This chapter will concentrate three major constructs of this thesis, which is state of origin consequence, merchandise quality, and merchandise rating. In this portion, academy literatures and concern empirical of state of origin effects will be reviewed in order to hold a closer expression on the association between state of origin consequence and merchandise quality rating. The chapter will show a figure of critical contemplations on the two constructs, straight and indirectly. This portion will besides seek to place the feature of these critical literatures and particular attending will be given to the intoxicant drink related state of origin researches.
More peculiarly, this portion will take a closer expression at Malayan consumer behavior in order to hold better understanding Malayan consumers ‘ merchandise rating on the one manus and their attitude towards developed and developing states on the other. In the first case, the research will roll up secondary informations from cyberspace, diary, book and newspapers to continue the research, state of beginning, state image, consumer behavior, merchandise rating, trade name image were found related to aim of the research and the writer will restrict the focal point on these facets while all articles and books selected are related to these facets.
The construct and theories of state of origin effects will be mentioned in this chapter briefly. Some of the of import feature of state of origin effects will be expressed while a few critical contemplations on state of origin surveies will be described. The writer will seek to turn out Malayan consumers use state of beginning as an of import cue for intoxicant merchandise rating prior purchasing determination. However, the relationship between state of origin consequence and medicated spirits remained undiscovered as no direct literature can be referred. A sum-up will be presented sum up for this chapter.
2.2 General View of Country of Origin Effectss
The survey of state of origin consequence can be traced back to 1960s, an empirical survey conducted by Schooler ( 1965 ) for 200 pupils in Guatemala and found that consumer will measure merchandise harmonizing to its state of beginning label when all the merchandises properties are similar in all facets. In 1970s, Nagashima ( 1970 ) has defined the state of beginning phenomenon as “ the image, the repute, and the stereotype that business communities and consumers attach to merchandises of a specific state ” . This construct has been supported by other bookmans ‘ researches ( Parameswaran and Yaprak, 1987 ; Han, 1989 ; Samiee, 1994 ) , that is, how consumers perceive merchandise sourced from peculiar state and how the information pertaining where the merchandise is made influence consumers ‘ rating, attitude and purchase purpose.
After the findings of Schooler and Nagashima, many state of origin consequence survey conducted by research workers from different states of all time since. Past researches which have examined the state of beginning in the signifier of merchandise types and property ( e.g. Nagashima, 1970 ; Han, 1989 ; Roth and Romeo, 1992 ; Watson and Wright, 2000 ; Laroche et al. , 2005 ; Chryssochoidis et al. , 2007 ) , trade name image ( e.g. Gaedeke, 1973 ; Feng and Xie, 2006 ; Hui and Zhou,2003, Kuobaa, 2008 ) , trade name equity ( e.g. Pappu et al.,2006 ; ) , repute ( e.g. Maronick,1995 ; Lyden, 2005 ; Leonidou, 2007 ; Torres and Gutierrez, 2007 ) , purchase purpose ( e.g. Piron, 2000 ; Vesile, 2008 ) , monetary value ( e.g. Dodds et al. , 1991 ; Chen, 2004 ; Fan, 2007 ) , merchandise quality and life rhythm ( e.g. Bilkey and Nes, 1982 ; Niss, 1996 ; Thakor and Lavack, 2003 ) every bit good as information ( e.g. Hong and Wyer, 1989 ; Liefeld, 2004 ; Paswan and Sharma, 2004 ) from house hold consumer and organisation purchasers.
Much of the surveies indicated that state of origin consequence influence consumers ‘ merchandise rating. Consumers weigh the merchandise based on information and single experience before purchase determination. Obviously, it is considered that most of the research workers agreed that consumer usage state of beginning to pigeonhole merchandise from peculiar state ( Bilkey and Nes, 1982 ; Erickson et al. , 1984 ; Wall et Al, 1991 ; Roth and Romeo, 1992 ) . Researchers believe consumers use single subjective penchant to measure merchandise quality instead than impersonal cognition and information on the merchandise. Therefore, state of origin image can be considered as a really of import extrinsic cue for consumers during the merchandise rating procedure. Consumers ‘ perceptual experience towards a merchandise ‘s state of beginning can act upon their purchase determination.
