Comparative Study of the Marketing Mix

Abstraction

The research proposal that is traveling to be addressed is a “ Comparative survey of the selling mix elements of monetary value, topographic point, publicity and merchandise on the mid-range supermarkets SPAR and THE CO-OPERATIVE ” . The research is besides traveling to look at the consumer purchasing behavior and consumer determination doing procedure. The client position of the selling mix of these mid-range supermarkets and the issues that these administrations face will besides be researched.

The literature reappraisal and the research methodological analysis that are being described in the proposal will assist us to understand their attack towards marketing mix. The research that is traveling to set about will turn to the issues that the organisations face in doing a well blended selling mix. Overall the research aims to happen the solutions to the issues that are being faced by these mid-range supermarkets and seek to give some recommendations.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MARKETING MIX IN MID-RANGE SUPERMARKETS SPAR AND THE CO-OPERATIVE.

1.0 Introduction:

The research is traveling to look at the monetary value, topographic point, publicity and merchandise of the selling mix which is being used by the Spar and The co-operative convenience shops in Aberdeen, Scotland. From the research, the chief issues are being identified with respects to, how these mid-range supermarkets are still able to last in relation to the elephantine super markets. The research is besides traveling to look at the consumer purchasing behavior and determination devising procedure in purchasing the merchandises from these convenience shops. The merchandise measure and the scope of merchandises will besides be identified.

The literature reappraisal will give a brief thought of the research which is already done in this peculiar field and any booby traps which are to be addressed.

2.0 Purposes:

A comparative survey of the selling mix elements of monetary value, topographic point, publicity and merchandise on the mid-range supermarkets SPAR and THE CO- OPERATIVE.

3.0 Aims:

  • Identify the selling mix that is being followed by Spar and The co-operative by reexamining the literature. The work that is already done in this field will give an thought of Place, monetary value, publicity and merchandise of the selling mix.
  • Qualitative research of the clients of Spar and The co-operative, by ask foring them for focal point group interviews and aggregation of the informations.
  • Quantitative research of the clients who are shopping at the Spar and The co-operative regularly by administering questionnaires. From this we have to acquire the information required for consumer purchasing behavior and determination devising procedure.
  • To analyse the informations obtained from the questionnaires and concentrate groups interviews and compare the statistics to come to a decision. This will underpin the critical and success factors in which the mid-range supermarkets Spar and The co-operative are able to do net incomes.



4.0 Literature Review:

“ A literature reappraisal can be defined as the choice of available paperss ( both published and unpublished ) on the subject, which contain information, thoughts, informations, and grounds written from a peculiar point of view to carry through certain purposes or express certain positions on the nature of the subject and how it is to be investigated, and the effectual rating of these paperss in relation to the research being proposed ” ( Hart, 1998 ) . The literature reappraisal is chiefly traveling to concentrate on the selling mix elements of the monetary value, topographic point, publicity and merchandise of the Spar and the Co-operative. It will besides look at different positions of consumer Buying behavior and consumer determination doing procedure.

“ Literature reappraisals should be compendious and give image of the province Of cognition and of major inquiries in your subject country ” ( Bell, 2005 ) .

The selling mix chiefly consists of four elements:

  • Monetary value
  • Topographic point
  • Promotion
  • Merchandise ( Jobber, 2007 )

For mid-range supermarkets, a better direction of all the four elements of the selling mix will give them a competitory advantage over the others. The chief purpose of keeping a proper selling mix is to “ fulfill or transcend client demands better than the rival ” ( Jobber, 2007 ) .

4.1 Monetary value:

Monetary value is without any uncertainty the most of import portion of the selling mix which plays a important function in the success of the administration. The ground being, the monetary value of the merchandise will give the net income that the administration will be holding from the unit sale of the merchandise ( Jobber, 2007 ) . Monetary value of the merchandise does besides play an of import function in the organizational purchasing behavior, as depending on the monetary value of the merchandise ; the merchandising monetary value is set consequently.

