Credit risk management in the Nigerian banking industry


Recognition hazard direction reduces the debitors risk in the market value, measuring the recognition policy and supervising the credits in non-financial or fiscal organisations.

The banking industry in Nigeria has lost big sum of money as a consequence of the turning sour of recognition exposures and taken involvement rate place. This research is presented to sketch, happen, look into and describe different province of techniques in hazard direction industry. Nigerian Bankss are been required by the market because of their competency to supply dealing efficiency, market cognition and support capableness. To execute these function, the Bankss acts as the most of import participant in this dealing procedure of which they uses their ain balance sheet to do it easier and doing certain that its associated hazard is absorbed. The research worker conducted a site visit to reexamine the hazard direction system and seting in order the procedure necessary to measure the hazard since loans is the highest or beginning of recognition hazard and bank demands to keep adequate capital against this hazards.

The Central Bank of Nigeria established a Credit act in 1990 which empowered bank to render returns to the recognition hazard direction system in regard of all its clients with aggregative outstanding debit balance of one million naira and supra, this makes Nigerian Bankss to universally embarked in upgrading their control system and hazard direction because these coinciding activity is recognized as the industry physiological failing to fiscal hazard. The research company in New York-based said that 40 % of Nigerian Bankss that makes up exchange rate ‘s value in West Africa has reduced the operating loaning as a consequence of bad debt which hits more than $ 10 billion in 2009 and this leads to a tied up oppugning plus that is keeping about half of Nigerian Bankss. The cardinal bank of Nigeria fired eight head executive officers and sets aside $ 4.1 billion in order to bail out about 10 state ‘s loaners. The reform which was introduced by Central Bank of Nigeria ( CBN ) in 2010 will makes Nigerian Bankss resume imparting ; support plus ‘s direction companies and put up demand which will let Nigerian Bankss make full proviso for bad debts that will hike the market.


The Bankss identified the being of destructive debitors in the banking system whose method involved non reacting their debt duties in some Bankss and attempts to hold contract of new debts in other Bankss. Banks seeking to do the database of recognition hazard direction system more unfastened in Bankss for it to be more operation and recognized which will enable Bankss to ask or render statutory returns on borrowers. there are some banking patterns which increase the hazards in the bank and can non be easy changed, this consequence still leads to the inquiry, what are the possible ways that will assist do Nigerian Bankss manage their recognition hazards? .

Recognition hazard direction helps recognition expert to cognize when to accept a recognition applier to avoid destructing the Bankss repute and doing determinations in order to research ineluctable recognition hazard which gives more net income. Controling a hazard consequences to encouraging wagess that gives internal audit more proficient support service and offers customized preparation in Bankss or fiscal establishments.


The chief aim of this survey is detecting the intent and presenting different direction actions sing recognition hazard direction. Besides analysing and measuring the pattern of recognition hazard direction in Nigerian Bankss by beef uping the recognition assessment processs of Bankss, hive awaying of recognition day of the month, monitoring of over exposure to borrowers, easing credits categorization systematically and extinguishing inappropriate categorization of a client ‘s loan. To hold a utile recognition hazard appraisal, it ‘s necessary to understand that there is no pick that is to the full right or utile in the nonsubjective standard, instead it is a affair of single, economic and corporate judgement filled with behavioural and psychological traits.


The cardinal intent is to help Nigerian Bankss improve their liquidness and capital place in future Looss on troubled assets. Banks demands to hold holistic processs for recognition hazard direction in order to cover overall preparation of recognition scheme, disposal, recognition inception, control, measuring, hazard reappraisal procedure and processs for recognition direction jobs. ( Ogunwusi,2010 )

A Hazard which is controlled leads to honor that provides independent hazard direction consultancy, offers proficient support service for internal Audit and provides customized preparation solutions for Bankss, developing establishment and fiscal establishments. ( Risk Reward limited,2010 )

Recognition hazard is the decrease of hazard in the market value as a consequence of recognition quality alterations of a debitor and Credit direction is the procedure of puting recognition appraisal, policy and recognition monitoring in both non-financial and fiscal organisation. ( Schmid,2004, pg1 )

