Analysing Consumer Decision Making Process

In the consumer pick behaviour literature, it is by and large assumed that a consumer goes through two phases in doing a ingestion determination, which is illustrated in Figure 2.1 ( Hauser and Wernerfelt, 1990 ) . Although o one-stage procedure theoretical account, which assumes that a client considers all the available alternate trade names until the best 1 is identified, has besides been put Forth in earlier research surveies ; a two-stage procedure theoretical account has been proved to better calculate consumer penchant and behaviour than that of the one-stage procedure theoretical account ( Roberts and Lattin, 1991 ) . In the two-stage procedure theoretical account, a consumer foremost selects a subset of available trade names, which will be considered in item. The selected trade names form the consumer ‘s consideration set. It represents tradeoffs between determination costs and the incremental benefits of taking from a big set of trade names. The 2nd phase involves scrutiny of every alternate trade name in the consideration set until one that the consumer believes of supplying the optimum value is identified.

Figure 2.1: Consumer Decision Making in a Consumption Situation

Decision Making Process Outcome


The trade name with the highest value cyberspace of the costs of acquiring it is chosen.

1st Phase:

Formation of consideration set

2nd Phase:

Examination of every alternate trade name in the consideration set

A consumer undergoes a series of procedures before a determination is made. In fact, ingestion determination is non a once-for-all exercising ; the procedure is gone through one time every clip a ingestion determination has to be made. The consumer determination doing procedure is so dynamic in nature, fundamentally because of three grounds. One, with limited cognitive capacity, a consumer merely considers a limited sum of information every clip a ingestion determination is made. Consequently, subjecting to what information is being reviewed at the clip of doing a ingestion determination. The consumer may stop up with different pick results due to heterogeneousness in attribute public presentation of alternate trade names in the market. Two, the value an alternate trade name provides is non a fixed value. It subjects to the perceptual experience of the consumer and therefore varies across ingestion occasions. Three, because of such factors as information dissymmetry and imperfect communicating between purchasers and Sellerss, uncertainness in the value of a trade name exists. A trade name ‘s value is non to the full known to a consumer and is updated and revised upon the consumer ‘s reception of every piece of extra information. The dynamic nature of the consumer determination devising processes implies the information a consumer has about alternate trade names is influential to the value the consumer assigns to these trade names and therefore the procedure result, that is, the trade name pick.

2.2 Brand Association

Consumers have 3 ways of comprehending a trade name including the rational, emotional and cultural facets ( Crispell and Brandenburg, 1993 ) . A quality branded merchandise, which is normally reflected from its superior merchandise properties, can merely act upon the consumer ‘s rational perceptual experience and rating of the trade name. Furthermore, one time a consumer is convinced of the quality of a trade name, it becomes hard to alter his/her established quality perceptual experiences about the trade name ( Van Osselaer and Alba, 2000 ) . To efficaciously act upon a consumer ‘s higher degrees of ratings and thereby associations with the trade name, the trade name has to supply value beyond functional, so that the consumer forms a favourable attitude towards the trade name and feels good about utilizing it. In other words, the consumer should comprehend himself/herself as benefited from the ingestion of the trade name. Since such affectional responses to a trade name are some of the few ratings the consumer can hive away in memory, consumer attitudes towards the peculiar trade name can be shaped for future mention ( Farquhar, 1989 ) .

2.3 Brand Commitment

One of the primary ends of sellers is non merely to excite gross revenues of merchandises, but besides to further a long-run sense of trueness, or committedness, toward a trade name among consumers. It has been argued that trade name trueness consists of both purchase trueness and attitudinal trueness ( Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001 ) . However, the term trade name trueness often refers to a behavioural construct ( Fournier, 1998 ) , while the term trade name committedness is used in mention to an attitudinal construct ( Lastovicka and Gardner, 1978 ) . Purchase trueness refers to the repetition purchase of a merchandise. Clearly, repetition purchases of a merchandise may ensue from a assortment of factors other than a sensed sense of trueness to the trade name, such as convenience, monetary value and a deficiency of alternate picks. Therefore, purchase trueness is non needfully a strong index of an person ‘s fond regard to, wishing for, or penchant for a trade name. Brand committedness, on the other manus, has been described as a deep emotional or psychological fond regard to a trade name that reflects the grade to which persons view a trade name as the lone acceptable pick within a merchandise class ( Warrington and Shim, 2000 ) . Although trade name committedness typically implied trade name trueness, the modesty is non true. Therefore, trade name committedness extends much deeper than simple repeat purchase behaviour and is a better index of consumer satisfaction and fond regard to a trade name. Therefore, this research is interested in trade name committedness instead than trade name trueness.

