When Charles Holden was invited to plan the extension of the City and South London Railway, he envisioned making architecture for the people. The vision that Holden had was to make a strong solid design, the like of which Brighton had non seen earlier. His purposes were to give the Underground Group a modern design that could be adapted harmonizing to each site, giving the resistance a strong consistence across the line, so that no bystander could see the edifices and non recognize the iconic design. Among the Stationss that he designed was Morden, which was a modern design developed from his past enterprise. It was non merely the design, usage of stuffs or the ambiance of the station that made it so modern it ‘s what it represented at the clip and how the public took to it.
In 1921 Frank Pick became Assistant Joint Manager of the Underground Group. He understood the importance of a corporate image and the power of advertisement. His involvement nevertheless had expanded from advertisement to cover all facets of the company ‘s development. AHe was cognizant of programs for the extension of the Group ‘s City & A ; South London Railway from Clapham Common to Morden. He was n’t content with the designs of the Edgware line Stationss and sought that which he described as ‘a new architectural parlance ‘ . He commissioned Charles Holden for this ‘experiment ‘ and to plan the eight new Stationss. Pick ‘s vision was merely every bit strong as Holden ‘s, in that he wanted to give the populace what they wanted non cutting corners and so the manner was paved for Holden ‘s modern architecture to be put on a base.
After the decease of Leslie Green, Stanley Heaps headed the Underground Group ‘s ‘in-house ‘ designers. Heaps had considerable experience antecedently working on the extension to Edgware, for which he designed Stationss in a neo-Georgian manner with aid from Thomas Bilbow. When it came to the Morden extension, Pick was adult male of equity who liked to further competition and allowed his in-house designers to subject a design for Morden station, every bit good as commissioning a design from Holden. The design was in the manner of Heaps ‘ old Edgware extension Stationss.
A 1:1 theoretical account of the outside for the general design was built to reenforce Holden ‘s proposal before building. In hindsight it was a slightly simple design which may hold been really dull in executing but Pick and Holden gave each station a sense of importance and value. Holden ‘s designs were chosen to be built and non long after the building began, with Morden opening on 13 September 1926 in concurrence with the remainder of the line. This was made possible by funding from the authorities. Around that clip London was retrieving from World War I and this seen as a good relive to unemployment.
Built on farm land Morden even today is the southern-most point on the Underground system and was the ideal location for the big terminal station. With this in head Holden had no limitation as he did on his old Stationss. He did non hold to plan for a corner or take side roads in to consideration. However the chief thing that set Morden apart from the other Stationss he designed was its graduated table and how rapidly the public took to it. Another cardinal characteristic of Morden is that unlike other Stationss on the southern subdivision of the Northern Line, Morden station is non constructed in a tunnel, but is situated in a broad film editing with the tunnel portals a short distance to the North. ‘The tunnel portals north of Morden Station have the differentiation of being one terminal of one of the longest tunnels in the universe ( 17.25 stat mis – approximately 28A kilometer ) . ‘ .
As more and more Londoners looked for a suburban life the population of Morden grew with a rise in Tudor semi-detached Villas. A canopy was added along both the wings with glass pavings tiles in it to make a bright infinite below. Holden was apparently cognizant of the future growing of the suburbs and designed his station with the ability to be built up at a ulterior phase. In 1962 commercial offices were added on top of Morden Station.
The inside and program of the station is declarative of Holden ‘s modernist design ethos. The station works around a hexangular ticket hall like the 1 he antecedently designed at Clapham South, which was derived from the geometries of the street and tube path. The platforms are accessed by stairss down from the hall as the lines run up to the surface. The interior layout is that of a familiar 1 with the platforms covered by the big roof with a shallow arch like the one at Earl ‘s Court Station. One side of the hexagon is used for the back entryway of a store. Another face has three sets of doors which lead to the tower occupied by anteroom signifier and so the issue or entryway.
The modernist frontages of Holden ‘s designs were a cardinal item in the overall grasp of the Stationss, with Morden being no exclusion ; in fact the Morden frontage was one of great mastermind. With the absence of a side route Holden designed a consecutive frontage. The dual floor entryway in a tower-like signifier is dominated by three big Windowss over the nothingness of the entryway which was added at land degree. Dividing the Windowss and entryway is a shallow canopy in bluish enamelled dramatis personae Fe. A spectacle of stores incorporated into the design on each side of the enforcing station entryway. The design for the stores is one of beauty with crisply cut nothingnesss for the Windowss and store foreparts. This gave the edifice laterality in that it appeared as one big smooth rock to which nothingnesss were added. With the ulterior add-on of the larger canopy across the wings it tied in good with the bing shallow canopy above the entryway. With the deficiency of otiose ornamentation and the bold three-dimensional design the station appeared outstandingly modern in what at the clip were Victorian milieus.
