A Study On Human Resource Management Management Essay

At the stopping point of the last century, organizational theory adept Richard Daft wrote that challenges confronting administrations on the Eve of the 21st century are rather different from those of the 1970s and 1980s.

At the mid-point of the first decennary of the new century, Daft ‘s place has been confirmed. Administrations and the people – the human resources – who comprise them are confronting unprecedented challenges. Developing and leveraging the alliance between administrations and their people in these disruptive times is the function of the human resource direction map. The grade to which this map is effectual is a major factor in the success of the administration.

Get downing with placing the challenges confronting administrations in the 21st century as a foundation, the essay will go on by showing challenges confronting the human resource map in the new century and a cardinal attack for run intoing current and future human resource direction challenges. The essay will show: ( 1 ) that challenges to the human resource direction map reflect those of the overarching administration and that the success of both are closely intertwined and ( 2 ) that a strategic attack to meeting challenges confronting the human resource direction map will assist advance the success of the overarching administration.

Challenges Confronting Administrations in the Twenty-first Century

Rapid alteration is recognised as the most common challenge confronting administrations today ( Davis, 1995, cited in Daft, 1998 ) . This rapid alteration emanates from factors such as strong planetary competition, demands for organizational reclamation, the demand to develop strategic advantage, the direction of new types of employee relationships, support for new degrees of diverseness, and the demand for high degrees of ethical behavior and societal duty ( Daft, 1998 ) .

The challenges of planetary competition are twofold: foremost, administrations face challenges from international rivals in their place states while holding to go competitory in planetary markets. There is increased international mutuality with goods and services, human resources, and capital being acquired, managed, and distributed globally. Administrations are being challenged to regenerate themselves invariably to stay feasible. Administrations are flattening by extinguishing mid-level directors, and squad constructions are being used to cover with issues. Developing and keeping strategic advantage has ever been an organizational authorization, but today that authorization nowadayss increased challenges to non merely happen ways to bring forth the highest quality merchandises at the least cost, but besides to present those merchandises to clients more rapidly than can rivals. Concepts such as mechanization and reengineering are being progressively applied to accomplish strategic advantage. Employee relationships have changed, thereby showing extra challenges. Employees may work at place or on the route instead than in offices. Directors frequently move horizontally instead than vertically during their callings. There are more free-lances and contractors being used by administrations. Workforce diverseness presents another challenge as a greater figure of employees come from different age groups, genders, races, national beginnings, and sexual orientations every bit good as with different physical abilities. Finally, administrations face challenges from public force per unit area to act ethically and with greater societal duty. ( Daft, 1998 ) Dessler ( 2000, cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d. ) , in admiting that globalisation has created challenges, calls attending of other factors including progresss in engineering and telecommunications, deregulating, diverseness and other alterations in the work force, and tendencies in the nature of work and legal affairs.

Gilley and Maycunich ( 2000 ) note that [ o ] rganisations are in a changeless province of alteration. Preskill and Torres ( 1999, cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000 ) contend that what has become crystal clear is that the administration will ne’er once more be stable and predictable, adding that [ n ] o longer do administrations offer one merchandise of service for 20 more old ages with a homogenous work force that experiences small motion.

Vaile ( 1996 cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000 ) refers to this province of changeless and go oning alteration as lasting white H2O. Williams ( 2002 ) , in indicating to the monolithic Numberss of amalgamations and acquisitions that have taken topographic point in recent old ages, notes that [ vitamin E ] ach clip a amalgamation and acquisition occurred, one resource within the administration was forgotten: the people.

Sing foretelling future organizational challenges, Nickerson ( 1992 ) cautiousnesss readers non to do projections for the hereafter with absolute certainty. He writes: No 1 knows what the universe will be like 50 or 100 old ages from now. He continues: Trying to project even 10, 20, or 30 old ages in front is a sap ‘s game, because there are so few ways to be right and so many ways to be incorrect. Kay ( 1984, cited in Nickerson, 1992 ) warns against foretelling the hereafter by looking at past tendencies. Nickerson suggests that the lone certainty is that the hereafter will be as full of surprises as it has been in the yesteryear.

