Critical review of international brand equity


This is a critical reappraisal of international trade name equity. In this reappraisal mentioned about the a peculiar instance survey of branded spirits Chivas Regal.Chivas Regal is a premium Scotch whiskey produced by Chivas Brothers. It was founded in 1801 in Aberdeen, Scotland. The Chivas trade name ‘s place is Strathisla Distillery at Keith, Moray in Speyside, Scotland.

Chivas Regal is one of the good merchandising premium whiskeies in the universe, available in more than 200 states. It is the best merchandising premium Scotch whiskey in Europe and Asia Pacific and is rated one of the universe ‘s good powerful liquors trade names. Chivas Regal is one of the best acting liquors trade names globally, with gross revenues holding grown by 40 % over the last four old ages.

Brand equity is the value that built-up in a trade name. It is measured based on how much a client is cognizant of the trade name and ingestion of a peculiar trade name. The value of a company ‘s trade name equity can be calculated by comparing the expected future gross from the branded merchandise with the expected future gross from an tantamount non-branded merchandise. This computation is at best an estimate. This value can consist both touchable, functional properties ( e.g. TWICE the cleaning power or HALF the fat ) and intangible, emotional properties ( e.g. The trade name for people with manner and good gustatory sensation ) . Brand equity can be positive or negative. Positive trade name equity is created by effectual publicity and systematically meeting or transcending client ideas. Negative trade name equity is normally the consequence of bad direction. The writer merely stating the positive side.

Literature reappraisal

The writer presented international trade name equity in a instance survey method in this method he mentioned significances of trade name equity and steps of trade name equity. The writer presented this paper with a solid grounds of mention and cardinal words Board equity ; Advertising ; Globalization ; Marketing research ; Multinational companies.The Marketing Science Institute ( MSI ) province that trade name equity can be viewed by customers”…as both fiscal and as a set of favorable associations and behaviours” ( MSI 1989 ) . Aaker ( 1991 ) suggests that trade name equity consists of trade name associations ( trade name image ) , trade name trueness, trade name consciousness, perceived quality, and other trade name assets. Aaker ( 1996 ) indicates that trueness is one sufficient importance that other steps, such as sensed quality and associations, can frequently evaluated based on their ability to act upon it. Keller ( 1993 ) describes the consumer ‘s memory as a map of a set of nodes and links of the assorted associations related to a trade name. Perceived quality has been shown to be associated with monetary value premiums, monetary value elasticties, trade name use, and unusually, stock return ( Aaker 1996 ) . Brand consciousness reflects the saliency of the trade name in the client head ( Faircloth, Capella & A ; Alford 2001 ) .

Main statement

The writer is reasoning about the effectivity of advertisement and significance of trade name equity and relationship between the trade name proposition and merchandise preparation. The other chief statements are shown below:

  • Increased diagnostic potency.
  • Steering rules established.
  • Holistic mentality of run effects on consumers.
  • Making better apprehension of the nature of the consumer “take-out” from the advertisement by utilizing indirect techniques e.g. usage of projective and enabling techniques.
  • Knowledge of how consumers might associate to the trade name.
  • Opportunities to unknot complex responses or ambiguity in replies.

This research paper is consumer based trade name equity which means that Customer-based trade name equityis defined as the differential consequence of trade name cognition on consumer response to the selling of the trade name in which trade name cognition is conceptualised, based on an associatory web memory theoretical account in footings of two constituents, trade name consciousness and trade name image ( Keller 2003 ) .

Feldwick ( 1996 ) notes there are three significances of trade name equity:

Brand value: in accounting footings the value of a trade name as an plus that can be broken out on a balance sheet.

Brand strength: a step of the strength of a consumer ‘s fond regard to a trade name.

Brand description: the set of specific attitudes a consumer has towards a trade name.

Ambler and Vakratsas ( 1998 ) have stated that no individual set of steps of public presentation or “metrics” could use to all houses and that in pattern many such steps are related. They suggested some consumer trade name equity prosodies as:

