A Case Study Of The Glastonbury Music Festival Marketing Essay

A Case Study of the Glastonbury Music Festival:


The footing of this research is to research how selling has affected the nature of the Glastonbury Festival, which includes an geographic expedition of the statistics in regard to cardinal elements of festival direction, the attractive force of attendants ; every bit good as understanding the nexus between successful selling and nature of the Acts of the Apostless that are executing at the Glastonbury Festival. This means that it is of import to understand how the usage of modern engineering has evolved the consumer society and the famous person of civilization ; hence altering the nature of marketing these festivals. In regard to the Glastonbury Festival there has been a motion from the peripheries to the mainstream, which is declarative of the commercial facets associated with success in the twenty-first Century. This is supported by the sponsorship and stigmatization of the festival by Orange ; every bit good as the accent on gross revenues and grosss. However at the bosom of this remain some of the traditional values of community spirit and charity, which is the distinguishing consequence that has meant the length of service of success. The undermentioned research has sent 14 questionnaires to targeted organizers, trade name patrons and sellers of the Glastonbury festival ; nevertheless merely 5 replied. This was to be expected and has provided insightful and preliminary informations to understand the importance of marketing communicating of the Glastonbury Festival.

Table of Contentss

Front Cover: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Abstraction: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Chapter One: Introduction


Purposes and Aims:



Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal:

Theoretical Reappraisal:

Marketing Theory:

Review of Festival and development over the last 30 old ages:

The significance of Glastonbury Festival from 1970 to 2009 ( Glastonbury Festival, 2010 ) :

Chapter 3: Methodology:

Empirical Foundations:

Research Method:

Data Collection:

Analytic Approach:


Chapter 4: Findingss and Analysis:




Reference List:


Chapter One: Introduction


The nature of events direction has changed significantly over the last 40 old ages, with the usage of ocular engineering and late instantaneous communicating. Therefore the nature of marketing these events has changed, which means that the mark audience has shifted radically ( Zhang et al, 2005 ) . One cardinal issue that has been raised is that with alterations in the telecasting, movie and music industry ; particularly with the coming of the cyberspace the function of famous person has become a lasting fixture in the place ( Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) . This means that the nature of events have evolved to reflect the alterations in society and social involvements. The alteration of the events has meant that selling has had to germinate in order to do events successful, hence the undermentioned thesis is traveling to research the nexus between events marketing, modern engineering and young person tendencies to understand this development.

The usage of the festival as a medium to research this relationship will exemplify the alterations, because the festival has moved from being portion of the fringe civilization in the 1970s to a mainstream summer event ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . This means that the whole direction and selling of these events has had to alter, in portion these festivals are no longer a symbol of protest and anti-establishment and reflects an economic endeavor of modern consumer society ( Rowley and Williams, 2005 ) . The principle of this job is to research how the Glastonbury Festival has evolved over the last 40 old ages with the development of consumer demands, which is straight related to the development of selling. This thesis will reason the most of import alteration in selling is the merchandising of trade names and images, which has become more effectual with the development of telecasting, orbiter and instantaneous communicating.

Purposes and Aims:

The purpose of this thesis is to understand the links between the development of marketing techniques, the function of engineering and the alteration in the nature of festivals. It will see the function of famous person civilization and how this has changed the music market and the nature and message of festivals. Therefore in order to run into this aim the undermentioned inquiry will be asked:

How has the nature of Glastonbury Festival evolved over the last 40 old ages with the impact of marketing techniques?

In order to reply this inquiry the following aims has been developed:

To research the development of the Glastonbury Festival as a trade name

To place the development of marketing engineering as a manner to sell Glastonbury Festival as a trade name

To analyze the impact of marketing big headline Acts of the Apostless on the nature of the festival and the consequence on the figure of attendants, grosss and the nature of the Acts of the Apostless.

To look into whether the “ utopia ” of the Glastonbury Festival has been lost through marketing a famous person trade name


The principle for this research is because in the modern universe of selling, trade name and image has become even more of import ; therefore the undermentioned thesis will research modern selling techniques ( Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) . Therefore, a cardinal factor of alteration is the usage modern selling techniques, such as Buzz, Viral and WOM, have been used to develop Glastonbury Festival as a trade name, i.e. the merchandising of famous person as a lifestyle pick, in a manner one would take their apparels or music ( Rowley and Williams, 2008, Larsen et Al, 2005, 2009 ) . Although the footing of this thesis is to see the consequence of selling on the facts and figures of the Glastonbury Festival, the concluding purpose will let for a treatment of the nature of the festival. It will get down by foregrounding the footing of the festival, refer to the attendants, act types and grosss and so see the modern festival and the Numberss, particularly the function of Orange ( glastonbury.orange.co.uk, 2010 ) . It seems that the last 12 old ages particularly the Glastonbury Festival ‘s attack is compete with mainstream festivals, such as V instead than remain true to its “ hippy ” and “ Utopian ” roots ( Corbett, 2003 ) .


