Recycling has been the emerging tendency since the 1970s as it was seen as an of import facet of waste decrease. In the early `90s recycling was to the full launched, doing the public aware of the demand to pull off and cut down waste from family.
In a study by Grasso and McEnally ( 1999 ) Recycling in the USA, Sweden and South Africa ; revealed that, in the 1980s administrations and consumers displayed the demand and relevancy of the environment. Consumers took advantage of the chance to set up societal duty through the selling of “ green ” eco friendly merchandises. The merchandises had the property of been easy recycled. Besides consumers exhibited the societal duty by buying the eco friendly merchandises. From their actions they were able to minimise the harm caused by non eco friendly merchandises to the environment.
However, harmonizing to a study from recycling-guide.org.uk ( 2008 ) , “ why recycle ” sourced from Defra.gov.uk, it was revealed that UK family produced 30.5million metric tons of waste in 2003/2004, of which 17 % was collected for recycling. This figure is comparatively low to some UK neighbors, which accounted for 50 % of their waste, which was recycled.
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF AND MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
Landfills have been the preferable method of waste direction. This pattern was effectual, but the addition in domestic, industry and commercial waste was devouring the available infinite, ensuing in the decrease of sites lifespan. However, it is imperative that new methods of waste direction must be applied and one method of waste direction is recycling. This procedure of waste direction could be seen as more good to the environment and the populace, as valuable stuffs can be separated, re organised and re used to bring forth new merchandises.
2.0 Key tendencies in recycling
Household waste aggregation has shown a downward tendency as it was revealed by keynote ( 2008 ) that 2006/2007 had a aggregation of 14.1 million metric tons from family waste aggregation which was 3.9 % lower than the waste collected in 2005/2006 and 9.2 % lower than waste collected in 2004/2005. ( See Table 8 in Appendix A )
The figures suggest that there has been a steady lessening of family waste aggregation from UK family.
However, the tabular array above shows the municipal waste has witnessed an addition in 2006/2007 as against the lessening in 2005/2006.
Family was besides revealed by keynote ( 2008 ) that in 2006/2007 25.8million metric tons of waste was collected amounting to 88.4 % of all the municipal waste.
Besides, in another study from Keynote ( 2008 ) it was revealed that in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 landfills waste disposal saw a lessening in each twelvemonth. 58 % lessening was recorded in 2006/2007 being an betterment of the 62 % in 2005/2006 and 67 % in 2004/2005. Besides 31 % addition was recorded in the waste recycled by composting compared to the 23 % recorded in 2004/2005. ( See Table 9 in Appendix A )
From the tabular array, it can be deduced that in the three old ages ( that is 2004 to 2007 ) there has been a lessening in landfill and an addition in waste recycling in the municipal waste of England.
Furthermore, the recycling rate of family waste from 2004/2005 to 2006/2007 besides shows an addition of 22.5 % in 2004/2005, 26.7 % in 2005/2006 and 30.9 % addition in 2006/2007 ( Keynote 2008 ) .
The consumer tendencies with respects to recycled merchandises will hence be analysed seting into consideration the consumer behavior to sustainability, consumer consciousness to green selling construct and Consumers and their concern for the environment.
2.1 CONSUMER TRENDS WITH REGARD TO RECYCLED PRODUCTS
The demand for merchandises and services in the consumer market is dictated by marketing schemes employed by concerns to pull the terminal user. In order to develop and market a new or bing merchandise, in the merchandise development phase the function of packaging is critical. Sellers guarantee that the packaging of their merchandise is every bit attractive as possible, and this is easy achieved by utilizing new stuffs.
However, another quandary confronting industries is that the present fabrication procedure being used by them is non planned to accept recycled stuffs. Therefore, there is a demand for concerns to alter their focal point and actively embark on utilizing recycled stuffs and pass on the terminal user/consumers of the benefits to deduce from buying the merchandises produced from recycled stuffs.
Sections 2.2 will turn to the function of the consumer, their attitudes behaviors and buying forms, their apprehension of the new procedures related to the merchandises produced from recycled stuffs and the importance related to their credence of these merchandises and packaging.
2.2 Consumer behavior
Schiffman, and Kanuk, ( 2004 ) defined Consumer behaviors in their book ( Consumer Behaviour. 8th Edition ) as a behaviour consumer ‘s show in seeking for, buying, utilizing, measuring and disposing of merchandises and services that they expect will fulfill their demands. These phases are demonstrated by consumers in the procedure of doing a service or merchandise related purchase determination. This procedure includes what they buy, when they buy, why they buy, where they buy it, how frequently they buy, how frequently they use it, how they evaluate it after the purchase and the impact of such rating on their hereafter purchases and most significantly how they dispose of it. Therefore, the transition to a sustainable hereafter will name for a alteration in the consumer behavior, in the facet of the true ego and the ideal ego of consumers. However, increase in public consciousness about issues like recycling will decidedly alter attitudes towards recycling and waste sorting, because it is believed that when attitude alterations, behavior will besides alter ( Schiffman and Kanuk, 2004 ) .