More loosely, Country of beginning has been developed as “ Halo consequence ” and “ drumhead consequence ” ( Han, 1989 ) . It besides partitioned into cues such as “ state of industry ” , “ state of design ” , “ state of assembly ” and “ state of trade name ” ( Chao, 1993 ; Ulgado and Lee, 1993 ; Roger et al. , 1994 ) . Researchers besides found that state of beginning had been used as an extrinsic cue that acts as a hazard mitigant or quality cue for consumers, peculiarly when it is non easy to measure the intrinsic value of a merchandise ( Samiee, 1994 ; Thorelli et al. , 1989 ; Cordell, 1992 ) . Based on the development mentioned on the above, definition of state of beginning can be interpreted as “ any influence that the state of industry, assembly, or design has on a consumer ‘s positive or negative perceptual experience of a merchandise ” ( Insch and McBride, 1998 ) .
For clients who have limited merchandise cognition and less engagement of the merchandise information, they frequently make simple and speedy judgement about merchandise quality on the footing of extrinsic cues, which including state of beginning. State of origin image helps them to simplify the purchase determination procedure and cut down purchase determination hazard, so that easier for them to do “ a subjectively sensible determination ” when they have no experience or information with the merchandise ( Muhlbacher et al. , 2006 ) . However, when consumer are educated and be informed, state of origin consequence will be cut down and go weak ( Czinkota and Ronkinen, 2004 ) . This is because there are so many trade names in the market and when the merchandise is unknown, doing determination is hard and painful ( Pfister, 2003 ) . Some consumers are preferred to utilize “ short cut ” as cardinal mention for purchasing determination ( Duhan, 1999 ; Chaney, 2002 ) . State of beginning has been used as a cue to assist consumers to cut down disagreement during the buying advancement and being an index for merchandise quality ( Lockshin and Rhodus, 1993 ; Lascu and Babb, 1995 ) every bit good as to take down purchase hazard ( Akaah and Korgaonkar, 1988 ) .
Consumers evaluate a merchandise on the footing of intrinsic and extrinsic cues ( Bilkey and Nes, 1982 ) . However, when consumers ‘ merchandise cognition is limited and unable to measure merchandise quality by intrinsic cues, extrinsic cues, for case, state of beginning, trade name name, and monetary value ; will be used as cardinal mention on quality rating. The determination of usage of state of beginning as major extrinsic is consistent with Ahmed and Johnson ‘s ( 2004 ) survey. However, when the merchandise information is accessible and equal, where the merchandise manufactured is does n’t count ( Erickson et al. , 1984 ) .
Furthermore, difference degree of merchandise cognition or merchandise experience will act upon or bias consumer ‘s purchase purpose ( Park and Lessig, 1981 ) . It was found that when consumer are non familiar with a state ‘s merchandise, state of origin image will function as a ” Halo Effect ” to consumers to deduce merchandise properties and influence merchandise ‘s their trade name attributes indirectly. However, when consumers are familiar with a merchandise from peculiar state, state image will de served as a “ Concept ” so that they will sum up their belief towards merchandise properties and straight affects their trade name attitude ( Han, 1990 ) .
Brand from states that holding favorable image are by and large good accepted by consumers compare to those from less favorable states. A positive national image can cut down cost of selling and a hapless national image may multiple the cost of operation ( Ramo Cooper, 2007 ) . However, if a trade name is strong plenty, the influence of the state of origin effects may be able to dominate ( Ahmed and d’Astous, 1993 ) .
However, some consumers tend to hold or bias about merchandise and states that have been influenced by rumors, myths, subjective perceptual experience and personal experience ( Cateora and Graham, 2002 ) . Particularly when information or quality of merchandise is unavailable or unknown, consumer ‘s rating toward merchandise will based on information that they guess, know and remember ( Monroe and Lee, 1999 ) .
At the point of purchase, consumer demands merchandise cognition, information, and experience to be able to measure merchandise quality. When merchandise cognition, information, and experience about a merchandise are limited, state of beginning is more likely to be taken as a cardinal mention for merchandise rating. Literatures have identified that the linkage between merchandise rating and state of origin consequence is tend to be direct and strong.
Scholars found that developed states are holding a positive state image, while merchandises made in less developed states were non evaluated as quality merchandises ( Schooler, 1965 ) . A positive state image will act upon consumer to do a favorable rating on a merchandise from the peculiar state. In concept, the images of developing states are comparatively hapless. A negative state image will convey a negative message on consumers ‘ merchandise rating, so that stereotype or prejudice is created. In other word, when a peculiar state ‘s state image is going more singular, no affair positive or negative, consumers are more easy to bring forth a correlativity between a merchandise made by the state and its state image. If consumers accepted quality or public presentation of a merchandise from peculiar state, they will widen their single perceptual experience or subjective perceptual experience to other merchandises made by the same state.
