emotional development:

Gross Motor Mean age Normal Range In prone head up only 1 month 0 to 3 months Head steady at shoulder 2 months 1 to 4 months In prone head up to chest 2 months 1 to 4 months In prone head up to forearms 3 months 2 to 5 months In prone head up with extended arms 4 months 3 to 6 months Rolling front to back 4 months 3 to 6 months Rolling back to front 5 months 4 to 7 months Sitting with support 5 months 4 to 7 months Sitting independently 6 months 5 to 9 months Creeping on tummy 7 months 5 to 10 months Crawling hands and knees 8 months 6 to 11 months

Pulls to a stand 9 months 6 to 12 months Cruises 11 months 9 to 14 months Walking 12 months 9 to 17 months Running 15 months 13 to 20 months Jump on two feet 24 months 17 to 34 months Kicks Ball 24 months 18 to 30 months Climbs stairs with alternating feet 30 months 28 to 36 months Peddles tricycle 36 months 30 to 48 months Fine Motor/Adaptive Mean Normal Range Unfisted 3 months 0 to 4 months Bats at objects 3 months 2 to 5 months Objects to midline 4 months 3 to 6 months Transfers objects 5 months 4 to 7 months Raking grasp 7 months 5 to 10 months

Finger feeds 7 months 5 to 10 months Primitive pincer 8 months 6 to 10 months Neat pincer 9 months 7 to 10 months Voluntary release 12 months 10 to 15 months Helps with dressing 12 months 10 to 16 months Spoon feeds 15 months 12 to 18 months Uses cup open/sippy 15 months 10 to 18 months Imitates housework 18 months 14 to 24 months Handedness 24 months 18 to 30 months Helps with undressing 24 months 22 to 30 months Undresses self 36 months 30 to 40 months Toilet training 24 to 36 months Social/Emotional Mean Normal Range Social smile 5-6 weeks 1 to 3 months

Object permanence 9 months 6 to 12 months Stranger anxiety 9 months 6 to 12 months Affective sharing 10 months 9 to 18 months Uses mother as secure base 12 months 9 to 18 months Separation distress 12 months 9 to 24 months Independence 18 months 12 to 36 months Parallel play 24 months 12 to 30 months Associative play 30 months 24 to 48 months Cooperative play 36 months 24 to 48 months Language Mean Normal Range Cooing 3 months 1 to 4 months Laugh 4 months 3 to 6 months Turns to voice 4 months 3 to 6 months Razzing 5 months 4 to 8 months

Babbling 6 months 5 to 9 months Dada/mama non-specifically 8 months 6 to 10 months Gesture games 9 months 7 to 12 months Understands no, 10 months 9 to 18 months Mama/dada specifically 10 months 9 to 14 month One step command with a gesture 12 months 10 to 16 months Immature jargoning 13 months 10 to 18 months One step command w/out a gesture 15 months 12 to 20 months Points to body parts 18 months 12 to 24 months Mature jargoning 18 months 16 to 24 months Puts two words together 24 months 20 to 30 months Pronouns inappropriately 24 months 22 to 30 months

Two step command 24 months 22 to 30 months States first name 34 months 30 to 40 months Pronouns appropriately 36 months 30 to 42 months Infants begin showing a spontaneous “social smile” around age 2 to 3 months, and begin to laugh spontaneously around age 4 months. In addition, between ages 2 and 6 months, infants express other feelings such as anger, sadness, surprise, and fear. Between ages 5 and 6 months, babies begin to exhibit stranger anxiety. They do not like it when other people hold or play with them, and they will show this discomfort visibly.

Previously, they would smile at anyone and allow them to hold them. However, during this time babies are learning not only how to show their own feelings, but also how to notice others’ feelings. Around age 4 months, infants can begin distinguishing the different emotional expressions of others. Later, around age 6 months, babies begin to mimic the emotions and expressions they see in others. By nine months of age, babies have learned how to express a wide variety of emotions. This becomes readily apparent between ages 9 to 10 months, as babies become highly emotional.

They go from intense happiness to intense sadness/frustration/anger quickly. This emotional lability evens out as babies develop rudimentary strategies for regulating their emotions around age 11 months. Babies’ understanding of others’ emotions grows as well. Around age 12 months, babies become aware of not only other peoples’ expressions but also their actual emotional states, especially distress. They’re beginning to make the connection that expressions match an inside feeling. It’s interesting to note some babies begin to exhibit jealousy at the end of this first year, around age 12 months.