2.3 Consumer consciousness of the green selling construct
Harmonizing to Poulton ( 2003 ) , the first regulation of “ green selling ” is to concentrate on the client benefits. If this is done right, the possible to actuate clients to take the “ green merchandise ” over the rivals or even pay a higher premium for the more eco-friendly solutions is greater. These “ Green ” facets must be the cardinal focal point of selling schemes, with the focal point being on reenforcing the trade name value and the quality of merchandises through the benefits by which consumer will derive, through environmental consciousness. Hence the Society must alter their personal attitudes and patterns if they wish to populate in a sustainable environment. However, the public concern and the green consumer motion have demanded that makers must be more careful non to harm the environment hence ; reclaimable merchandise must be produced ( Sarkis and Rasheed 1995 ) .
2.4 Consumers and their concern for the environment
Roberts, J.A ( 1996 ) indicates in his study ( Will the existent socially responsible consumer please step frontward ) that consumers are traveling from ingestion and immediate satisfaction to preservation, with accent on efficient use of resources, continuing environments, slaking pollution, retrenchment, recycling, and procuring the universe of tomorrow. Lazar, La Barbera, Mclachlen, and Smith, A ( 1994 ) besides illustrate in their study ( Marketing 2000 and Beyond ) that consumers are purchasing merchandises from companies that donate portion of their returns from the sale of the merchandise to environmental causes, and that they boycott fur merchandises, or merchandises that involve the usage of animate beings in merchandise testing. When the addition in the concern for the environment takes foremost topographic point so socially witting consumer behavior may go more popular in the hereafter. Besides Roberts ( 1996 ) revealed that 79 % of American population see themselves to be environmentalist and about 67 % revealed that they will be willing to pay 5 to 10 % more on reclaimable merchandise.
However, the motivation behind this research are to deduce a clean and clear apprehension of the attitude of consumers towards recycling in Leicester, besides to measure the importance, in which consumers attach to this procedure of waste direction and their willingness to take portion in the decrease of waste with respects to age and gender.
The following chapter will concentrate on the research methodological analysis employed in this research.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This research will concentrate on the attitude of respondents towards recycling and this subdivision will besides supply a brief on what the research collapsible shelters to look into. Therefore, the research aims are ;
To look into the differences in consumer attitude towards recycling with respects to age group.
To look into the differences in consumer attitude towards recycling with respects to gender.
To analyze consumer recycling form and degree of engagement.
3.1 Answering sample
In this research, stratified convenience sampling was used as each respondent will be chosen harmonizing to their willingness to take part in the study.
The respondents will be made to react to a three page questionnaire about their perceptual experience, motive, penchants to recycling.
P1- Older people are likely to take part in recycling than younger people.
P2 – Female consumers are likely to recycle more than work forces.
3.2 Research Instrument ( Questionnaire )
Questionnaire is a tool used in many research undertakings using oppugning. ( Parasuraman.A, Dhruv G, Krishnan R 2007 ) . Therefore it is imperative to explicate and warrant the subdivisions in the questionnaire used in this research ;
Section 1- Pattern and Usage ; This subdivision was aimed to place the beginnings of information about recycling besides to place what consumers recycle and how far they go to recycle. Finally the subdivision besides seeks to place the consumer degree of engagement in respects to what type of eco friendly merchandise they purchase.
Section 2 – Motivation: This subdivision tents to place why consumers recycle and to understand the importance they attach to recycling.
Section 3 – Preferences: This subdivision is aimed at look intoing how frequently consumers recycle, besides to look into the present recycling processs they participate in and to let them to do recommendations on how the present recycling processs could be improved upon.
While, subdivision 4 – Background Information: This subdivision seeks to separate between the attitude of respondents in respects to age and gender.
This subdivision is of import for the formation of different cross tabular matter analysis.
3.3 Sample Size
Harmonizing to the Leicester metropolis council age construction ( Mid Year estimation 2007 ) the population of Leicester is estimated at 292600. Since it is unethical to and non executable to administrate questionnaires to under age, besides, the age group between 1 and 19 was deducted. ( Age 18-19 was deducted because they fell mediate the age class of 15-19. See Table 1: Leicester age construction in appendix A3 for farther apprehension ) therefore, the population used is 215100 and the sample size is 50 with a 13.9 % assurance interval at a 95 % assurance degree. The entire questionnaire distributed to respondent will be 63 with the estimated rate of response to be 80 % .
The research was done in Leicester metropolis and merely people that reside in the metropolis were used, and they all met the demands stated below ;
Aware of environmental sustainability and
Be soon involved in recycling.