Committedness has received a considerable sum of attending in the relationship selling literature and consistent with Fournier ( 1998 ) this research has adopted a relational position of the consumer merchandise sphere. The success of any long-run exchange relationship relies to a great extent upon the degree of committedness to the relationship. Therefore, persons who are committed to a peculiar trade name or company are likely to exhibit behaviours that will heighten the sensed relationship with the trade name. Commitment has been described as the extent to which an person believes that a relationship is deserving maximal attempt to keep indefinitely ( Morgan and Hunt, 1994 ) . Moorman, Zaltman, and Desphande ( 1992, p.316 ) defined committedness as ‘an digesting desire to keep a valued relationship ‘ . Consistent with societal exchange theory, Morgan and Hunt ( 1994 ) contended that committedness will merely be when a given relationship is perceived as being of import and potentially digesting. As explained by Fournier ( 1998 ) , consumers often form relationships with the trade names they know and use. Not merely do such relationships add intending to a individual ‘s life, they can besides alter or reenforce self-concepts. Therefore, Fournier ( 1998 ) suggested that future research should analyze trade name relationship quality instead than trade name trueness. Although both constructs are similar in nature, the trade name relationship quality concept implied that relationship strength and lastingness are influenced non merely by positive feelings, but besides by affectional and socioemotive fond regards, behavioural ties, and supportive cognitive beliefs. Therefore, committedness should be an of import concept in successful and digesting consumer-brand relationships ( Morgan and Hunt, 1994 ) .

2.4 The Self Concept

Purkey and Schmidt ( 1996 ) explained that self-concept is defined as

‘The entirety of a complex and dynamic system of erudite beliefs that an single holds to be true about his or her being and that gives consistence to his or her personality ‘ .

Since the care and sweetening of the perceived ego are the motivations of all human behaviour, self-concept theory can clear up and assist understand consumer behaviour. Three chief qualities of ego are embedded in definition of self-concept in self-concept theory. The self-concept is learned, dynamic and organized ( Purkey & A ; Schmidt, 1990 ) .

The first self-concept is learned: people are non born with a self-concept, it is non natural. Self-awareness is developed through experience, peculiarly important others, like school forces, parents and equals so that self-concept is a societal merchandise. Peoples are likely altering their perceptual experiences through an highly traumatic event, through a professional assisting relationship, or through mundane repeated experiences and events ( Purkey & A ; Schmidt, 1990 ) . Repeated experiences do hold profound consequence on the ego so that developing the self-concept is a life-long procedure. The ego is acquired and modified through the invariably roll uping experiences of the developing individual. Since the care and sweetening of the perceived ego are the basic motivations behind all human behaviour. Self-concept non merely shapes the manner a individual views oneself, others and the universe, but besides serves to direct actions and enable individual to keep a changeless stance in life. The self-concept does non do the behaviour but it serves as a perceptual filter or moderator variable in steering waies of behaviour.

The 2nd self-concept is dynamic: self-concept development is a uninterrupted and life-long procedure. In a healthy personality there is an assimilation of new thoughts and ejection of old thoughts throughout life. Change in self-concept is possible, but it takes times to alter and can be non changed instantly.

The 3rd self-concept is organized: self-concept has a stable quality with features of harmoniousness and methodicalness. Self-concept tends to defy alteration and the more cardinal a peculiar belief is in one ‘s self-concept, the more immune one is to altering that belief. Beliefs can be divided into properties and classs and they both are normally linked together and positioned in hierarchal order within the ego.

Furthermore, recent research has suggested that people ‘s self-concept and organic structure image are affected by societal interaction through two procedures including reflected assessment and societal comparing. The procedure of reflected assessment refers to a theory which goes back to the bend of the century. It is the procedure in which we see ourselves as others see us, or as we think they do, utilizing a kind of psychological radio detection and ranging to happen out sensed reactions. Perceived and non suggested because, harmonizing to some research, if a individual reads of others ‘ sentiment, she will be conditioned by self-evaluation. And it may be non necessary exact.

The research besides demonstrates that the status, to which this perceptual experience of external assessment shapes our judgement of ourselves, is the value and the importance to us of the people supplying it. The reactions of important others, people whose sentiments make a difference to us are peculiarly influential. For immature people, parents, brothers or sisters are the most of import influences. The 2nd procedure of societal comparing is that people compare themselves to find how attractive they are. In societal comparing, people evaluate themselves in relation to others, with points awarded for similarities and points forfeited for differences. This judgement is based on criterions set by the popular civilization. In many societies, physical attraction is defined to a important extent by the form and size of the organic structure.