The cardinal restriction with this research is that as it is on limited timeframe extended questionnaires and interviews with festival departers are non possible. Therefore, it is traveling to concentrate on bing surveies, newspaper studies and the usage of questionnaires with organizers and selling groups. This means it will supply an indicant of how the festival has evolved ; every bit good as the participants. Yet it will non really supply the positions and motives of the festival as this will be inferred from the accretion and analysis of other beginnings.

Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal:

Theoretical Reappraisal:

Marketing Theory:

WOM ( Word of Mouth ) is a cardinal construct to the selling of lifestyle experience, which is even more of import in the festival industry ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) The power of WOM has been accentuated by the modern signifiers of communicating, which includes societal networking sites, such as Facebook and web logs set up by companies and events where the experience is sold to the consumer ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) . Therefore, non merely utilizing these sites and signifiers of communicating is of import, but keeping the CEM to run into the consumer ‘s outlook. This means that the events direction and administration is merely every bit of import as the selling communications ( Verhof et al, 2009 ) . This is because these new networking sites besides leave the experiences so it is of import that the client leaves happy, because if it fails to make so and a negative experience is left through these modern signifiers of communicating so it may turn away a possible client ( Litvin et al, 2004 ) . Therefore, the “ lifestyle ” of the event must run into the existent client experience so the CEM is every bit of import as the selling of the event ( Verhof et al, 2009, Lindgreen and Vanhamme, 2005, Litvin et Al, 2004, Gruen et Al, 2005, Diez-Martin, 2000 ) . This links to the touristry theories of Cohen ( 1972 ) and Plog ( 1974 ) who argue that others are attracted to leisure installations and events based upon the experiences of others. His pressing for ‘theories of the in-between land ‘

instead than the creative activity of a individual theory would be repeated three decennaries subsequently by

Franklin and Crang ( 2001: 18 ) who observed,

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.goodfellowpublishers.com/free_files/Chapter % 203-248bacb341e5860354547930d339ecb3.pdf

This means the trade name and individuality are really of import to the possible consumer on the footing of trustiness. The usage of web logs and on-line reappraisals ; every bit good as festivals utilizing these sites to market their event is application of Plog ‘s theory of allocentricity and psychocentricity ( 1974 ) ; whereby leisure consumer picks are based upon the “ observation that it is advanced and adventuresome tourers that discover new finishs or touristry merchandises, who so, act as sentiment leaders and portion their experiencesaˆ¦ therefore making diffusion and selling impulse for new finishs and advanced travel merchandises ” ( Litvin et al, 2008 ) . As the reappraisal of the selling literature has highlighted is that the function of engineering is really of import Buttle, 1998, GL Market Research, 2007, Tarp, 1989, Stokes and Lomax, 2001 ) . This can be seen in how the impact of modern communicating engineering has evolved radically over the last 40 old ages, which has meant that the consumer can be engaged more efficaciously ; nevertheless on the flip-slide it has meant that the consumer is more cognizant and has greater demands ( Buttle, 1998, GL Market Research, 2007, Tarp, 1989, Stokes and Lomax, 2001 ) . This has changed the face of selling, which needs to be more sophisticated and reflect the desires of the consumer ( Peppers et Al, 1993, Zhang et Al, 2005 ) . Another key determination has been that modern engineering is traditionally the medium of the young person ; therefore it stands to ground that young person focused events will utilize the modern technologically based selling techniques ( Carroll et al, 2002, Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, Zhang et Al, 2010 ) . This can be seen in the increased usage of WOM, Viral and Buzz techniques ; particularly in respects to the usage of societal networking sites Buttle, 1998, Lindgreen and Vanhamme, 2005, Gruen et Al, 2005 ) .

Review of Festivals and the development over the last 30 Old ages

The deduction has been that the Glastonbury Festival was forced to alter to last. As Larsen and O’Reilly ( 2005, 2009 ) argue the Glastonbury Festival, have had to germinate from their traditional principle to the modern consumer demands ; whereby the usage of modern selling techniques plays a cardinal function ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009, Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) . This means that there has been a blending of selling and amusement, with the growing of societal networking sites ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) . This is of import statement because it illustrates how selling and amusement have become the trade name, i.e. any public presentation is marketing of the image ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) . Therefore events that are based on amusement are based on the trade name and must present. Besides the festival is a site of selling the amusement industry, the construct of drama and most significantly the construct of drama in the mainstream ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009, Rowley and Williams, 2008, Zhang et Al, 2010 )