2.3 Malayan Consumer Behaviour and Country of Origin Effectss
Research workers in the country of international selling have suggested that state of beginning has influence consumers ‘ merchandises rating ( Bilkey and Nes, 1982 ; Samiee, 1994 ) . However, does state of origin effects affair in a underdeveloped state such as Malaysia? Studies had found that state of beginning has important effects in both less developed and developing state such as Bangladesh, China and Malaysia ( Rahman, 2001 ; kaynak et. Al. 2000 ; Sohail, 2005 ; Balestrini and Gamble, 2006 ; Yasin et al. , 2007, Ghazali, 2008 ) . Some surveies show that state of beginning does non transform to buy purposes ( e.g. Rahman, 2001 ) , other surveies indicated that consumer wage much more purpose to state of beginning when they purchase merchandises for particular juncture ( e.g. Balestrini and Gamble, 2006 ; Ghazali, 2008 ) .
It is reported that Country of origin consequence significantly influenced consumers ‘ perceptual experience of merchandise in less developed state such as Bangladesh. Less developed states ‘ consumers by and large perceived that merchandises from developed state is stand for good quality and merchandises from developing states will be seen as less desirable in quality ( Rahman, 2001 ; kaynak et. al. , 2000 ) . Indeed, the impact of state of beginning on Malayan consumers ‘ perceptual experience of merchandise has non been widely study until the recent old ages. Several researches from Arab Saudi and Malaysia have extended their attempt to hold a clear image of state of origin consequence towards Malayan consumers in measuring merchandise from different state beginnings.
Is state of origin of import towards Malayan consumers ‘ purchase purpose? Studies had shown that Malayan consumers are more likely to utilize the state of beginning of a merchandise as a cue when they evaluate cars ( Sohail, 2005 ) . Malaysia consumers tend to utilize different beginnings of information for merchandise rating, such as newspaper and telecasting. Malayan consumers are more likely to utilize the beginning of a merchandise as a cue for measuring merchandises from different states based on different merchandise dimensions ( Sohail, 2005 ) . Malayan consumers have different penchants for merchandise based on state of beginning. It is reflected that Malayan consumers accepted quality or public presentation of a merchandise from peculiar state, for case, German auto is perceived as good quality. Malayan consumers are believed will widen their single perceptual experience or subjective perceptual experience to other merchandises made by the same state ( Sohail, 2005 ) . These findings is consistent with Han ‘s ( 1989 ) “ Halo effects ” .
Similar to Sohail ( 2005 ) , another state of origin consequence survey conducted by Ghazali et Al. ( 2008 ) had indicated that Malayan consumers attach the state of origin information to the quality of a merchandise. They are inclined to impute higher quality to merchandise made in developed states. State of beginning would be considered as an of import cue during Malayan consumers ‘ purchase determination. It is believed that Malayan consumers believe development of societal and economic system determine the quality of a merchandise. However, the mean Malayan consumers are non likely to take state of beginning as cue to help purchase determination devising as other merchandise properties take precedency, such as quality, monetary value and engineering. ( Ghazali et al. , 2008 ) . This is because Malayan consumers are considered really monetary value medium. They are more concerned with the monetary value instead than the quality and public presentation of the merchandise. However, when all merchandise attributes become similar and less differential, they may take state of beginning as a cue to judge the quality of a merchandise. The research besides found that Malayan believe developed states are holding a positive state image and the images of developing states are comparatively hapless. They prefer merchandise produced in developed states instead than developing and less developed states. This is consistent with Schooler ‘s ( 1965 ) findings.
Apart from taking state of beginning as individual cue, Yasin et Al. ( 2007 ) survey Malaysian ‘s perceptual experience toward state of beginning in different manner. They attempt to research the effects of trade name ‘s state of origin image on the formation of trade name equity. Their survey had argued that state of beginning is holding important influence on trade name trueness and trade name awareness/associations, which mean state of beginning dramas an of import function in Malayan consumers ‘ purchase determination, peculiarly those states with positive image helps make positive attitude towards the trade name. Yasin et Al. ( 2007 ) findings have given a strong support to Sohail ( 2005 ) and Ghazali et Al. ( 2008 ) .