Due to the alterations in the demographics and the life style of the people, the aged and the immature people are concentrating more on the location ( the nearest the better ) instead than the monetary value of the merchandises ( Business Source Premier, 2004 ) .

4.2 Topographic point:

“ Topographic point involves determinations refering the distribution channels to be used and their direction, the location of the mercantile establishments, methods of transit and stock list degrees to be held ” ( Jobber, 2007 ) . The feverish life style, and the work under time-pressured are the chief cardinal drivers of the convenience shops ( Business Source Premier, 2004 ) .

4.3 Promotion:

Promotion is another cardinal participant in the selling mix as “ advertisement, personal merchandising, gross revenues publicities, public dealingss, direct selling, Internet and on-line publicities ” ( Jobber, 2007 ) all such activities which are undertaken by the administration to better the gross revenues. For any sort of administration it is got to cognize what sort of promotional mix it is utilizing for the merchandises, as the incorrect publicities could alter the consumer perceptual experience to a negative manner.

4.4 Merchandise:

In relation to the size of the shop, the assortment of the merchandise varies. In convenience shops the scope of the merchandise suits the location ( Business Source Premier, 2003 ) . If the merchandises does non accommodate the location, for illustration: a batch of frozen nutrient in a topographic point where the people prefer fresh nutrient, there wo n’t be much gross revenues at that place by driving the merchandise into losingss. Consumers expect the convenience shops to be unfastened when they need them and have the right sort of mix of merchandises and services at all times ( BusinessSource Premier, 2004 ) .

5.0 Characteristics of marketing mix:

A successful selling mix for any sort of administration should run into Three of import standards:

  • It should be able to run into the client demands
  • It should be able to make an competitory advantage
  • It should be good managed. ( Jobber, 2007 )

5.1 Marketing mix run intoing the client demands:

When the administrations try to run into their client demands, they need to cognize who are their mark clients in order for the nucleus merchandises to be sold. In add-on to this, the administrations should besides do up if the location of the shop is suited plenty for the merchandises to be sold successfully. It should be able to pull the clients and their promotional scheme should be clearly targeted towards their targeted consumers.

5.2 Marketing mix able to make a competitory advantage:

An effectual selling mix which is being used by the administration is said to be successful merely when this administration achieves the competitory advantage in the market. The attending of the consumers is still being drawn towards the convenience shops because ; they are really near in the sense of location. Even though the supermarkets are cheaper in the monetary value, as the consumers want to acquire a really few points merely for immediate use they do non desire to go long distances so that they can salvage few pennies.

5.3 A good managed marketing mix:

The selling mix which an administration is utilizing should be a dynamic mix of monetary value, topographic point, publicity and merchandise. When all these e four elements are managed in a right mode, the selling mix of the administration will be a successful 1. “ The retail merchants can make new value for their clients by spread outing their trade names good beyond traditional competitory boundaries to bring forth new gross watercourses ” ( Business beginning Prime Minister, 2004 ) . Marketing mix which the administration wants to continue on should be in concurrence with the resources available for the administration so that it can accomplish the marks set.

6.0 Consumer purchasing behavior:

“ Buyer behaviour is based on a complex procedure by which consumers choose, get, usage, and dispose of goods and services in order to carry through their demands and desires ” ( Business beginning Prime Minister, 2008 ) . the organisation demand to cognize how to make the consumers and convert them to purchase their merchandise ( s ) .

For any sort of administration it is ever of import to cognize the purchasing behavior of its bing and possible clients ( Lancaster and Massingham, 1997 ) . It is truly a really of import measure for the administrations to cognize the consumer purchasing behavior is because of assorted grounds:

They will be able to do the determination of their selling mix based on this. And it will reply a few of import inquiries which the administrations Need to cognize like:

  • Who constitutes the market?
  • What does the market purchase?
  • When does the market purchase?
  • Why does the market purchase?
  • How does the market purchase?
  • Where does the market purchase?