Rowley and Williams ( 2008 ) explore the impact of trade name sponsorship on the nature of music festivals. It highlights how gross watercourse, mark audiences, headline Acts of the Apostless and selling attacks are indispensable to festival success and the usage of an suitably picked patron is indispensable ( pg. 782 ) . Larsen and O’Reilly ( 2005 ) explore the altering nature of music festivals to a topographic point of music ingestion ; therefore they are an of import topographic point of selling the famous person image and trade names of music creative persons. Rowley and Williams ( 2008 ) besides highlight the function of the trade name patron plays an of import function which will organize an of import portion of the analysis of Orange ‘s function in Glastonbury Festival over the last 12 old ages, the nature of the company and its ties with the Sony Walkman Brand of Mobile Phones. This has meant marketing techniques and the sale of the festival is indispensable to hit the mainstream and non the periphery ( Rowley and Williams, 2008, Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . However, the selling techniques have had to concentrate on the freedom and self-exploration, i.e. social forsaking, to pull greater Numberss and higher grosss at the festival and publicity of creative persons ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005 ) .

The usage of the “ utopia ” and the “ freedom ” of festivals has meant that the initial bosom of the Glastonbury Festival has been adapted from chumminess to sell a trade name – the Glastonbury Festival and the famous person image that is the focal point of these festivals ( Larsen and O ‘ Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . Therefore, the usage of “ anti-society ” and “ anti-consumer ” roots of the Glastonbury Festival has been used to sell the trade names associated with the modern synthesis ( Rowley and Williams, 2008, Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . As Zhang et Al ( 2010 ) argues trade name direction is now an built-in portion of amusement based events direction. It highlights that the two are no longer divide. The deduction of this is that for a festival to be a success it has to be based in mainstream amusement, which has meant the development for the Glastonbury Festival to a trade name with cardinal patrons such as Orange ( Rowley and Williams, 2008, Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) .

Larsen and O ‘ Reilly ( 2009 ) identifies that events must go mainstream to last. This supports the statement of how modern selling techniques such as the societal networking sites means that the initial sense of chumminess have become a portion of the trade name ( Larsen and O ‘ Reilly, 2009, Zhang et Al, 2010 ) . Yet Larsen and O ‘ Reilly ( 2009 ) besides identify that there may be a revival of the grassroots, because turning engineering has meant that selling has had to travel to the grassroots, such as societal networking sites. However, the cardinal determination is that marketing has perverted the footing of the Glastonbury Festival to go that the synthesis to the modern festival, based on consumerism and the bottom line ( Larsen and O ‘ Reilly, 2009 ) . However, Larsen and O ‘ Reilly ( 2009 ) do progress the cardinal statement that the selling of the festival is based on the initial dogmas of “ utopia ” , “ chumminess ” and rites of transition, yet these are now marketing technique which has brought the periphery to the mainstream ( pg. 7 ) .

The significance of the Glastonbury Festival and its demographics over the last 30 old ages:

The Glastonbury Festival began in the 1970 with its roots in music and look bing a mere ?1 with free milk from the farm. The festival relied on traditional WOM techniques where the societal groups into the Blues spread the word to come together and bask the music ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 ) . The Acts of the Apostless of the clip included Marc Boland who was on the peripheries at that clip, because of the diffident attitudes of the BBC and mainstream media to glam stone ; nevertheless the times changed to a popularity of the genre subsequently to the point in 1971 the genre was popular ( Paytress, 2006 ) ; whereby “ on the Eve of his sell-out UK circuit, Bolan stated “ I am so pleased that people are at that place. I feel I might merely travel on phase and split into cryings ” ” ( Tobler, 1992 ) . Therefore Glastonbury Festival was a oasis for experimental music and self-expression in its original signifier. This is supported by the scope of creative persons from the mainstream to the peripheries of the “ fayre ” that was conceived in 1971 ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 ) . However, after 1971 no festival took topographic point until 1978 and this lone took topographic point because of persuasion and a free festival with few comfortss was on, but the community and togetherness in the look of music was the key ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 ) . In these three festivals the attending was between 500 and 12,000 people who came together through traditional WOM techniques. In 1979 the festival was secured through a bank loan and a mixture of mainstream creative persons, such as Peter Gabriel, to the periphery of executing humanistic disciplines performed. The consequence was 12,000 attendants but a loss to the organizers as it was unsustainable at the nominal charge of ?5 ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 ) . In 1981 the festival returned back uping the CND and exemplifying its committedness to the periphery and conveying together young person for peace ; once more the creative persons were widespread from New Order to Gordon Giltrap ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 ) . The following increased to 18,000 at a mere ?8 per ticket. During the 1980s the festival took off ; nevertheless it committednesss remained with a huge scope of creative persons ; nevertheless the creative persons were committed to freedom of music and look.