However, there is no direct research of state of origin effects on intoxicant drink conducted in Malaysia. Although the surveies mentioned on the above has drawn a clear image on Malayan consumers ‘ perceptual experience of state of origin effects, but experiment merchandises are limited to industrial merchandises such as family electrical contraptions, electronic devices and cars, intoxicant drink merchandise, particularly medicated spirits are no included. Due to religion ground, the research workers mentioned on the above are Muslims. They are excessively sensitive to research “ non-halal ” points. Therefore whether state of origin effects may act upon medicated spirits would greatly depend on how good the non-Muslim consumers realize the effects of state of beginning when buying medicated spirits. This research therefore to research Malayan Chinese consumers ‘ medicated spirits buying behaviors and look intoing the consequence of state of beginning on they liquor choice ratings.
2.4 Alcohol Attributes and Country of Origin Effectss
As mentioned on the old subdivision, the consequence of state of beginning on medicated spirits has non been examined in the concern and selling literature yet. However, two of the intoxicant merchandises, ruddy vino and beers, has been experimented by few research workers ( e.g. Balestrini and Gamble, 2006 ; Li et al. , 2006 ; Wang et al. , 2006, Schaefer, 1997 ) . These empirical surveies shown that state of beginning can impact alcohol merchandise consumer ‘s perceptual experience of a merchandise ‘s quality. In add-on, consumers ‘ attitudes toward a intoxicant drink merchandises and their purchase purposes were influenced by state of origin effects significantly. Although state of origin effects on vinos and beers have non direct relation with medicated spirits, nevertheless there are considered as really good empirical mention for this thesis.
When consumers buy merchandise they are non merely purchasing the simple functional facet a merchandise offer, there are other complexnesss involved in the purchase ( Baines et al. , 2008 ) . Consumers may change their knowledge towards different merchandises from same state ( Halfhill, 1980 ; Han and Terpstra, 1988 ) . For illustration, consumer esteem Gallic manner as really high quality merchandises, nevertheless they may non make the same rating on Gallic electronic merchandises. This is because of influence of merchandise properties are playing a critical function in the interaction between the state of origin image.
In footings of intoxicant drink merchandise, gustatory sensation, quality and the image of drink is the major concerned for Chinese consumers ( USDA, 1998 ) . Surveies conducted by USDA ( 1998, 2005 ) indicated that intoxicant drink purchases by Chinese autumn mostly into two classs: private place ingestion or gift purchases. Historically, spirits and vino have played a critical function in Chinese society and civilization ( USDA, 2008 ) .
When taking an intoxicant drink as gift for particular juncture, Chinese consumers are by and large concern about its societal and gratitude value as this largely presented to relations and friends every bit good as concern spouses for intents of physique up good relationship or to demo off. A wine surveies conducted by Yang ( 1989 ) showed that Chinese consumers buy a merchandise for its societal, symbolic value. In other words, gift giving is a extent of “ Guanxi ” or “ relationship ” , which is refers to bring forthing or constructing strategic connexion or bringing of committedness between two parties ( Yan, 1996 ; Mauss, 1954 ) .
In footings of buying of intoxicant drink, researches shown that merchandise attributes synergistic with country-of-origin image significantly. Balesttrini and Gamble ( 2006 ) indicates that Chinese wine purchasers attach much more importance to state of origin information when vino is purchased for particular occasions instead than private ingestion. The research besides showed that state of origin information is much more of import than the monetary value whilst somewhat more of import than the trade name when consumers measuring wine quality. Their findings are supported by Wang et Al. ( 2006 ) as they found state of beginning and monetary value influenced Chinese consumers ‘ vino rating significantly. Another surveies conducted by Li et Al. ( 2006 ) besides confirmed that Chinese clients consider state of beginning as the most of import factor in their vino rating when single-cue is applied. In add-on, the survey indicated that state of beginning is more of import than trade name as a wine quality index for merchandise rating. It is playing an of import as good when Chinese consumers measuring vino for spring giving than ain ingestion ( Li et al. , 2006 ) .
In general, state of origin image is of import than other cues such as monetary value for drink rating before a purchase determination. It is true that medicated spirits is different from vino, but medicated spirits is similar to wine as its quality merely accessible after ingestion ( Chaney, 2000 ) . Medicated spirits is hard to be accessed in presentation anterior purchase, therefore consumers must trust on extrinsic cues, such as worth and mouth communicating, trade name name, advertizement or state of origin image ( Balesttrini and Gamble, 2006 ) . USDA ( 1998, 2009 ) and Chaney ( 2000 ) indicated that the country-of-origin of vinos can besides be a cardinal component in impacting consumer decision-marketing.