“Intermediate” ( includes top-line gross revenues, bottom line, consciousness, cognition, relevancy, perceived quality etc. ) ; “Behaviour” ( trueness, portion of class demands, figure of clients gained and lost, new leads, redemption rates, direct selling responses ) and “Competitive” ( portion of market, portion of voice, relative/actual/measured quality, comparative satisfaction/intention to purchase ) . Clearly, there can be many steps or combination of steps which sellers could make up one’s mind to include. Indeed, Feldwick has argued that when measuring the wellness of a individual there is no individual “health” mark but instead a set of steps which are used to qualitatively assess wellness. Taking this analogy farther, we would reason that the steps that are relevant will depend on the fortunes of the individual. For case, their age ( merchandise life rhythm? ) , history and life outlooks – what could be expected given the environment in which the individual has lived ( market history, conventions and prognosiss ) and most significantly their psychological wellbeing. In the latter instance, one might analyze the extent to which a individual has a set of nucleus values that are “healthy” . Are they consistent within themselves and with the communities in which the individual lives and plants? Is their look optimal? The analogues with trade name kernel research and trade name edifice are subjects this paper will turn to in peculiar.

The attack taken in this paper is that constructing trade name equity in marketing instead than accounting footings is about beef uping a trade name in the head and bosom of the consumer. To accomplish this, selling research can assist specify how this might be achieved, screen marketing programmes before they are implemented and so measure their effectivity one time executed.

The construct of trade name equity is non new. Certain planetary trade names in the drinks market have, for long, been successful as “global entities” in their ain right, projecting strong cultural individualities or what they stand for, e.g. Coca Cola and Johnny Walker which had the slogan “born 1870 and still traveling strong” . The best known Seagram trade names include Chivas Regal whiskey, the Glenlivet malt whiskey, Mumm bubbly, Martell Cognac and Sandeman port and sherry. Better known in the drinks industry for its production and selling of distilled liquors, vinos, ice chests, beers, sociables and fruit juices in over 150 states, Seagram besides has investings in the music and amusement industries.

The illustration of Chivas Regal draws from old treatment about market research ( Nancarrow et al. , 1998 ) . Chivas Regal is Seagram ‘s unequivocal luxury Scotch whiskey from Strathisla, the oldest operating distillery in Scotland, founded in 1786. From its beginnings as a whiskey consumed by members of the aristocracy and aristocracy in Scotland it is now sold across the universe to “discriminating whisky drinkers” . Harmonizing to Kapferer ( 1992 ) , successful trade name development should take history of the familial design and nucleus values of a trade name. However, trade name edifice must besides see the more peripheral, frequently local, properties of an international trade name. Sellers can therefore seek to maximize the entreaties of their trade names through selling communicating methods in planetary markets, with these rules in head.

As a premium trade name, Seagram ‘s Chivas Regal is advertised and promoted to be positioned as a luxury trade name in the heads of consumers. The placement and investing in consolidating this have been consistent across states. The designs of local advertisement runs in the yesteryear, hence, had to run into specific planetary trade name standards to keep consistence in footings of consumer perceptual experiences. The nucleus values of the trade name should be cardinal to the creative activity of the design for all selling communications. However, while it is one thing to keep the position that nucleus values should stand for the kernel of a truly planetary trade name which could be “transported” across the universe, it is possible that the hunt for common values may be misunderstood by local direction as a hunt for the lowest common denominator, perchance taking to blandness of attack. At Seagram, planetary direction avoided this by a procedure of full audience with their regional and local markets direction squads.

It is besides non ever easy for administrations to guarantee that their messages to consumers are interpreted by them in the ways in which such administrations had intended. For Seagram it was of import to acquire it right and to present advertisement messages every bit efficaciously as possible to consumers. The “consultation processes” with consumers in the pre-testing research on imperativeness advertisement would understate the hazard of deformation every bit good as contribute up-to-date information about consumer demands and wants.

The writer used explorative method with the usage of qualitative research attack. Exploratory research is normally conducted to clear up and specify the nature of a job.

The writer presented in a good manner and he mentioned each and every corner of this research paper. He presented with good mention. The writer mentioned qualitative techniques. But merely the 1 defects is non a deep paper

Writer presented with the aid of a tabular array and a graph


In this research paper writer selected trade name is non suited for this research paper because spirits merchandises are a different class. In my sentiment spirits merchandises are addicted merchandises peoples are choosing merely in the base of dependence non for branding

sense. The writer mentioned two type of proving portion one is pre-testing and another one is post-testing it shows that communicating consequence and gross revenues consequence


In this research paper writer presented in a different manner and different type of attack. Any manner this is a good research paper but small spot defects like the writer dressed ore merely a peculiar trade name. In my sentiment this trade name is non suited for research of trade name equity because intoxicant is a merchandise but peoples are purchasing to the dependence of intoxicant. In this research writer more dressed ore about the proficient portion and research portion.


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