Table 1: Development of Glastonbury Festival from 1970 to 2009 ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 )



Monetary value



Marc Boland, Al Stewart, Quintessence

?1 ( free milk Iraqi National Congress )



David Bowie, Quintessence, Joan Baez








Peter Gabriel, Sky, Footsbarn Theatre



1981 ( CND )

New Order, Aswad



1982 ( CND )

Van Morrison, Judie Tzuke



1983 ( CND )

UB40, The Beat

?12 programme 80p


1984 ( CND )

The Smiths, Paddy Ashdown

?13 programme 80p


1985 ( CND )

Aswad, Joe Cocker

?16 Programme 90p


1986 ( CND )

The Cure, Madness, Level 42

?17 Programme ?1


1987 ( CND )

Van Morrison, New Order, Elvis Costello



1989 ( CND )

Van Morrison, Pixies and Suzanne Vega

?28 Programme ?2


1990 ( CND )

The Cure, Sinead O’Connor, World Party

?38 Programme ?3


1992 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

The Levellers, , Shakespear ‘s Sister Primal Scream

?40 Programme 4


1993 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Lenny Kravitz, Stereo MCs, Velvet Underground

?58 Programme ?4


1994 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Bjork, Van Morrison, Manic St Preachers

?59 Programme ?5


1995 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

The Cure, Oasis, Simple Minds

?65 Programme ? 5


1997 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

The Prodigy, Sting, Radiohead



1998 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Tori Amos, Robbie Williams, Bob Dylan, Primal Scream



1999 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

REM, Fatboy Sllim, Blondie, Lonnie Donegan



2000 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Chemical Brothers, Basement Jaxx, David Bowie



2002 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Mis-teeq, Rod Stewart, Rolf Harris, Coldplay



2003 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

REM, Radiohead, De la Soul, Moby



2004 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Paul McCartney, Oasis, Scissor Sisters, Black Eyed Peas



2005 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

The Belly Dance Superstars, Coldplay, Basement Jaxx, Beautiful South



2006 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Artic Monkeys, Shirley Bassey, Lily Allen, Amy Winehouse



2008 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Jay-Z, Will Young, Leonard Cohen, Neil Diamond, Verve



2009 ( Greenpeace and Oxfam )

Lily Allen, Little Boots, Lady Gaga, Rolf Harris, Dizzee Rascal, Tom Jones, Cirque du Soleil



The latter old ages saw an addition in mainstream dad creative persons, a important addition in the monetary value and the debut of commercial thoughts. As the tabular array illustrates the festival was no longer music for the people ; instead it is a commercialized illustration of another dad festival, like the V. As Orange ( 2009 ) indicates “ [ s ] ince Michael Eavis founded the event on his dairy farm near Pilton, Somerset, it has attracted more best-selling sets, awe animating performing artists and emerging endowment than any other festival. And every twelvemonth it gets bigger, better and more popular, normally selling out on the first twenty-four hours of sale. This twelvemonth saw the fastest gross revenues of all time, with every ticket snapped up within one hr ” ( pg. 4 ) . Therefore the gross revenues and grosss are seen as more of import than the bosom and psyche of the festival, which was the initial construct. However, the sense of community remains at the Centre of the construct, because “ [ s ] ociety is going more fractured and people are less sociable in a physical society, doing the importance of festivals as a communal experience grow and turn “ ( Orange, 2009, pg. 4 ) . Another deduction is the selling of the festival relies on let go ofing the sale day of the month and acts through the media, societal networking sites, web logs and their web site and it sells out on repute and trade name exemplifying the power of CEM and WOM techniques that has created today ‘s success. As Kotler ( 1967 ) identified the WOM of attack is integrally linked to the constructs of client experience and feedback, which are now an of import portion of leisure and events direction ( Kirkpatrick and Roth, 2005 ) . The move towards the Centre, which can be seen in the Acts of the Apostless, is because there is an of import nexus between CEM and WOM, which is that the experience needs to be measured against rival festivals and so seen as superior. Therefore if the experience is standard to other companies or non comparable in the industry so there will be a nil impact of WOM, because there is no specific CEM to keep one company or merchandise above another ( Kirkpatrick and Roth, 2005 ) . This means the elements of WOM, CEM, stigmatization and vision are cardinal to the success of the festival, which includes the festival going mainstream in nature ; nevertheless puting itself apart on its moral standing and constructs of community. These are the cardinal subjects that will be explored in the questionnaires.