Besides ages between 20 old ages and above was used as they were observed to be more cognizant of recycling, as Mintel ( 2007 ) reports that there is comparatively low degrees of involvement in environmental and ethical issues exhibited by under-25s ( and peculiarly by those aged 18-19 ) which means there are cognizant but non take parting. Besides Mintel ( 2007 ) further revealed that there is a high degree of involvement and concern among the 35-44 twelvemonth old and for the older 45 and supra, they feel house in sing sustainability. However, Mintel ( 2007 ) further revealed that the ages between 20 and 24 posses a high degree of guilt about the deficiency of action and cognition on how to act in order to take a green and ethical life style.
Pre-testing the questionnaire was of import to guarantee that the respondents interpret the inquiries right and to measure the quality of the informations collected.
The questionnaire was reviewed by the supervisor to look into whether the inquiries would supply the type of informations that would reply the research aims.
The pre-test questionnaire was evaluated utilizing 6 respondents by choosing 2 respondents from the selling section ( graduate student ) in De Montfort University ( marketing direction, advertisement and public dealingss and strategic selling section ) . This allowed the research worker to place any jobs which might be while reacting to the questionnaire besides to guarantee that the respondents could easy understand both the inquiries and the aims of the research. ( See Appendix A2 )
3.6 Data aggregation Approach
Questionnaires were administered at different times of the twenty-four hours and on different yearss of the hebdomad in high cross Leicester. The ground for taking high cross is premised on the big inflow of people making existent shopping and window shopping.
Each twenty-four hours will be divided into three clip allotments: the forenoon, tiffin clip and eventide.
Some respondent were ab initio loath to make full in a questionnaire, but when they realized it was for educational intents their responses changed and they filled the questionnaires.
3.7 Data readying
Data readying includes cryptography and redaction ( McDaniel and Gates, 2002 ) . Editing is the procedure of determining that questionnaires are filled out decently and wholly. This involves look intoing for answering mistakes. Coding refers to the procedure of grouping and delegating numeral codifications placing assorted respondents with a peculiar inquiry. The questionnaires were pre-coded. In order to avoid coding jobs, merely two open-ended inquiries were used in this survey. Questionnaires that fell outside the sample parametric quantities were discarded, and if it appeared that a respondent had non understood the inquiry the determination was made whether to except that inquiry or the whole questionnaire. Answers were besides checked for incompatibilities.
3.7.1 Data Analysis
A computerised statistical analysis of the information was necessary to depict and construe the informations that was obtained from the questionnaires. The consequences of the interviews will besides be analysed utilizing Statistical Programme for Social Science Version 16. The information will be analysed in order to place the factors that will uncover their attitudes towards recycling.
3.8 Validity and Reliability
For this research, the research worker has tried to guarantee face cogency of the questionnaires.
3.8.1 Face Validity
In other to look into the face cogency of the response and whether the questionnaire covered the subject accurately, a pilot survey was conducted and the consequences were scrutinised by a statistician.
In other to look into the dependability, usage form graduated table was measured and appropriate non-parametric trial like Chi-square, Mann-Whitney were carried out.
3.9 Ethical motives
The purpose of moralss in research is to guarantee that no 1 is harmed or suffers inauspicious effects from the research activities ( Cooper and Schindler, 2001 ) . Cardinal to the construct of research is the safeguarding of respondentsaˆY rights. In the procedure of this research, the research worker has done the following to guarantee that the respondentsaˆY rights are protected.
Consent was sought before administrating the questionnaires.
Proper referencing was made for all studies used in the research.
Questionnaires were coded to guarantee namelessness. None of the respondents was named at any clip during the research.
Respondents were selected for their willingness to take part without force, and no hazard to the respondents could be identified at any phase during the research.
Respondents were treated with regard and courtesy throughout the research procedure.
This methodological analysis describes all the procedures that were involved in the behavior of this research. This research methodological analysis besides provides a better apprehension of the following chapter which studies and explains the findings and expresses the consequence of the research.
4.0 ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATA
4.1 Scope of Analysis
First, the general consumer form towards recycling in Leicester were analysed, followed by the cardinal inquiries with peculiar mention to the research objectives besides the prepositions were tested.
Frequencies and non parametric trial such as Chi square and Mann-Whitney were used. The reported determination addresses the research aims,
4.2 General form
4.2.1 General Recycling Pattern
The form of consumers involved in the act of recycling has been revealed by the respondents that it is influenced by the metropolis council and the recycling process in their country. However, it was revealed that all the respondents were all cognizant of recycling, but the beginning of information about recycling differs as 64 % of the respondent knew about recycling through the metropolis council while 32 % said the cyberspace was their beginning of information and merely 4 % revealed that the telecasting was their beginning.