Malayan are sharing similar gift giving civilization with the mainland Chinese. Medicated spirits is one the of import point of Malayan gift giving civilization as it enjoys an ever-growing repute as a sophisticated, high-end merchandise that should be indulged in as portion of a modern, healthy and flush life style. It is besides refers to wishing people being in good wellness and express good wants for long life. This thesis suggested that Malayan consumers ‘ behavior and merchandise attitude towards medicated spirits may be similar to Chinese consumers ‘ behavior and merchandise attitudes towards vino. Thus this research proposes that state of origin effects may act upon Malaysian medicated liquor consumers on merchandise quality rating when they purchase the merchandise for societal juncture or ego ingestion.
2.5 Product Evaluation and Country of Origin effects
State of beginning is believed has positively influence consumer ‘s perceptual experience of merchandise quality ( Han and Terpstra, 1988 ) . Consumers ‘ position of state of beginning is equated to attitudes towards merchandise ratings ( Nagashima, 1970 ) . In bing literature, there are a batch of surveies on the common consequence of merchandise rating and state of origin consequence. Questions related to relationship between merchandise quality and country-of-origin effects have been approached in deepness ( Wall et al. 1991 ; Ahmed and d’Astous, 1993 ; Ettenson et al. , 1988 ; Hastak and Hong, 1991 ) . It seems widely accepted that quality perceptual experience and country-of-origin are correlated and as major mention factors for consumer anterior purchase determination when they are unable to pull off true information of unknown merchandises.
Past researches besides found that state of origin effects influence consumers ‘ penchant otherwise in the instance of high and low engagement merchandises ( Saffu and Scott, 2009 ) . Consumer will trust on state of beginning cue when measuring low engagement merchandise than measuring a high engagement merchandise ( Schaefer, 1997 ) .
Quality perceptual experience was besides directed affected by state image. When a state ‘s image includes a strong effectual constituent, its direct influence on merchandise rating is stronger than its influence on merchandise beliefs. Alternatively, when a state ‘s image has a strong cognitive constituent, its direct influence on merchandise ratings is smaller than its influence on merchandise beliefs ( Laroche et al. , 2005 ) . In other words, the construction of state image influences merchandise ratings both straight and indirectly through merchandise beliefs ( Laroche et al. , 2005 ) . For case, U.S. consumers are willing to pay more for made-in-USA merchandises over Chinese merchandises across 11 merchandise classs and they willing to pay premium to the merchandises from developed state instead than less developed state. This is because consumers feel that merchandises and trade names from developed states with good image are more dependable than trade names and merchandises manufactured by developing states with less favorable image ( Drozdenko and Fensen, 2009 ) . A survey behavior by Quester et Al. ( 2000 ) on Australian and New Zealand buying agents besides shown similar phenomenon, that is, state of beginning was found to act upon merchandise quality perceptual experiences. When the buying agents beginning merchandises internationally, state of design and state of assembly information will act upon them in judging quality.
On the other manus, gender group and income group besides plays of import function in perceptual experience of state of origin consequence towards merchandise quality. Hoffmann ( 2000 ) conducted a research on state of origin consequence toward Swedish consumers ‘ perceptual experience towards fresh meat. A really interesting determination of the survey is that, adult females use state of beginning as a quality cue than work forces in footings of measuring nutrient quality and nutrient safety. Furthermore, the survey found that consumers with low incomes tend to utilize state of beginning more extensively than consumers with high incomes. For those high incomes group, a merchandise ‘s state of beginning has a stronger consequence when sing luxury merchandises ( Piron, 2000 ) .
Some determination in the extant literature indicated that merchandise rating besides affected by state of beginning through merchandise information and consumer cognition. When merchandise information is clear and accessible, consumers who have experience with a merchandise will measure the merchandise based on the merchandise ‘s information. When consumers have limited information about the merchandise, state of beginning will be taken every bit critical cue for merchandise quality rating ( Maheswaran, 1994 ) .