Chapter 3: Methodology:

Empirical Foundations

The research doctrine that this research utilises is positivism, which is the societal scientific method that is based upon the scientific method. As Bryman ( 2008 ) argues this research methodological analysis is based upon the premiss that physical universe and societal events are comparable ; therefore a research worker can use scientific rules to depict human behavior ( Veal, 2006, Saunders et Al, 2003, Bryman, 2008 ) . As Bryman ( 2008 ) indicates the basic rule of this empirical attack is to utilize observation and make a theory that can be applied to the wider societal world. This attack is justified because under the positive remit theory is cosmopolitan ( Saunders et al, 2003, Bryman, 2008 ) . This is because there is an premise that there are “ cosmopolitan Torahs ” that govern societal events, such as the influence that selling can play to act upon consumer determinations. In order to set about a rationalist survey it is of import that the theory can be replicated and testable, because theory is cosmopolitan, and sets of rules and illations can depict human behavior and phenomena across persons and scenes ( Bryman, 2008 ) .

An of import component is to be nonsubjective and independent from the informations ; therefore it is of import to use an attack that allows the research worker to recordable informations and analyze it in order to place the “ cosmopolitan Torahs ” . As Veal ( 2006 ) argues the denudation of these Torahs enables research workers to depict, predict and command societal phenomena. This is particularly of import in the selling industry, because influences on consumer behavior and assorted groups can be migrated from events and festival direction to the wider subject. As Saunders et Al ( 2003 ) argues a cardinal subject of the research is that there is objectiveness, where the research worker remains independent of the topic of the research. This has been partly initiated in the reappraisal of the demographics of the Glastonbury Festival since its origin. In order to use the findings of this reappraisal it is of import to prove the findings against some discernible informations ; whereby the preparation of cognition by developing theories from objectively collated variables that are operationally distinguishable from each other and defined consequently ( Bryman, 2008, Saunders et Al, 2003 ) . Therefore, this research will use a series of questionnaires and so undertake analysis of the findings in relation to the subjects identified in the literature reappraisal. This will supply the necessary extremely structured methodological analysis that are of import in order to be tested by the quantification of observations, and by the usage of statistical analysis in relation to the responses to the questionnaires ( Saunders et al, 2003 ) . Every measure will be taken to guarantee that the method used is verifiable and testable, which is the basis of positivism.

Research Method:

In order to use a rationalist method it is of import that the attack can copied ; hence it was decided to use a quantitative method. This will be complemented by the pick of utilizing questionnaires. In order to prove these inquiries through statistical analysis this questionnaire will incorporate closed or scaly inquiries in order to quantify the results ( Saunders et al, 2003 ) . The concluding subdivision of the questionnaire will incorporate open-ended inquiries, which have been designed to happen out in depth experiences of the selling of Glastonbury Festival in order to place whether the perceptual experiences of the respondents clarifies the determination in the literature and newspaper studies. As Saunders et Al ( 2003 ) argues the usage of an open-ended subdivision allows cogency to be built in the trial and ensures that the inquiries are non taking. This subdivision besides ensures that this allows for fewer more compendious subdivisions in the closed inquiry subdivision, which means higher response rates ( Bryman, 2008 ) .

Therefore the methodological analysis employed will be a rationalist attack where the focal point will be on statistical analysis of finding the development of marketing techniques and successes in respects to the Glastonbury Festival. This has been ab initio considered in the 40 twelvemonth reappraisal of the festival ; whereby the undermentioned factors will be considered ; marketing techniques, Acts of the Apostless attracted and figure of attendants. The inquiries within the questionnaires have been developed from the determination in the literature reappraisal and analysed in respects to the analysis of the demographics and Acts of the Apostless at the Glastonbury Festival. The cardinal subdivisions of the questionnaire are ;

The nexus between the addition of grosss as more consumer based selling techniques are employed and the nexus to stigmatization of the Glastonbury festival.

The function of famous person stars at the Glastonbury Festival.

The figure and types of attendants to the Glastonbury Festival and the audiences that are marketed to

The development of Glastonbury Festival the trade name, which explores to what extent selling techniques, branding and consumer society has moved the Festival from the “ Utopian ” , “ hippy ” peripheries to the mainstream music market.

Data Collection:

The questionnaires within this survey will be conducted and analysed descriptively in order to guarantee the object of such a research is to portray an accurate profile of individuals, events or state of affairss ( Veal, 2006 ) . In progress of set abouting the complete organic structure of questionnaires it was of import to carry on a trial to guarantee that there is dependability in the questionnaire. Hence the questionnaire was conducted in order to look into ; clip needed ; instructional lucidity ; inquiry lucidity ; easiness of replying inquiries ; sufficient coverage of subjects ; and suggestions from the pilot participants ( Bryman, 2008 ) . The intent of proving the cogency is to guarantee that the questionnaires meet the criterions necessary to do the consequences verifiable and process re-testable.

