Change in SME internationalization: an Irish perspective


Niina Nummela, Sharon Loane, and Jim Bell wrote an article titled “ Change in SME internationalisation: an Irish position. ” The article is based on the economic position of little and moderate-sized endeavors in Ireland ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The paper describes and analyses the procedure of alteration, which are strongly related to internationalisation. The paper besides covers chief internationalisation processes among the Irish SMEs with an attempt to set up findings related to the subject. The aim of the survey was established based on the statement that the figure of little houses within the planetary economic system and operating on international markets increase by twenty-four hours with the procedure of internationalisation speed uping at a fast gait within the market ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . This has featured an involvement in analyzing little and moderate-sized endeavors in the last decennary and the issues steeping the same. This is one important ground why the survey has been conducted to analyse issues steeping little and moderate-sized endeavors with a peculiar involvement in the Irish market.

Points of the research

From the position of this paper, the survey has been rather important in the planetary market because earlier researches in the same countries were wholly pretermiting the jobs which little sized companies ‘ face in the modern period that has experienced corporate alteration processes ( Lam & A ; White 1999, p. 105 – 34 ) . It is argued that the paper is based on an earlier survey by Nummela ‘s ( 2004, p. 404 – 30 ) . It is a masterly survey because it is besides first-class in make fulling the spread concentrating on the reforms that resulted from internationalisation. The paper besides inside informations the survey as a reproduction of Nummela ‘s work, one which was in the Irish context earlier, and the chief purposes being constructing upon and taking these original plants frontward. The original model was earlier assumed that, at the company degree, the reforms related to internationalisation had both internal and external effects within an economic system ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . This is what the paper based on and tried to infer more information on the same and further the survey while developing appropriate findings.

Literature reappraisal

Huge literature has been used to back up this research. Life-cycle-process theory is one great theory used to back up the findings of the survey. Life-cycle-process theory has been espoused in the plants of Van de Ven & A ; Poole ( 1995, p. 510 – 40 ) reasoning that houses are affected by certain stimulations, and they proceed from a peculiar phase to another following a similar form. This form is what Van de Ven & A ; Poole ( 1995, p. 510 – 40 ) establishes as the procedure. The theoretical accounts have besides been identified as rather deterministic, and based on an reading of world and human nature ( McDougall & A ; Oviatt 1996, p. 23 – 40 ) . From the theoretical position explicating internalisation as used in the survey, the term internationalisation is viewed as a response to a stimulation which a house faces from either internal or external forces. It was established that merely a few surveies have applied the theory and few hold given a teleological reading of the procedure, which is why the survey holds as pivotal in explicating internalisation as a procedure ( Jones 1999, p. 15 – 41 ) .

This survey is based on a figure of theoretical accounts from other scholarly plants. The theoretical accounts that describe and analyse this survey base on small-business internationalisation procedures. They are dominated by an established incremental-change paradigm as established by Lam & A ; White ( 1999, p. 105 – 34 ) and Havnes ( 1998, 134 – 141 ) . These theoretical accounts are referred to as phase theoretical accounts, which are termed as tempting because of their logic and simpleness ( Lam & A ; White 1999, p. 105 – 34 ) . However, some bookmans have been identified as reviewing this theoretical account used in the survey including Clark Pugh & A ; Mallory ( 1997, p. 605 – 23 ) and Petersen & A ; Pedersen ( 1997, p.117 – 34 ) . The paper establishes that the internationalisation theoretical accounts used in this survey follow the life-cycle-process theory.

The research scheme

Study inquiries are portion of the research scheme and they are good presented in the full research and covered in a wide context to assist understand the issues better and generate adequate cognition on the same. The survey focuses on important inquiries looking into the issue of SME and the internationalisation procedure among the Irish companies ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The research seeks to analyse whether the internalisation procedure has any impact on house public presentation. This is answered through an analysis of three companies, interviewees from CEOs and literature reappraisal from old surveies. The survey besides seeks to measure the relevancy of strategic position on the international market enlargement ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The strategic position has been identified as impacting the internalisation procedure enormously which is why the research seeks to bring forth findings to back up the instance ( Petersen & A ; Pedersen 1997, p.117 – 34 ) . It is besides in the same research, that replies are sought on what the external and internal alterations a house experiences because of internalisation. The survey identified internationalisation as a procedure and 1 that has effects. A inquiry on the same is put across for survey in order to decode the significance and develop farther apprehension.