A important planning component of the eight Stationss was the three stained glass Windowss, which are frequently referred to as the ‘folding screens ‘ . These turn uping screens were evocative of Holden ‘s 1924 design for Westminster Station. The ground that the screens were so clever was that it allowed him to work with any angle of a street corner, to maintain a consistent design across the Stationss but to besides capture the maximal passing trade. A comparing can be made of Honking Bec to South Wimbledon where there is a huge alteration in the angle. Here we truly see signifier following map a really modernist manner of thought. Holden applied this to the other Stationss on the line but the opposite agreement was adopted for Morden. The three foliage screen symbolically became a level frontage which reinforced the horizontal position of the edifice as a whole. The cardinal stained glass window has the Undergound roundel in the in-between utilizing its signature colors of bluish and ruddy. Metal bars in between the thin glass reinforced the tallness of the tower ; the top of the glazing is removable for airing intents. Despite Holden ‘s modernist outlook he did do room for some ornamentation. Between the Windowss were tapering columns surmounted by three dimensional spherical roundels, with no structural intent. The usage of stained glass Windowss and big rock blocks is evocative of the masonry manner. Whether a station on a corner or non the folding screens are really effectual working like a triptych with the spectator reading the edifice left to compensate.
Holden wAaAs vAery interested in making a welcoming ambiance for his Stationss which has been achieved really efficaciously. Two decennaries earlier Leslie Green had introduced Na lamps to do his oxblood Stationss appear orange at dark. Holden had a similar thought and so with powerful new engineering he was able to hold Morden floodlit from the top of the shallow canopy giving a xanthous freshness at dark, more psychologically welcoming than orange. With his modernist attack he decided on adding an exposed pendant with multiple light bubbles straight behind the glassy glass to light the logo at dark but let the ticket hall to be infested with natural visible radiation during the twenty-four hours. This was of great importance to Pick who described it as ‘billboard architecture ‘ as by dark the radiance roundel lit from buttocks would publicize itself. The polygonal fanlight straight above the ticket hall besides plays a important portion in making the ambiance with natural visible radiation deluging in to what would otherwise necessitate unreal illuming during the twenty-four hours.
Holden ‘s pick of stuff for the chief construction was Portland rock. A absolute panel of white Portland rock two narratives high would hold dominated its milieus in rural Morden at the clip. Solid, powerful and strong, the surface of the station gave off no item but that of the architrave at the margin and the Windowss. There may hold been many grounds for Holden taking Portland rock among which was that it was the traditional London edifice stuff. He was besides cognizant of how compatible the rock was with other constructing stuffs as he intended for the Stationss to be built upon. Previously, he had successfully used the rock in 1920 for the Imperial War Graves Commission and at 55 Broadway. Another ground for Holden utilizing this stuff was because he believed that it was good at enduring and self cleansing but this theory has been revealed to be merely partially true. Morden station today is demoing the strains of clip holding been cleaned merely a decennary ago. Another advantage of utilizing Portland rock was how good it was floodlit at dark with its surface texture making shadows within itself. Portland rock was used extensively in ulterior undertakings but whether it was every bit effectual as it was in Holden ‘s Stationss is problematic.
In 1925 representatives from the Underground Group visited the Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes from which the term ‘Art Deco ‘ is derived. Some of the best designers from around the universe were involved with a great accent on three-dimensional signifiers being shown at the clip. This modernist manner took over Europe underscoring the geometry of the signifier looking in to the particularization. However this manner of utilizing three-dimensional signifiers can be seen in Holden ‘s work good before this where his designs concentrate on the cardinal rudimentss. His work has been compared to the Art Deco motion nevertheless Holden was opposed to this thought. His work has that nudity about it but it still standing out from the overly modern edifices of European architecture in 1920s and 30s.
A booklet produced for the gap of the Morden extension described a station as “ an inviting room access in an architectural scene that can non be missed by the insouciant walker ” . Well that ‘s decidedly true for Holden ‘s Stationss but more significantly for the influence he has left behind. to appreciate the extremist architecture of that clip which can now merely be described as period appeal. The usage of Portland rock instead than plaster on stuffs has meant his edifices have lasted instead better than those constructed to copy straight the European white three-dimensional manner, but the transition of clip has non been sort to his white edifices despite his purposes. Morden has gone on to turn, for at that place subsequently followed a proliferation of stores and edifices based on the same political orientation and mentality laid by Holden and his vision for London.