The non-probability sample technique used will be self-selection ; whereby the questionnaires will be distributed to the companies and organizers in the Glastonbury festival. These will so be distributed throughout their selling, stigmatization and event directors in their administrations. The figure of possible respondents will be asked for ; nevertheless as this is a voluntary technique the respondent will make up one’s mind to set about it or non ( Saunders et al, 2003 ) . To do the questionnaires easier they have been designed on Survey Monkey, which means that merely an electronic mail nexus needs to be distributed. This means that the distribution by the companies and organizers is simplified to increase the willingness of engagement ( Saunders et Al, 2003 ) . From the distribution phase all that that needs to be done is completion by the respondent, which is automatically saved to the website database. Therefore, the principle behind the non-probability sampling technique is that respondents decide themselves, whether they will take portion in the research or non. This is really of import, because the desire to take part will intend that replies are decently considered ( Saunders et Al. 2003 ) . Hence, the consequence is quality over measure ( Saunders et Al. 2003 ) .

Analytic Approach

Therefore, as primary informations will be collected via e-questionnaire from organiser and patrons which will be analysed through the usage of rationalist grounded techniques it is of import the analysis is both nonsubjective and testable ( Bryman, 2008 ) . From the descriptive analysis of the questionnaires the findings will be tested through a deductive attack. This testing will set about chiefly a quantitative attack, which means that informations with statistics or informations that has been coded, which can so be analysed through descriptive statistics. This will supply a concrete foundation for the footing for the statistical analysis to see the findings in the statistical reappraisal. The snapshot attack of using the subjects from the literature to the findings of the questionnaires will assist to place the development of marketing techniques and audience mark groups. This attack will be used due to clip and fiscal restraints where the 1969 festival will be identified and so every 5 old ages after until the Orange decennary where every twelvemonth will be explored to foreground the development in the festival. This is particularly of import as the initial festival was non measured on grosss of successful trade name direction and was a fold of anti-establishment. The development of marketing techniques, branding and audience mark groups will be aid to develop the analysis of the demographics of the attendants and Acts of the Apostless supplying a richer set of findings.


The restrictions of the research are as follows:

The figures that have been obtained over the last 40 old ages are limited and hard to verify. Hence, the figures will be focused more in the epoch of Orange ‘s Sponsorship where the figures of grosss and attendee Numberss will be easier to obtain. The Acts of the Apostless will be easier to obtain and the types as reported. The job with this that this attack does non demo a clear development over the last 40 old ages.

The restriction to esteem to the bite of BBC and The Times coverage is that older studies will be more hard to obtain and limited. However, this attack ensures consistence in the voice and describing attack on the Glastonbury Festival, which means that there is greater dependability in the description of the attendants and the music acts. The deduction of this is that it has been easier to see alterations in tendencies, as Glastonbury the trade name has been developed. However, the early old ages have been limited because there has been a focal point on Newspaper studies than the BBC archives. Besides it has been of import that a snapshot attack is used in the early old ages, because the focal point of this research is when trade name direction in the Orange old ages is employed to supply an in deepness analysis.

Reaching organizers and patrons has proven to be hard, particularly in a limited clip frame and acquiring a sufficient response. Therefore, the analysis of the development of Glastonbury Festival in the literature reappraisal has been used to utilize as a foundation for the questionnaires.

Therefore, the multi-tiered attack has been designed to guarantee the most nonsubjective and comprehensive attack to analyzing the development of Glastonbury Festival as a Brand. It may hold been easier to set about a qualitative attack ; nevertheless the literature focuses in this attack and this research has been designed to supply an analytical attack.

Chapter 4: Findingss and Analysis:


Of the 14 questionnaires that were sent merely 5 replied, which is a response rate of 37.7 % . This is a hapless response rate, but was expected because of the trouble to entree persons in the concern and the degree of the research. The respondents were a mixture of events administration and selling from Orange and Glastonbury. The places of the respondents were at general degree, but these responses will supply the “ custodies on ” experience of the event. To many of the initial inquiries there was a consensus, for illustration the inquiry in regard to whether Glastonbury should be viewed as a trade name all 5 respondents said yes, but there were different grounds. Two respondents advised as it brings “ many trade names under one roof ” it needs to be a trade name “ even more so ” ( Respondent 1 ) . Two indicated that it needed to be a trade name to be successful. The concluding respondent indicated that it needed to be a trade name to be differentiated from the others. Therefore, the grounds give farther penetration into understanding trade name direction and why it should be pursued ; nevertheless regardless of the grounds 100 % supported the attack in regard to Glastonbury.

The indicant from the function as a selling event for the creative persons and patrons is another point where there was 100 % understanding to the necessity of this function. All respondents indicate that the partnerships are of import to sell the trade name to consumers who are willing to purchase. This is supported by the inquiry that societal networking is an of import selling technique where the responses besides highlight the community and fold, particularly in respects to the young person market. Besides all 5 respondents highlighted that the function of societal networking is doing marketing and branding easier, because it is focused on the young person markets.