Furthermore, all the respondents were involved in the act of recycling different reclaimable merchandises, besides all the respondents revealed that the recycling process takes place hebdomadally in their country. Although, 94 % of the respondent revealed that recycling bin aggregation was the recycling process in their country in which the staying 6 % revealed that bottle aggregation was the process available in their country.
Question 3 of the questionnaire was investigate the merchandise they recycle and how frequently they recycle in which 96 % , 58 % , and 58 % ever recycle paper, tins and plastic bottles severally while 24 % , 36 % , 34 % ,28 % and 34 % of the respondent ever recycle glass, fabrics, ink cartridges, books and CD`s severally. This determination nevertheless revealed that over 55 % do non travel an excess stat mi to recycle. Nevertheless, the Numberss of respondents that recycle paper are comparatively higher than the respondents that recycle other reclaimable merchandise.
4.2.2 Consumer Recycling Percept
The recycling perceptual experience of consumers in Leicester is non merely influenced by their belief that recycling salvage the environment but besides, their belief that it is ethical to recycle. However, 40 % of the respondents strongly agree that recycling salvage the environment, while 38 % agree that recycling salvage the environment and 22 % were impersonal about their position on recycling. Furthermore, 44 % of the respondents strongly agree that it is ethical to recycle while, 48 % agree that it is ethical to recycle and merely 8 % of the respondents were impersonal.
Furthermore, 60 % of the respondents strongly disagree that they do n’t experience it ‘s of import to recycle while 12 % disagree and 16 % were impersonal. However, 10 % of the respondents agree that it is non of import to recycle.
In add-on, 42 % of the respondents strongly disagree that they recycle because they do n’t desire to be fined while 48 % disagree and merely 8 % of the respondents were impersonal. On the other manus, 44 % of the respondent strongly disagree that they recycle because their friends does while 30 % disagree and 18 % were impersonal. Although, 64 % of the respondent strongly disagree that they recycle because people in their community will esteem them while 32 % disagree, yet merely 4 % of the respondents were impersonal about their position. Hence, this determination revealed that consumers chiefly recycle because they believe it ‘s ethical and their actions will salvage the environment.
4.3 ANALYSIS FOR KEY QUESTIONS AND PATTERN
In this subdivision, the proposition will be tested utilizing the key merchandises ( see inquiry 3 in questionnaire ) by and large available for recycling.
4.3.1 PROPOSITION 1
P1- Older people are likely to take part in recycling than younger people
Chi-Square Trials for books
N of Valid Cases
16 cells ( 88.9 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is 1.40.
Chi-Square Trials for paper
N of Valid Cases
a. 8 cells ( 66.7 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is.10.
( See appendix D for more qis square consequences )
The Chi-square trial revealed that there is a chance that there is a statistical relationship between the variables as the significance degree is less than.05, viz. CD`s.024, ink cartridge ; .010, fictile bottle ; .003, glass ; .024.cloths ; .009 and books ; .040. While, there was no chance of a statistical relationship between variables as the significance degree was greater than.05 in tins ; .538, paper ; .834. However, the consequence show the findings are undependable as the figure of informations observed is excessively little
4.3.2 PROPOSITION 2
P2 – Female consumers are likely to recycle more than work forces.
In other to find if the mean of the gender are different, a Mann- Whitney trial was conducted as gender is a nominal variable. Besides a non-parametric trial has to be used.
Asymp. Sig. ( 2-tailed )
a. Grouping Variable: Gender
From the above Mann-Whitney trial, we can reason that there is a important relationship as the trial for glass, ink cartridge and CD`s were less than the alpha degree of.05, viz. , glass ; .000, ink cartridge ; .001 and CD`s ; .007. Hence there is a statistical significance difference between male and female. Besides the trial revealed that we can non reason that there is any important relationship as the important degree was greater than the specified significance degree of alpha.05, viz. , books ; .650, fictile bottles ; .690, cans ; .715, paper ; .418, and fabrics ; .718. Hence there is no statistical difference between male and female.
Besides Chi-square trial was carried out ;
Chi-Square Trials for books
N of Valid Cases
a. 0 cells ( .0 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is 5.71.
Chi-Square Trials for CD`s
N of Valid Cases
a. 0 cells ( .0 % ) have expected count less than 5. The lower limit expected count is 5.37.
The Chi-square trial show that there is a statistical relationship between the variable as the significance degree is less than.05. Namely, Ink cartridge ; .001, and CD`s.023. Besides the consequence show it ‘s dependable as the expected cell is less than 25 % . However, there the consequence could non reason if there was any significance relationship between the variable books.534, fictile bottle.801, cloths.067, cans.659, and paper.413was greater than.05. Furthermore, the consequences were non dependable as their expected cell was greater than 25 % . Namely, paper50 % , fictile bottle 33.3 % , cans50 % , glass 37.5 % but the expected cell for book was less than 25 % . ( see appendix D )