Han ( 1989 ) modelled state of origin image and beliefs as operation independently on merchandise attitudes, depending on the consumer ‘s cognition province. Previous research concluded that when consumers have high degree of merchandise cognition, pigeonholing will non be used by them as a cue for merchandise rating as they understand the quality of the merchandise really good ( Alab and Hutchinson, 1987 ; Rao and Monroe, 1988 ) . Therefore, intrinsic cues will be used for quality rating, while influence of state of origin consequence is weak. Schaefer ( 1997 ) has conducted a research to look into how knowledge affects consumers ‘ usage of state of beginning in measuring an alcoholic drink. It is indicated that trade name acquaintance and nonsubjective merchandise cognition has important influence on usage of state of beginning cue in merchandise ratings. In add-on, merchandise state cognition can increase consumers ‘ trust on state of beginning in judging a merchandise.
However, pigeonholing procedure will impact consumers ‘ rating of merchandises when consumers ‘ merchandise cognition is missing while other product-specific information is non easy available. Therefore, extrinsic cues will be taken as cardinal mention and influence of state of beginning will go strong. In other words, consumers may see state of beginning as of import cue for their merchandise rating when they are non familiar with the merchandise classs and are less involved with the merchandise they are measuring ( Jpsiassen et al. 2008 ) . Furthermore, Chattalas ( 2008 ) findings supported Alab and Hutchinson ( 1987 ) and Rao and Monroe ( 1988 ) statements. His survey shows that computing machine expert or extremely computing machine scientific discipline knowing consumers were found to utilize a state hierarchy but placed a greater importance on trade name name and quality. Computer novitiates are more relied on state of origin image and used the trade name name to antagonize a hapless state image. This statement besides supported by Schaefer ( 1997 ) survey.
However, a few research workers do non hold with the statement of state of origin influence merchandise rating. Wong et Al. ( 2008 ) conducted a research on the consequence of state of origin subcomponents ( e.g. design, assembly and parts ) on immature Chinese consumers with sing to merchandise quality and purchase purpose. He found that state of beginning did non act upon immature Chinese consumers ‘ rating of merchandise quality or purchase purposes because they perceive a intercrossed merchandise with multiple states of beginning beginnings as a norm for high engagement merchandises. Kim ( 2006 ) conducted a state of origin research on Samsung and found that it is really difficult to distinguish the merchandise image from the state image while state image did non showcase any important impact on trade name image and purchase purpose. D’Astous and Ahmed ( 1999 ) besides pointed out that state of beginning is a much less of import property for both shoppers of picture cassette recording equipments and consumers than trade name repute on design and assembly capablenesss. In add-on, state of beginning is much less of import property than trade name repute. Besides, Piron ( 2000 ) confirmed that a merchandise ‘s extrinsic cues, such as state of beginning, are less of import so intrinsic cues, such as dependability and public presentation.
Since sellers believe that consumers ‘ perceptual experience to certain state image may act upon their rating of the quality of the merchandise semen from that state of beginning, the statements mentioned on the above seems disputing the consequence of state of beginning and controvert state of origin consequence is moving as a cardinal factor on act uponing consumer perceptual experience towards certain trade name from that state of beginning and go one of the major mention in finding consumer ‘s purchase purpose.
Research on the relationship between country-of-origin and the rating of quality in medicated spirits is really bare. However, Lockshin and Rhodus ( 1993 ) found that country-of-origin is referred as an index of quality of vino when consumers are unable to observe the true quality of a state ‘s vino. These findings are subsequently supported by Elliot and Cameron ( 1994 ) and Duhan ( 1999 ) . Balestrini and Gamble ( 2006 ) besides found that Chinese vino consumers use state of beginning to measure wine quality. These empirical researches might be a really good support to this survey as it is proven that intoxicant merchandises are influenced by state of origin effects. However the effects on medicated spirits are yet to be justified.
Literatures reviewed in this subdivision have indicated that state of origin effects influence consumers ‘ merchandise rating. Researchs have shown that consumers use state of beginning as major for measuring merchandise quality when they are non familiar with merchandise classs, low merchandise engagement and deficiency of merchandise cognition. It is by and large agreed that consumers from less developed and underdeveloped state are perceived merchandise produced in developed state are higher quality so merchandise from developing state. It is confirmed that State of origin effects has important correlated with intoxicant drinks ‘ quality rating, such as vino and beer. However, a still unresolved issue in the survey of state of beginning is whether the state of origin consequence is the major cues for Malayan consumers to measure medicated liquor quality and purchasing purpose.