4 respondents indicated that Glastonbury should be a salable good, whilst 1 disagreed. The 4 respondents that agreed based their statements on the fact that the consumer is purchasing the good it needs to be based on merchandise, quality and value for money. The respondent that disagreed indicated that the festival is more than a salable God, because a “ proportion goes to charity ” ( Respondent 3 ) . The indicant is that all the base qualities are at that place, but is goes farther than a merchandise to purchase and sell because it is giving back to the community and society.

In response to whether Glastonbury is now successful because of selling is a assorted response, 3 agreed ( 60 % ) and 2 disagreed ( 40 % ) . The three that agreed indicated that success is merely on selling rules ; nevertheless the 2 that disagreed indicated that establishing rules and individuality are of import because the footing of a successful selling run. However, in contrast when asked the inquiry whether the cardinal nature of the festival changed merely 1 ( 20 % ) yes. This is an interesting reply, because if its success is strictly based on selling so its nature should hold changed. However, when sing the responses all 5 say community and music is the festival ‘s nucleus, but the 1 that disagrees indicates it is no longer representative of rebellion. Therefore, the old inquiry demands to be qualified by this set of responses. This is reiterated in the farther account of inquiry 8 ; whereby the nucleus thought is that “ [ T ] he cardinal rules are the same ; nevertheless they have learnt to germinate with the modern festival departer ” ( answering 2 ) .

Therefore, the initial inquiries indicate that selling dramas an of import function, but so make the individuality and nucleus rules of the festival. This is supported by the unfastened ended responses ; therefore the scaly inquiries and farther clear ended inquiry of the 2nd portion of the questionnaire will be explored.

Question 1:

The responses indicated that the most of import facets to the Glastonbury Festival are community, being in the mainstream, famous person and young person with a mark of between 4 and 5 on a graduated table of 5 where 4 is of import and 5 is really of import. This is highlighted in the crosstabs tabular array where famous person has a mark of 4.6 being the most of import, which correlates with the mark of 2 for periphery Acts of the Apostless.

Question 2 indicates that the most of import selling technique is WOM, but this is closely followed by Celebrity Association and CEM. The viral and bombilation techniques seem secondary, but still score high. The ground for this one could presume is that there is a connexion to WOM techniques and the turning importance of cyberspace based selling in the festival community.

Question 3:

The most of import influences confirm the indicant of the function of cyberspace and famous person, which score a 5 ; whereas telecasting, orbiter and globalisation/consumerisation score a 4 and under. This supports the construct of the young person cyberspace community ; every bit good as the move to mainstream, famous person Acts of the Apostless which is a focal point of the modern Glastonbury Festival.

Question 4:

The indicant of the responses to the consequence of Orange on the trade name is that the impact is overpoweringly the addition in net incomes, focal point on image and conveying to the mainstream. These are indicants that underside line has become more of import, because market portion and profitableness are of import to a Sponsor and non run intoing the initiation rules. This is supported by the responses in inquiry 5 where alteration in society has developed this more consumer based attack.

Question 5:

The trade name has a higher focal point on famous person, which is different from the peripheries of its roots and the Rebel artists that frequented the phase. However, the indicant is that branding has made it more profitable, but the addition in Numberss may hold been a natural phenomenon anyhow ( Question 6 ) .

Question 6:

The most positive impacts have been to the net incomes, Acts of the Apostless attracted and sponsorship as opposed to attendance, local economic system or the environment. The concluding two elements indicate that there needs to be a reconsideration of the whole events impact to guarantee that there are other benefits than the economic, because sustainability is a nucleus value of the festival.

Question 7:

There is important deduction that there have been alterations to some of the nucleus rules such as rebellion and anti-establishment which may be the negative intensions of the yesteryear. However, the constructs of community, love, friendly relationship may be impacted but unknown. The most of import component of rites of transition has been mostly unaffected, which is an of import construct to market as a young person event.


Therefore these consequences show that festivals in the twenty-first Century rely on selling in order to last in a consumer society ; nevertheless in the instance of the Glastonbury Festival it is a name that is synonymous with the periphery and societal motions ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . However, the current epoch has meant that the nature of the Glastonbury Festival has had to redefine itself to last in the consumer and famous person epoch ( Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) . Therefore, it was necessary for the festival to re-frame itself within the context of the modern epoch ‘s focal point on image and famous person whilst retaining elements of its initiation rules ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . This means that it was necessary for the festival to re-create an image that develops a new stage of the myth to promote the music consumer to go on to see the festival ( Boje, 1984, 1993, 1996 ) . An of import component of this myth is modifying the client experience in order to run into the modern festival departer.