( Lancaster and Massingham, 1999 ) . The anticipations about the purchasing behavior might alter consequently with the state of affairs. The administrations frequently work in close relation with the frequent purchaser from their shops as they make some consistent determinations on what sort of merchandises they buy. Based on this the administrations vary the figure and type of merchandises – for illustration a fewer assortments of the same merchandise or a smaller package size ( Business beginning Prime Minister, 2004 ) .

7.0 Consumer determination doing procedure:

“ Some theoretical accounts of purchaser behaviour speculate that consumers may alter their determination depending on the ground for the purchase ” ( Business beginning Prime Minister, 2008 ) . Knowing about the consumer determination doing procedure is besides a important portion for the administrations. Harmonizing to Marlow, there are five hierarchal phases in the determination doing procedure of the consumers. From underside to exceed they are: Psychological demands, Safety needs, Social needs, Esteem needs and Self- realization demands. ( Lancaster and Massingham, 1997 )

Based on the hierarchy the administrations need to cognize the different ways to near the consumer with the same merchandise to do the sale. The psychological demands are the most of import and basic of the consumer demands. When the persons are satisfied with this they move up along the hierarchy to fulfill the other demands and this is motivated by the Selling of the administration. The administration should cognize how a merchandise should be marketed in the market to make that demand, and to excite the motive of the consumers.

8.0 Research Methodology:

In this research I am seeking to utilize both the qualitative and quantitative research.

8.1 Qualitative attack:

Qualitative research will be done utilizing two batches of clients from The co-operative and Spar in Aberdeen, Scotland for carry oning focal point group interviews. “ one of the main grounds for carry oning a qualitative survey is that the survey is explorative ; non much has been written about the subject or population being studied, and the research worker seeks to listen to sources and to construct a image based on their thoughts ” ( Creswell, 1994 ) .

There is non much research done sing the selling mix of Spar and The co-operative. The qualitative research gives the current perceptual experiences And thoughts of the clients. Qualitative research involves and engages two groups of clients from Spar and The co-operative in Aberdeen, by carry oning focal point group interviews. The information is collected by entering the interviews with groups. Qualitative research can be effectual merely when the research worker listens to the sources and extracts the utile information.

Focus groups will work much better when a better environment is provided, and the research worker can acquire the echt information from the participants when they are unagitated and relaxed. So it ‘s better to supply the participants with some refreshments and reassure them to give the echt information.

In attack to the qualitative research it is better to make a pilot questionnaire which are traveling to be asked in the focal point spasmodic laryngitis interviews before manus, as it might assist the research worker if the inquiries needs betterment at that place by supplying better understanding. In this present research, the clients of Spar and The co-operative are divided into two assorted groups to take portion in the focal point group interview as the research worker has a better range to acquire richer information.

8.2 Quantitative attack:

Quantitative research will be done administering the questionnaires to the clients of Spar and The co-operative. “ A study design provides a quantitative or numeral description of some fraction of the population- the sample- through the informations aggregation procedure of inquiring inquiries of people ( Flower, 1998 ) . This information aggregation, in bend, enables a research to generalise the findings from a sample of responses to a population ” ( Creswell, 1994 ) . When the quantitative research is being carried out, passing out the questionnaires is the best sought procedure. When carry oning this sort of research there should be pilot questionnaire which will be made and tested for any alterations to be made. Until and unless the inquiries are appropriate, the research worker will non be able to pull out the right replies that are to be used.