Methods Used In the Survey

The methods used for the survey are appropriate and supremely relevant in relation to the type of survey being conducted and with a consideration of the coveted consequences. The article espouses that the method used to finish the study was a retrospective instance survey ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . Retrospective instance survey is one powerful method in carry oning such sort of research because it enables huge comparings between companies in the same or distinguishable classs and in bend infering some similarities and differences which are ideal in doing decisions sing internationalisation of the diverse companies and how it applies as a general construct. Data aggregation for this survey as espoused from the article was done through face-to-face interviews ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . In this instance, the identified respondents were asked to look back and supply appropriate descriptions of the alterations during the identified clip period. In analyses of alteration for this survey, the key involvements are the chief triggers including mileposts, crisis state of affairss and deadlines ( Gersick 1991, p. 10 – 36 ) . The same are identified as critical events or incidents by Halinen, Salmi & A ; Havila ( 1999, p. 779 – 94 ) . The trailing of such incidents through the interviews was an first-class method of enabling the research worker to do observations on the procedures and mechanisms through which alterations within the house are created ( Schuh 2001 ) .

The CEOs of the several companies were engaged in face-to-face interviews and closely involved in the alteration within houses. The interviews used in informations assemblage were semi-structured with the design following a loose form that was based wholly on the theoretical model as identified in the survey ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . Semi-structured interviews are critical in such surveies because they generate a batch of informations which would be practically indispensable in covering the legion issues ( Schuh 2001 ) . The survey besides used informations triangulation, which was to assist in complementing the semi-structured interviews and the secondary informations collected from the literature reviews including Internet pages, memos, newspaper articles, booklets, one-year studies, and other stuff. In instances where tremendous sums of informations are collected, and an analysis of the same is required informations triangulation is critical in incorporating the assorted method assessment attack and easing the survey consequently ( Jones 1999, p. 15 – 41 ) .

Cross-case analysis has besides been used in analysing the effects of internationalisation as a procedure among three identified companies ( A, B, C ) ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . Cross-case analysis has ever been categorized as a qualitative methodological analysis in research widely used in the field of societal scientific discipline ( Petersen & A ; Pedersen 1997, p.117 – 34 ) . However, strict and systematic analysis techniques produce dependable and nonsubjective findings. This is besides a important maneuver which has been suggested by Schuh ( 2001 ) for seeking relevant forms within cross-case surveies. The forms are relevant to set up the appropriate findings and generalise the consequences of the survey. The forms are correlated with the identified dimensions or concepts in the reviewed literature. On the same note, the analysis helps in set uping within-group similarities, every bit good as other inter-group differences. The same point was supported by Schuh ( 2001 ) who argued that cross-case analyses are preferred in such a instance to seek for apparent forms. The overall thought of utilizing cross-case analysis is to let the research worker to travel beyond the feelings in usage for structured and diverse information lenses. The usage of cross-case analysis is besides fruitful as it increases the likeliness of accomplishing dependable and accurate theory application for the survey ( Petersen & A ; Pedersen 1997, p.117 – 34 ) . In general, transverse analysis works out good in set uping the differences and similarities among the three houses which work good in set uping the common effects as established in planetary houses.

Evaluation of grounds

The cardinal findings of the survey indicated that the reforms in SME internationalisation would exactly be more multidimensional than it is the instance espoused within the market. The degree of reforms within the market is besides established as varying because of internationalisation with houses sing different types of alteration while others experienced reforms which were closely intertwined ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The findings from the instance analysis indicated that all companies exhibited changing grades of extremist alteration in their concern thought. The companies besides reveal as changing procedures and way from clip to clip which is forced by several market forces within the planetary field.

Findingss from the instance besides reveal that little houses take diverse paths when it comes to managing internationalisation and the degree of alteration. The chief ground for the diverse paths is the varying degrees of internationalisation ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The instances besides reveal that the model used for this survey is practically a well-functioning tool that would be used to analyse such alterations, because non merely the external and internal alterations, but besides the concern thought function was apparent among the companies. The paper besides establishes the complexness of the construct which is demonstrated through the fact that the reforms in the diverse dimensions are non connected, but they are context dependant ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . It is established that the attendant characteristic is significant managerial challenges because it complicates the grounds of weak signals from the diverse environment and hence, the anticipation of future alterations. The multidimensionality identified from the survey besides presents extended demands for farther research, as operationalisation has to be managed carefully. It has besides been identified that expressed definition is critical for the research if comparable and dependable consequences are to be derived.