Challenges Confronting the Human Resource Function in the Twenty-first Century

In some mode, each of the organizational challenges identified in the predating subdivision have human resource deductions which can be derived from an analysis of the organizational challenges:

. Flexible, speedy scholars are needed to run into the challenges of rapid, normally unpredictable, alteration.

. Directors and employees who are comfy with and competent in covering with competition on a planetary footing are needed. Travel and resettlement are being required more often.

. Peoples who are able to work in squads and unstructured agreements such as home-based offices and who are willing to take part in altering the administration through reengineering and other enterprises are needed.

. Peoples who are comfy larning about and utilizing automated systems and using new ways of working are progressively required.

. Non-traditional calling waies are more common ( e.g. horizontal versus perpendicular motion ) .

. Members of administrations who are comfy with recruiting, choosing, preparation, and working with people from really diverse backgrounds are needed. Attach toing this is the demand to develop and prolong new ways of pulling and retaining a talented, diverse work force including advanced compensation attacks.

Schuler ( 2000, cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d. ) suggests that the move from national isolation to globalisation has resulted in the rapid grasp for and development of all facets associated with and affected by human resource direction. Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea ( n.d. ) contend that this state of affairs has resulted in chances every bit good as challenges for administrations. Management of the human resource is now critical to the success of administrations big and little and in all industries ( Dessler, 2000, cited in Nicolaou and Stavrow-Costea, n.d. ) . Challenges confronting the human resource direction map include preparation and development, efficiency and flexibleness, and employee dealingss ( Mahlemeyer and Clarke, 1997 ; Skinner, 1999 ; Gomez-Mejia et al. , 2001, cited in Nicolaou and Stavrow-Costea, n.d. ) .

Peterson ( 1993 ) lists challenges confronting the human resource direction map in each of four countries – choice and recruiting, preparation, compensation, and labour dealingss. Many of the challenges Peterson describes, which are quoted below, echo those described above:

Choice and Recruiting

. more adult females in higher managerial places ;

. stronger international competition for high quality directors ;

. higher mobility ; and

. a recruitees ‘ market due to aging population.


. increasing importance of internal direction development plans to pull and retain directors ;

. cross-cultural preparation for international teamwork ;

. information-technology ; and

. retraining of older directors.


. senior status of lesser importance ;

. lifting retirement age with ensuing alterations in pension agreements ;

. increased employee ownership programs ;

. performance-based wage to include non-sales places ; and

. more flexibleness in work hours.

Labour Relationss

. looser-coupling in systems ;

. increased foreign invitee workers and immigrants ;

. decreased occupation security ;

. increasing influence of transnational administrations and international government organic structures ; and

. diminishing influence of national authoritiess.

Approachs to Meeting Current and Future Human Resource Management Challenges

The function of a human resource direction map is to set up and put to death policies, plans, and processs that influence the public presentation, capablenesss, and trueness of the employees of an administration, harmonizing to Clardy ( 1996 ) . He continues by claiming that [ t ] hrough these policies and processs, persons are attracted, retained, motivated, and developed to execute the work of the administration. The human resources map is of important importance in the post-industrial universe ( Bell, 1972 ; Schneider and Bowen, 1993, cited in Clardy, 1996 ) .

Confronting the challenges of today and tomorrow requires that administrations approach the human resource direction map much otherwise than in the yesteryear. Historically, the human resource direction administration performed everyday, administrative responsibilities associated with choice and recruiting, preparation, compensation, and labour dealingss. The challenges now confronting administrations mandate that this inactive attack is no longer equal. Today, the human resource direction administration must be more proactive ; that is, it must incorporate itself into the remainder of the administration, strategically. Gilley and Maycunich ( 1998, cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000 ) write:

[ C ] reating strategic concern partnerships [ between human resource direction administrations and their overarching administrations ] produces economic public-service corporation, which is measured in footings of increased organizational public presentation, profitableness, gross, quality, or efficiency.