A recognition act was established in 1990 which gives Bankss the power in the system of recognition hazard direction to render returns to their clients since it ‘s the failing of banking industry to fiscal hazard. A research company based in New-York 40 % of Nigerian Banks decreased their loaning operation as a consequence of loss of $ 10 billion in 2009 which leads to the bagging of eight Nigerian bank directors. The Central Bank governor is expected to take serious steps in order to guarantee conformity with all coverage ordinances which will assist policy execution effectual. A Nigerian economic expert said that the planetary economic crisis chiefly in Nigerian banking industry dropped public trust, assurance, exposed big graduated table failing in the fiscal sector and pushed down bank loan rating really low. ( Obinna, August2009 )

Recognition hazard direction enables Bankss to understand the basic rule or information which underlines hazard recognition rating and utilizing this rule to set about an analysis of fiscal and non-financial hazard when fixing a proposal. ( Fight,2004, pg194 )

A Banks that is concern about recognition hazard requires strong collateral provided by their clients as security for the loan and this security could be either current or fixed assets. A recognition director supports and proctors their client ‘s delinquent payment by pulling up an outstanding agenda to sort histories receivable by the length of clip. ( Brealey/Myers/Marcus, 2009, pg539 & A ; 565 )

For the 2020 aspiration to be achieve, it is necessary to develop Nigerians capital markets for economic hereafter growing. ( Blaauw,2009 )

CRM explains when a recognition expert decides when to state “ yes ” to a recognition applier based on the applicant credit-worthiness without endangering the banking industry repute. ( pg280 ) .

it besides emphasis recognition hazard nature, possible cost, researching ineluctable hazard as recognition which is granted in order to do more net income and determination to be taken when recognition hazard is excessively high. ( pg105 & A ; 125 ) . ( Schaffer,2000 )

The recognition hazard direction provides a platform which Bankss used to construct their ain unique gauging theoretical account. It besides helps professionals to advice on specific loan rating jobs and overall direction inputs. ( Credit Risk Management, L.L.C,1989 ) .Descriptive method of research harmonizing to Creswell is a method used in order to garner information on the bing present status. Creswell ( 1994 ) .

The most common method used for roll uping research of primary informations is through appraising. ( Commonwealth of Learning, 2000 ) .

financial-system-strategy 2020 ( FSS-2020 ) is needed to construct Africa ‘s hub and international fiscal Centre as a long-strategy. Name for constructive and unfastened duologue could assist to cut down the hazard in Nigerian banking system

( Soludo,2009 )

The acceptance of Basel II or SAP model programs in Bankss, either by voluntarily or mandate, the terminal consequence of that Bankss is that it will assist to better hazard direction by apportioning regulative capital, supplying a standardize unfastened coverage platform maps, managing decently wide scope of plus type, allowing the ciphering recognition hazard methods will be supported. ( SAP-AG,2006 )


What kinds of hazards are being absorbed?

What are the grounds why Bankss manage this hazard?

How to command recognition hazards in banking industries?

What are the proper hazard direction techniques and tools to use?

Is it necessary for people to purchase an insurance contract so as to protect themselves from larceny?


The research worker illustrates this research utilizing primary and secondary informations to see, study, observes and interprets the job of recognition hazard direction.

Primary-data involves Mean, median, standard divergence, correlativity and arrested development. These are the tools or technique of recognition analysis used to better the effectivity of fiscal establishment balance-sheet, demoing better ways on how recognition hazards are manage under realistic and competitory conditions and measuring new concern, borrower ‘s direction and industries. Its besides used to demo how recognition hazard modern attack has changed the economic sciences of recognition in order to keep planetary stableness and accomplish more profitable net incomes in the fiscal markets. ( Colquitt, 2007 )

In Secondary-data, the research worker uses SWOT analysis to order the strength, failing, chance and the menaces in order to plan effectual schemes used in pull offing the hazard and conceive of the different sorts of fiscal hazards which will do them avoid any loses that may originate. ( Diebold, Doherty and Herring,2010 ) .