Clear grounds besides was evident from the instance companies that the diverse types of alteration are intertwined and linked with each other. For case, it was identified that venture capital support thrusts forces alterations and in bend facilitates more internationalisation activities. The instance companies were revealed as exemplifying a “ Domino consequence ” sing the alteration in SME internationalisation ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . Theoretically, it is discernible that the instance companies indicate diverse alteration degrees, an to boot, there are a figure of beginnings identified as triping the alteration. It was instead surprising that the houses under survey revealed that, at some point, the internationalisation was non connected with the reforms go oning within the sector. The instance besides argues that internationalisation per Se does non ever count as the alteration incentive, but there are other continuation entities that provoke alteration. Some of the alterations were driven by environmental factors and industry degree factors. A connexion between strategic determination devising and reforms within the house were extremely discernible in the survey.

However, there are identified restrictions of the survey which makes it a challenge to supply justification of the findings. This survey is described as an exploratory type with the findings based on at least three instances. On this note, the consequences of the survey can merely be taken to be probationary and necessitating more research because there are other types of companies sing diverse alteration effects ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The consequences of merely three companies as espoused from the survey can non be generalized to show the instance of the planetary tendency in company international enlargement. Another momentous restriction identified from the survey is the retrospective nature of the design used for this research. The design is established as disputing which peculiarly puts more weight on memory and ability of the respondents in an attempt to place alteration. The memory of the respondents might be hapless and can non be relied upon wholesomely to supply valid informations for the survey ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . Therefore, it is rather a challenge to trust on the information provided and utilize it in bring forthing the appropriate findings.


The decisions deduced from this survey are extremely valid and can be supported adequately by appropriate grounds from both the company instances and the literatures reviewed. The decisions from this survey are good aligned and justified with appropriate grounds from the literature reappraisal ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . As revealed in the decision, strategic position is extremely esteemed when it comes to enlargement into the international market. The planetary enlargement means that the company has to strategize suitably. The alteration scheme is what is needed for the enlargement and in making a fresh environment, which is sound for planetary market enlargements. Schuh ( 2001 ) takes on the subject and attempts to adopt on the same thought observing that, without strategic planning, the company can non progress in its international enlargement. He notes in his plants that strategic planning means structuring the organisation ‘s ends, missions and aims to suit the planetary market and consequence in easy enlargement. On the same note, it was apparent that strategic position plants good with the company analysis. Company A strategized suitably by using horizontal concerted agencies peculiarly aiming external gross revenues agents every bit good as representatives in several locations and this worked absolutely good for the company in its market enlargement and sale increase ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The scheme besides involved a combination of perpendicular and horizontal cooperation which in bend helped in increasing their degree of fight within the planetary market.

The survey besides makes a decision that theoretical accounts for analysing small-business internationalisation are characterized by the incremental-change paradigm. Change is high in any given concern when it comes to international enlargement. As from the plants of Halinen, Salmi & A ; Havila ( 1999, p. 779 – 94 ) , it is evident that the international market holds assorted forces and influences on a peculiar concern program to venture in the same. Such force per unit areas include a competitory market and this call for a concern to alter in order to rime with the market and strategize suitably on the advancement. The analysis of the three companies indicates that all companies have well changed, and these have both internal and external reforms impacting the company ‘s operations.

The survey besides concluded that the alterations are both external and internal in nature. External alterations are identified from the survey as those that can be seen from the exterior for case alterations in export scheme of the concern including merchandises, operations and markets. The internal alterations were generalized as to be associating to the organisational construction, forces and finance. Evidence on the same has been revealed in the instance analysis of company A, B and C ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . All the companies exhibited alterations both internally and externally which was clear that the forces resulted to the legion alterations in their strategic planning. Company A for case experienced a alteration in the board of managers who were strategized to do the passage into the international market better. The board was strengthened with the company including new non-executive managers every bit good as other, board members after the 3rd venture capital rounds. It was besides clear that the export concern that the company started in USA led the company to force per unit area of gap and staffing a USA office which would ask its success ( LeCornu et al. 1996, p. 1 – 14 ) .