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1 Research Method

Choosing the right method is important for the research as it will impact the relevant information infusion from the information. There are two types of method research workers use to roll up informations: qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative research method are more intrusive and less structured than quantitative research techniques and, therefore, are appropriate when the research is explorative in nature, when the country for scrutiny is unfamiliar to the research worker and when the research is clinical ( Jarratt, 1996 ) . Qualitative research is roll uping, analysing, and construing informations by detecting what people do and state. Small figure of people is interviews in deepness and a comparatively little figure of focal point groups are conducted. This technique is administered by analyser who analyzed the findings and tends to somewhat subjective ( Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000 ) while quantitative research method is aimed to sort characteristics, number them, and contrast statistical theoretical accounts in an effort to explicate what is observed and the informations collected are in signifier of figure and statistics ( Neil, 2007 ) . It is descriptive in nature and is used by the research workers to understand the effects of assorted promotional inputs on the consumers ( Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000 ) . Quantitative research is research affecting the usage of structured inquiries where the response options have been predetermined and a big figure of respondents are involved. Harmonizing to McDaniel and Roger ( 2002 ) , to analyze the significance of affecting variables statistically, quantitative research is considered utile. Quantitative research hunts for illations about a big population, giving a consequence that portrays statistical analysis capableness, high dependability and generalizability ( Sae-Jiu, 2007 ) . In add-on, most of the research in this country of survey utilised quantitative research with similar methodological analysis. The usage of quantitative research for this survey will bring forth comparing with anterior survey within the same context.

3.2 Data Collection

3.2.1 Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire was designed to roll up the demographic information of the respondents covering age. Social category information includes instruction, business and income, ( inquiries figure 1, 2, 3, and 4 ) utilizing multiple pick inquiries. Harmonizing to Fisher ( 2007 ) , this type of inquiries provides respondents with a pick of three to five options and asks them to take one. This type of inquiries giving unambiguous options that is reciprocally sole. Research workers besides applied multiple pick inquiries to analyze the respondents ‘ buying behaviour in inquiries figure 5 to see the frequence of buying make-up merchandises, inquiry figure 6 to see how much money they spend on purchasing make-up and inquiry figure 7 inquiring respondents about type of make-up merchandise they buy largely of. Lastly, Likert graduated table was applied to inquire respondents about their sentiments and attitudes and to inquire them to take a place on a five-point graduated table between strongly agree and strongly differ ( Fisher, 2007 ) . A Likert graduated table was applied to oppugn figure 8-26 to analyze the respondents ‘ attitude toward trade names and their purchase determination.

Table 3.1 Questionnaire Designed

Aim of questionnaire

Questionnaire figure

Type of questionnaire

Statistical techniques

Asking respondent ‘s demographic


Multiple pick inquiries


Asking respondent ‘s buying behaviour of make-up merchandise


Likert graduated table

Correlation and arrested development

Study attitude toward trade name trueness


Likert graduated table

Correlation and arrested development

Study attitude toward trade name consciousness


Likert graduated table

Correlation and arrested development

Study attitude toward trade name association


Likert graduated table

Correlation and arrested development

Study attitude toward perceived quality


Likert graduated table

Correlation and arrested development

Study attitude toward purchase determination of trade names


Likert graduated table

Correlation and arrested development

The respondents were asked to reply the questionnaires, so they were asked to discourse whether inquiries were obscured, e.g. whether they understand the significance of the statement and inquiries or if there was any equivocal in the inquiries.

3.2.2 Sampling

This survey identifies the mark group of respondent which are female consumers with age between 18-35 year-old, since this section has high disbursement power and avidity to distribute ( Sung, 2006 ) . The writers had set the sample size of this study at 200 as it believed to be managed and collected within clip restraint, nevertheless, to be certain that the study sample will be returned to an acceptable figure, this survey will administer 250 questionnaires to the mark respondents. However, as this survey is aimed at giving the basic guideline and apprehension of female consumers in their make-up buying behaviour which the writers believe that the consequence of the survey can depict the tendency of the market and will give a more in deepness apprehension to makeup houses and sellers so that they can carry on farther probe on their ain specific intent. Additionally, the distinct sample size is considered to be able to roll up within clip bound of the research.