9.0 How will be the research done?

  • In the literature reexamine the primary beginnings of informations like academic diaries, articles and text editions are being used to acquire relevant information on the selling mix of Spar and The co-operative to place what sort of work or research which is already done on the topic.
  • Questionnaires that are distributed to the clients of spar and The co-operative will be designed for easiness of apprehension and use. When the consequences are received, the of import jobs or issues will be addressed. To acquire a really refined and rich informations at the least a lower limit of 80 answers are expected.
  • When fixing the questionnaire, the inquiries are made in a mode that they are non either biased or taking, to do it easier for the participant to reply them more easy. Every necessary measure will be taken to avoid any such sort of error. And moreover the more perfect the inquiries are in the questionnaires, the more effectual is the information that is traveling to be gathered for the research.
  • Focus group interviews are conducted in a relaxing environment and recorded, to acquire the best and high quality information which can be of usage. The information that is received from the clients is really much utile to turn to the issues of the selling mix which is being followed by Spar and The co-operative as they might convey up the difference they can see in relation with the bigger supermarkets.



The research will chiefly look at the 4 P ‘s of the selling mix ( Price, Place, Promotion and Product ) each in its ain position in relation to what Spar and The co-operative follow.

10.0 How will the analysis be done?

All the questionnaire responses that are received will be collated and put through the statistical use of the information from the responses which will give a brief cognition on the of import issues. The information which is received via the focal point group interviews are besides analysed and compared with the issues represented in the questionnaires for a comparative survey. SPSS which is a prognostic analytical tool ( or ) Excel will be used to collate and analyze the consequences.

11.0 Following moralss:

It is truly a really of import function of the research worker to follow the ethical regulations while making the research. Particularly in a research affecting the consumers of fast traveling consumer goods ( FMCG ) as the information that is received should be every bit confidential as possible, guaranting the responses are anon. .

12.0 Contribution of the Research:

In the outside universe the Spar and The co-operative may look like lasting the recognition crunch, but this research is traveling to look at their selling mix ( Price, Place, Promotion and Product ) , and their survival even during these tough times. This research will be lending to the apprehension of the issues of this selling mix and to turn to any issues raised.

13.0 Time graduated table and program of work:

Week |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |

LiteratureReview | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Complete Questionnaire for

Customers of Spar and The co-operative | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Pilot client Questionnaire | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Finalise and administer the questionnaires to the clients of The co-operative and Spar| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Focus group interviews for first group| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Focus group interviews for 2nd group | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Collate and analyse consequences | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Write up Dissertation | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Mentions:

Creswell, W, J. , 1994. Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative attacks. United States of America: Sage

Ridley, D.,2008. The Literature Review: A step- by- measure Guide for Students. London: Sage

Business Source Premier. , 2004 [ ONLINE ] , J Sainsbury: convenience consolidation, MarketWatch: Food ; October 2004, Vol. 3 Issue 10. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=buh & A ; AN=14684378 & A ; site=ehost-live ( Accessed on 23rd April 2009 ) .

Business Source Premier. , 2004 [ ONLINE ] , Big retail merchants think little. Country Monitor, Vol. 12 Issue 35. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=buh & A ; AN=15074238 & A ; site=ehost-live ( Accessed on 19th April 2009 ) .

Business Source Premier. , 2004 [ ONLINE ] , Convenient plenty? , Food Manufacture, Vol. 79 Issue 9. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=buh & A ; AN=14413740 & A ; site=ehost-live ( Accessed on 19th April 2009 ) .

JOBBER, D. , 2007. Principles and pattern of selling. Fifth edition. London: McGraw-Hill.

LANCASTER, G and MASSINGHAM, L. , 1997. Necessities of selling. Second edition. London: McGraw-Hill.

LANCASTER, G and MASSINGHAM, L. , 1999. Necessities of selling. Third edition. London: McGraw-Hill. Business Source Premier. , 2008 [ ONLINE ] , Buyer behavior, Research Starters Business. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=e6h & A ; AN=27577660 & A ; site=ehost-live ( Accessed on 24th April 2009 ) .

Business Source Premier. , 2004 [ ONLINE ] , The monetary value of convenience, Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=buh & A ; AN=15065448 & A ; site=ehost-live ( Accessed on 24th April 2009 ) .