Importantly, this strategic confederation, so necessary to organizational success in run intoing the known challenges of today and the unknown challenges of tomorrow, permits the human resource direction map to work in harmoniousness to better the administration ‘s economic viability. For success, human resource direction maps must incorporate tightly with each other and with the overarching organizational scheme. To run into today ‘s and tomorrow challenges, members of the human resource direction administration must cognize about, have influence over, and be closely connected with people in other parts of the administration. ( Gilley and Maycunich, 2000 )

In decision, harmonizing to Mohrman and Lawler ( 1997, cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000 ) to be effectual now and in the hereafter, the human resource direction administration must be a sophisticated concern spouse capable of believing consistently and turn toing concern issues, adding that these administrations must be able to work cross-functionally within a figure of leading squads responsible for planning and pull offing the complex issues of rapid alteration.


Bell, D. ( 1972 )The coming of station industrial society. New York: Basic Books, 1972. Cited in Clardy, 1996.

Clardy, Alan B. ( 1996 )Pull offing human resources: Exercises, experiments, and applications workbook. Mahway, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.

Daft, Richard L. ( 1998 )Organisation theory and design. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, 1998.

Davis, Eileen ( 1995 ) What ‘s on American directors ‘ heads?Management Review. April 1995. Cited in Daft, 1998.

Dessler, G. ( 2000 ) ,Human resource direction.New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000. Cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d.

Gilley, J. W. and Maycunich, A. ( 1998 ) .Strategically incorporate HRD: Partnering to maximize organizational public presentation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Books. Cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000.

Gilley, Jerry and Maycunich, Ann ( 2000 )Organisational acquisition, public presentation, and alteration: An debut to strategic human resource development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Books, 2000.

Gomez-Mejia, L.R. et Al. ( 2001 )Pull offing Human Resources.New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d.

Kay A. C. ( 1984 )Inventing the hereafter. In P. H. Winston and K. A. Prendergast, eds. ,The AI concern. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Cited in Nickerson, 1992.

Mohrman, S. A. and Lawler III, E. E. ( 1997 )Transforming the human resource map. In D. Ulrich, M. R. Losey, and G. Lake, eds. ,Tomorrow ‘s HR Management: 48 Thought Leaders Call for Change. New York: Wiley & A ; Sons, 1997. Cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000.

Mahlemeyer, P. and Clarke, M. ( 1997 ) The competitory factor: preparation and development as a strategic direction undertaking.Journal of Workplace Learning,1999. Cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d.

Nickerson, Raymond ( 1992 )Looking in front: Human factors challenges in a changing universe. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.

Nicolaou, Nicoleta and Stavrou-Costea, Eleni ( n.d. )Human resource direction challenges towards organizational effectivity within an international context: A comparative survey in southern Europe. Cyprus: University of Cyprus, Department of Public and Business Administration, n.d.

Peterson, Richard B. ( 1993 )Directors and national civilization: A planetary position. Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1993.

Preskill, H. , and R. T. Torres ( 1999 )Evaluative Inquiry for Learning in Organisations. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 1999. Cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000.

Schneider, B. and Bowen, D. E. ( 1993 ) The service administration: Human resources direction is critical.Administration Dynamicss, 21 ( 4 ) , 1993. Cited in Clardy, 1996.

Schuler, R. ( 2000 ) The internationalisation of human resource direction.Journal of International Management, 2000. Cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d.

Sims, Ronald R. ( 2002 )Organizational success through effectual human resources direction. Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 2002.

Skinner D. ( 1999 ) The world of equal chances: The outlooks and experiences of parttime staff and their directors.Personnel Review,1999. Cited in Nicolaou and Stavrou-Costea, n.d.

Vaile, P. ( 1996 )Learning as a Way of Being. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996. Cited in Gilley and Maycunich, 2000.

Williams, Lloyd C. ( 2002 )Making the congruous workplace: Challenges for people and their administrations. Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 2002.