These are the techniques in which hazard direction are employed in a banking sector. It starts by reciting the hazard chosen to pull off by banking industry and explicating the process which is applied in that country. Hazard is broken into different classs which include

Credit-Risk: It is the unwillingness or inability mode to carry through a pre-committed contract and it is expected value divergence of portfolio public presentation.

Liquidity-Risk: it is expressed as the possible support crisis of hazard and the direction hazard is centres on portfolio construction and liquidness installations.

Counterparty hazard: this is the non-performance of trading spouse which refuse to execute as a consequence of unfavourable monetary value motion that is caused consistently.

Operational hazard: it is connected with the jobs of accurate scene, processing and doing trade bringing in exchange for hard currency.

Legal hazard: it is the legal branchings of operational, recognition and counterparty hazard in instance of latter experience in fiscal loss.


Risk Management Department ensures that this agreement covers the following effectual direction of Market, Credit, liquidness and operational hazards countries this includes:

I ) Constitution of processs and systems that relates to put on the line measuring, designation, monitoring and control of investing, loans and early warning.

two ) Establishing boundaries which ensures that hazard remains by the Board.

three ) Guaranting that line of concern complies with hazard prudential and parametric quantities bounds developed by the Board. four ) Measuring remedial to turn to identified jobs and lacks.

V ) Testing emphasis of the recognition portfolio and Risk coverage.


Previous research workers realized that there are two intents in which banking industry manage their recognition ; to diminish the loan of loans ( bad debts ) as a consequence of defaults in credits and heightening the involvement income ( profitableness ) .

( Sim,2006 ) .

Better recognition hazard direction in Bankss leads to take down loss on loans ( non-performing loan ) . The placeholder for bespeaking recognition hazard direction is profitableness ( ROA, ROE ) .


The research undertakings works-out as a consequence of the research inquiries with the undermentioned hypothesis:


Appropriateness of hazard direction and selling scheme has no consequence significantly to the advancement of medium and little Enterprises in Nigeria.


Marketing schemes sing consumers perceptual experience has no relationship significantly to the advancement of medium and little Enterprises in Nigeria.


Primary and secondary informations will besides be used and is to assist the reader understand the different variables and issues that is involve in this research. Surveying public directors is a common signifier of collection of primary informations. its intents is to depict and analyse the frequence of some event in order to measure the pattern of recognition hazard direction or other similar nature of information.

Secondary informations beginning helps to construe qualitative nature by reexamining old research works, magazines, diaries, books and newspapers.


The survey will aim 50 directors of different Bankss in Nigeria. The sample will be selected indiscriminately from the list of banking industry in Nigeria.


These statistics formulas is used to analyse informations consequence in order to find their corresponding per centum, frequence and leaden mean.

1. The Percentage is used to find the magnitude of questionnaire ‘s response.


% = — — — — — ten 100 ; n responses figure

N N respondent ‘s entire figure

2. Weighted Average

f1x1 + f2x2 + f3x3 + f4x4 + f5x5

ten = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ; f weight of each response given

crosstalk ten responses figure

crosstalk responses entire figure



Roll uping and doing up information on the subject = 500

Telephone Bill = $ 1,000

Hotel fees = $ 4,000

Traveling to 8 Nigerian Banks = $ 15,000

Entire = $ 20,500


A maximal clip is required to show this proposal and it is hard to garner all the available information within a period of six hebdomads. The secondary informations that is gotten from the cyberspace, magazine or diaries could be inaccurate which may misdirect this proposal information.


Developing Nigeria ‘s capital markets is of import to the economic hereafter growing, to construct international fiscal Centre which will besides assist to accomplish the aspirations and fiscal system scheme in the twelvemonth 2020. Sound market hazard direction patterns being is decisive to advance the assurance of investors for capital market development. Regulators of the Nigerian fiscal system should take a lead function on market direction hazard demands for execution by fiscal establishments and Bankss as a national precedence.

The main hazard officer that adopts the application of Basel II or SAP model either by free will or important order will assist in developing recognition hazard direction and reduces any opportunities of loan hazard in Bankss.