A festival like many other leisure events is based on client experience ; therefore the construct of the entity and run intoing client outlooks is really of import ( Diez-Martin, 2000, Gruen et Al, 2005 ) . However, the outlooks of the modern consumer and the founding rules of a festival have to hold some correlativity in order to guarantee that the whole experience is non disjointed ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . This can be really hard in regard to a festival that has its roots in anti-establishment, traveler and hippy motions ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, Rowley and Williams 2008 ) ; therefore the whole experience has retained elements of this past by retaining contributions based in societal motions, e.g. Oxfam, Water Aid and Greenpeace ( Glastonbury Festivals, 2010 ) . However, the whole marketed experience demands to be based on image and famous person, which are cardinal to the modern consumer ( Larsen and O ‘ Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . This means the grassroots festival that was developed in order to supply an option to the commercialized options in 1970 has in the modern epoch become portion of the mainstream motion ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, 2009 ) . Therefore, the selling of the festival has had to go competitory with other festivals and employ technique that guarantee that the bottom line is met ( Larsen and O’Reilly 2005 2009 Rowley and Willliams, 2008 ) .

The selling techniques of a festival are similar to that of the cordial reception and service industry, which is carry throughing the consumer ‘s outlooks ; hence the development of Customer Experience Management ( CEM ) should be cardinal to the selling scheme ( Rowley and Williams, 2008, Buttle, 1998, GL Market Research, 2007, Tarp, 1989, Stokes and Lomax, 2001 ) . The cardinal elements of CEM is the development of a vision that the consumer wants to see and it is indispensable that the event meets the outlook of the consumer ( Gruen et al 2005, Diaz-Martin et Al, 2000, Lindgreen and Vanhamme, 2005 ) . One of the most successful ways to leave this experience is through “ bombilation ” selling ; whereby the usage of the cyberspace and modern engineering creates an instant forum to go through an experience and do it a success particularly through Word of Mouth ( WOM ) on societal networking forums ( Thomas, 2004, Gruen et Al. 2005 ) . Viral selling is a mixture of traditional advertisement, trade name direction, CEM and WOM, which develops a keyword hunt and treatment of CEM through informal communications such as web logs ( Buttle, 1998, Lindgreen and Vanhamme, 2005, Gruen et Al, 2005 ) . This is particularly of import to a young person based event, because there needs to be a bombilation to sell the merchandise. The creative activity of a bombilation relies on the successful merchandising of a construct and/ guaranting that the captioning of the event is entered onto the cyberspace efficaciously ; hence WOM through societal networking creates the bombilation. Then this is passed through so that possible consumers enter the correct keywords and the hits are increased which in regard to a music event will artists music manners and tendencies ; every bit good as the of import development of a trade name ( Thomas, 2004 ) .


The usage of marketing engineering is really of import to understanding the development of festivals, because it will be of import to see whether the merchandising of the festival has undergone a full circle with the growing of WOM selling ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) . WOM selling is the acronym of Word of Mouth selling, which is the sale of an event through recommendation. WOM selling is one of the oldest and newest techniques at the same clip ( Zeithaml et al, 1993, GL Market Research, 2007 ) . The renewing of WOM has been associated with the growing of on-line reappraisal sites and societal networking and is really powerful in the sale of consumer goods. WOM may be taking the selling of the festival full circle, because music festivals were based in the grassroots and the 1960s, 1970s societal motions of the young person ( Zhang et al, 2010, Larsen, 2005, 2009 ) . Therefore the usage of societal networking sites, modern engineering and the demand for the bottom line has meant that the nature of music has changed ; therefore the nature of music festivals have adapted to the demands of the modern consumer ( Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) . Hence the selling of festivals is focused on gross based purposes of companies and trade names, which has meant the principle behind the “ festival ” of the 1970s has radically changed from “ chumminess ” to “ image ” and “ famous person ” ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005, Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) .

The deduction is that the nature of events direction needs to germinate with the times, the demands and wants of the mark market and the consumer desires ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) . In portion this alteration has been directed by trade name directors and the commercialization of festivals, which was the instance of the V Festival ( Larsen and O’Reilly, 2005 ) . Then the big music companies have overtaken with advanced selling techniques ; nevertheless there is a extremist alteration in the twenty-first Century where the usage of societal networking – the young person grassroots forum – as the footing of young person selling techniques ( Zhang et al, 2010 ) . Hence this full circle may hold an interesting impact to the headline acts, particularly as the music industry is being threatened with usage of such sites to derive celebrity ( Rowley and Williams, 2008 ) . This is an country that the research worker needs to watch, because it may intend that there is a move back to communalism and community, particularly as the economic system downturns and the consumers are more alert of their money.