Decisions from the survey besides generalized that there is a demand for assessment of the organisation public presentation in all sectors of the company. This means that such appraisal including preparation and increasing the ability of the employees within the company is rather important ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . It was facts that Company A, invested tremendous sums of resources to develop a good as develop ain people with the company imputing the investing as the key in drawing the company to success.

Another important decision or generalisation from the survey was that internationalisation has a great impact on the public presentation of a house. It was besides concluded that alterations within the house can be measured in footings of turnover, which is the net income development within the house over a twelvemonth or a specified period ( McDougall & A ; Oviatt 1996, p. 23 – 40 ) . This was a similar instance with grounds from the three companies ; the companies reveal that internalisation forced the three companies to alter. Performance for the several houses has been measured through grosss and gross revenues within the several markets. The alteration which profited company B was seemingly geared towards bettering gross revenues ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The company employed four people which consisted of dedicated gross revenues individual in an attempt to aim the UK market and this was fruitful because it increased the gross from impressive gross revenues, which increased well in due clip. Grosss, which were extremely slow in growing and hard to turn and the company even confronting rough economic times to a point of being bought by a local engineering concern angel subsequently changed drastically and it started gaining. The buyout gave the company a new strategic way every bit good as a intent that brought in alterations from a “ one-product admiration ” to a planetary provider of merchandises and services in the planetary market ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) .

On the same note, partnerships and confederations have been concluded as a attendant characteristic of internationalisation which is caused by planetary enlargements ( McDougall & A ; Oviatt 1996, p. 23 – 40 ) . This is apparent in all companies be aftering to spread out to the international market as they are regarded as schemes meant to beef up the company ‘s operations and develop their fight within the market. Evidence from the analysis of the survey revealed that external relationships were valued as to hold changed the province of the market for company A since it strategized on internalisation. Company A located several close relationships set uping partnerships with nine marketing spouses which were planetary organisations ( Niina, Sharon & A ; Jim 2006, p. 562 – 583 ) . The company besides established strong relationships with legion associations, which were besides attributed to hold changed the international market attack. The partner/strategic confederations redefined the company ‘s boundaries via perpendicular cooperation, which was besides an appropriate response to the market enlargement and increasing the range for the company in footings of market diverseness.

Research Value

The findings from this research are extremely valuable because they make huge parts particularly on diverse Fieldss. The parts made are a true contemplation of the piece of work every bit related to the chief subject. Based on the findings of this survey, there is complete relevancy for SMEs within the Irish markets every bit good as the international markets. The companies categorized as SMEs would increase their ability of expecting future alterations within the environment every bit good as program in front on how to accommodate to them. This would be of value because they are able to avoid challenges within the market which force them out of operations and might take to their prostration ( McDougall & A ; Oviatt 1996, p. 23 – 40 ) . The programs to manage the prospected alterations for the SMEs can be good reflected in their strategic planning for the financial old ages with equal policies and schemes put in topographic point to manage the same. This is hence indispensable to the SMEs in assisting them maintain their operations, every bit good as the economic advantage in the planetary market.

Additionally, the findings deduced from this survey are relevant because they can be utilized in managing and forming public support for planetary internationalizing SMEs. The thought is to develop capablenesss that will ask huge competition to last in a globally competitory market ( Van de Ven & A ; Poole 1995, p. 510 – 40 ) . In the modern epoch, where little concerns have been challenged in the international market by the immense rivals, it is evident that there is a demand to hold ample cognition, which will steer in planetary enlargements for the little houses ( LeCornu et al. 1996, p. 1 – 14 ) . The cognition inside informations appropriate programs and schemes every bit good as future chances required giving a little concern the sort of encouragement needed for international development.

The research findings are besides of tremendous importance because they add to the wide base of literature on SMEs and the internationalisation procedure. As established earlier, the literature available related to SMEs internationalisation is less, and many bookmans focus on other issues including the selling mix schemes for SMEs and the construction and operations within the vicinities ( Lam & A ; White 1999, p. 105 – 34 ) . Knowledge that would associate SMEs to planetary tendencies, and the alterations involved would be of considerable value in the professional field and this research targets to include the same ( Clark Pugh & A ; Mallory 1997, p. 605 – 23 ) . The findings will besides be of huge value in make fulling in the existent spread in the field of cognition where many inquiries are still unreciprocated associating the construct of internationalisation and SMEs.